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+ Dysgraphia is a learning disability resulting from the difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. Feifer’s 4 subtypes of Dysgraphia
+ Phonological: Writing and spelling disturbances in which the spelling of unfamiliar words, non-words, and phonetically irregular words are impaired. These students tend to have trouble spelling by sounds and rely on the visual aspect of letters; therefore, because spelling is an auditory task, they will have trouble with spelling tests.
+ Surface: Students have trouble with orthographic representations of words, which makes the student rely too heavily on sound patterns; the opposite of phonological dysgraphia.
+ Mixed: Students having trouble with mixing up letter formations and having trouble with spelling tasks, a combination of the first two types. Recalling letter formations is hard for these students to do because there are so many instructions or rules that they get confused and; therefore, have inconsistent spellings of words.
+ Semantic/Syntactic: Students have difficulty with how words can be joined to make complete and comprehensive phrases.
An example of a second grade student’s handwriting withdysgraphia.
A second grade student’s handwriting who does not have adisability.
+ Interventions & Strategies Surface Phonological Cover-Write Method Alphabetic Phonics Fernald Method Making Words Visual Spelling Writing to Read Semantic/Syntactic Mixed Writing Skills for the Adolescent Musical Spelling Sentence Combining Language Experience Approach CAST - Universal Design for Learning CAST - Universal Design for Learning Step Up to Writing - (Sopris West) Software Strategies Software Strategies
+ Levels of Interpretation Writing Sub-skill Subtest General lexicon of Vocabulary words Similarities Verbal flexibility Comprehension Verbal syntax Digit Span Working memory Letter-number sequence Visual/verbal flexibility Picture concepts Motor speed output Coding
+ Additional Information and Strategies http://www.ldinfo.com/dysgraphia.htm http://sped.wikidot.com/strategies-for-students-with-dysgraphia http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/parents/ld_basics/dysgraphia.asp http://www.readingrockets.org/article/12770 http://www.ldonline.org/article/5890
+ Crouch, A. L., & Jakubecy, J. J. (2007). Dysgraphia: How it affects a student’s performance and what can be done about it. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 3(3) Article 5. Retrieved from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol3/iss3/art5