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Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by  Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
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Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) by Jiban Shrestha, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Maize Research Program,Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

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Quality Protein Maize (QPM):Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques

Quality Protein Maize (QPM):Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques

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  • 1. Quality Protein Maize (QPM): Maintenance and Seed Production Techniques J.Shrestha NMRP, Rampur, Chitwan
  • 2. An improved maize developed through conventional breeding methods whose protein quality near by that of skim milk QPM is that maize which is rich in two essential amino acids—lysine and tryptophan.
  • 3.  Lynn Bates (a Ph.D. student working with professor Edwin Mertz at Purdue University of USA in 1963) discovered high lysine and tryptophan mutant of maize namely Opaque- 2  Opaque-2 maize kernels were chalky and had 15-20 % less grain wt, diseases and insects susceptable  Dr. S. K. Vasal (a breeder at CIMMYT) and Dr. E. Villegeas (a Cereal chemist) overcame above defects of Opaque-2 until 2000
  • 4. QPM looks like non-QPM
  • 5. Lysine & Tryptophan (Essential Amino acid ) (g/100 g protein) in common maize vs QPM maize 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Lysine Tryptophan 2.6 0.4 4.2 0.9 Normal opaque-2 QPM has doubled protein quality
  • 6. 80 45 66 68 0 20 40 60 80 100 QPM Normal maize Wheat Rice Biologicalvalue(%) Comparision of biological value of different cereals with QPM
  • 7.  Children fed QPM porridge gain body weight 12% and height 9% higher than normal maize porridge & save them from infectious diseases (diarrhoea)  Swine: Doubled daily weight gain from QPM QPM N Maize
  • 8. Digestibility of QPM similar to that of normal maize Food processing does not affect QPM quality QPM is not GMO, so its production and consumption is not detrimental to consumers & enviroments
  • 9. Seed is  a link between plant generation  a carrier of gene  a technology most transportable, storable, and functional unit  Quality seeds central to agricultural production and productivity  a source of all food with plant origin
  • 10. Seed quality is the composite of: Less than 12 %
  • 11. o QPM grown under low soil nitrogen conditions lower s protein quantity (but the quality of protein -lysine and tryptophan levels is unaffected) o Rate of insect infestation is greater than that of normal maize o The amount of seed produced and available to farmers is quite insignificant o Farmers are not aware of the nutritional value of the QPM maize o Farmers could not receive premium prices for QPM grain in a non specialized market
  • 12. Ways: managed through 3 stages of seed multiplication a)Breeder's seed b) Foundation seed c) Improved seed Isolation standards for seed production Standards for maintaining varietal uniformity
  • 13. Breeder's seed  To maintain the highest level of purity, the breeder's seed plot should be small and manageable.  Acceptable Standard deviation can be ± 0.7s for quantitative traits of plants and ears.  Coefficient variation can be ± 3% for qualitative traits of plants and ears
  • 14. Foundation seed  Up to 10-15% of the off-type plants can be rogued before flowering. Roguing for ear and seed traits is done at or after the harvest.  Acceptable Standard deviaton can be ± 1.55s for quantitative traits of plants and ears.  Coefficient variation can be ± 5% for qualitative traits of plants and ears
  • 15. Improved seed  Up to 5% of the off-type plants rogued before flowering. Roguing for the ear and seed traits at or after the harvest.  Acceptable Standard deviaton can be 1.96s for quantitative traits of plants and ears.  Coefficient variation can be ± 8% for qualitative traits of plants and ears
  • 16. Isolation standards for seed production  Isolations can be arranged by distance or by dates of sowing.  A 300-meter separation from other maize fields flowering about the same time is considered adequate for breeder's seed and  200-meters for foundation seed, but the greater the distance, the better.
  • 17. Standards for maintaining varietal uniformity  Maize seed should meet the following standards Minimum field standard Minimum crop standard Minimum seed standard
  • 18. Minimum field standard Land requirement: Free from Volunteer Plants - Crop rotation to minimize volunteer maize plants and reduce the need for roguing. Maintaining isolation distance or time
  • 19. Isolating a seed production field: 1. By space or distance 2. By time - plant your seed crop 20 – 25 days earlier or later than neighboring maize fields. -Silking period should not coincide with corn in nearby fields.
  • 20. Minimum number of field inspections First inspection- Before flowering Verification of seed source, isolation distance and suggestion for rouging. Second inspection- After complete flowering Counting, field certification/rejection Third inspection- Cob inspection at threshing floor.
  • 21. Minimum crop standard Off-type plants Less than 10-15 & 5% off-type plants in foundation and improved seed respectively No any designated diseases and weed plants.
  • 22. Minimum seed standard Seed qualities Quality standards FS IS Pure seed %(min.) 98 98 Inert matter % (max.) 2 2 Other crop seed (max.) 5/kg 10/kg Objectionable weed seed (max.) Nil Nil Germination % (min.) 85 85 Moisture % (max.) 12 12 Seed should be obtained from reliable source and seed replacement should be done every year to ensure good quality seed production
  • 23. Management of seed production field: • Field preparaion at least two weeks prior to planting. • If possible, plant your maize seed crop early. • Use 10 - 15 % less plant population than maize grain production plot. • Planting in straight rows will help facilitate various seed production operations. • Remove weeds in time.
  • 24.  Planting time Eastern mid hill-2nd week of falgun-1st week of Chaitra Mid and far western mid hill-Chaitra 15- Jestha 15  Soil type Loam soil, PH 5.5-7.5  Land preparation 2-3 deep plowing, clod breaking and soil pulverized
  • 25. Manures and fertilizers 120:60:40 kg NPK/ha, 10 tones FYM/ha before one month of land preparation Spacing 75 cm x 25 cm Seed rate 16-20 kg/ha or 55-60 thousand plants/ha
  • 26. Irrigation Adequate water for growth period upto 40-50 DAS and silking and grain filling period Weeding Hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS
  • 27. Eliminating undesirable plants (Roughing) Off types (very tall, very dwarf, or flower much earlier or later) disease and insect infested removed (Rouged out) before pollen shedding starts. If off-type maize plants are detasseled, seeds from such plants should not be used.
  • 28. Harvesting of seed Select seed from middle part of fields, away from possible contamination Ears should be harvested only after black layer is formed on grains attached to cob
  • 29. Storage of seed Seed having 8-10 % moisture should be stored for long term storage Use “super bag” developed by IRRI, Philippines for minimizing insect pest attack Fumigation with 1 celphus tablet per ton of maize , 10 gm Bojho powder per kg of maize kills insects in storage
  • 30.  QPM is superior to normal maize in its amino acids balance and nutrient composition  Seed should be obtained from reliable sources and replacement should be done every year to ensure quality seed production  Quality seed must meet the minimum field, crops and seed standards  Maintenance of proper isolation distance and rouging of off- type plants are important field operation for seed production  The proper agronomic practices during different stages of seed multiplication produce greater quantities of high quality seed.

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