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数学竞赛与初等数学研究在中国
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数学竞赛与初等数学研究在中国

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2009年4月22日上午,厦门大学嘉庚三215会议室,数学教育沙龙

2009年4月22日上午,厦门大学嘉庚三215会议室,数学教育沙龙

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  • 1. Mathematical Competition and studies In Elementary Mathematics Kang Wu South China Normal University 华南师范大学数学科学学院 吴康 数学竞赛与初等数学研究在中国 [email_address]
  • 2.
    • 1. Mathematical
    • Competition
  • 3.
    • To talk about the history
    • of mathematical competition,
    • we have to mention the Famous
    • “ competition” in solving the three
    • degree polynomial equations in
    • Italian in sixteen century.
  • 4.
    • The real beginning of mordern mathematical competition was
    • the Hungarian mathematical
    • competition in the year of 1894 .
    1894
  • 5.
    • In 1959, the first international Olympic Mathematical Competition (IMO) was held successfully. That was the starting of a new era in the history of mathematical competition.
    1959
  • 6.
    • In China (mainland China,
    • excluding Hongkong, Macow and Taiwan area), the first mathematical competition was held in 1956.
    1956 China
  • 7.
    • At that time, the famous mathematicians such as Lugeng Hua, Buqing Su supported, advocat-ed and organized the mathematical competitions for high school students in big cities (including Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan).
    1956 China
  • 8.
    • After that, mathematical competition was held continuously every year and
    • it was expanded to more and more cities in China.
  • 9.
    • However, since 1956, due
    • to the "Culture revolution",
    • this event was suspended.
  • 10.
    • After the "culture revolution", in the year of 1978, the Chinese state council decided to organize mathematical competitions in eight provinces and cities (Beijing,Shanghai,Tianjin,Shanxi, Anhui,Sichuan, Liaoning,Guangdong).
  • 11. In 1980, the Chinese Mathematical Society formed a committee in popularizing mathematics education, this committee became the core organizer and leader for national mathematical competitions. 1980
  • 12. In 1981, the first national mathematical competition was held. Since then, it has been held for 28 times. 1981
  • 13. In 1985, Chinese sent two students to participate the IMO . 1985
  • 14. In 1986,Chinese sent a team (16 people) to participat IMO the first time. This first team successfully brought back 3 gold medals,1 silver medal and 1 brozen medal, and their total points were ranked No.4. 1986
  • 15.
    • At the same year, the " Luogeng
    • Hua Cup" mathematical competition
    • was held and the Chinese high
    • school students summer mathemati
    • -cal school was opened (later, its
    • name was changed to "Xingshen
    • Chern Cup", named after a well-known mathematician).
  • 16.
    • In 1989, Chinese students team participated the IMO in West Germany and the total points was first ranked No.1 (237points).
    1989
  • 17.
    • In 1990,the thirty-first IMO was held in China, which was also the first IMO in China. Chinese students team was awarded 5 gold medals and 1 silver medal, total points was 230.
    1990
  • 18. The second highest score is USSR, which is 193. This had shown the strong advantages of Chinese mathematical competition team in the world.
  • 19. After that, Chinese students team participated in all the IMO competitions in the following years and obtained excellent grades. Our team were awarded many gold medals.
  • 20. Since 1988, a mathematical coach system was initialized;this system hired the best mathematics teachers in China to train talented young students.
  • 21. There are also many high level mathematical journals and magazi-nes published in China, such as "Mathematical Competition", "Elementary Mathematics".
  • 22. In 1992 the committee on popular mathematics of the Chinese Mathematical Society initiliazed a " Mathematical Competition Curriculumn". 1992
  • 23. In 1993 the Chinese mathematical competition oganizer and mathe- matican Zonghu Qiu was awarded Erdos Prize from the Mathematical Competition Association . 1993
  • 24. In 1994,the mathematical team from HongKong parti- cipated in the IMO. 1994
  • 25. In 1998, the mathematical team from Taiwan partici- pated the IMO. 1998
  • 26. In 1999, a cooperation committee was formed in the Middle School attached to the South China Normal University. 1999
  • 27. In 2001, the first West China Mathematical Olympic Competition was held. 2001
  • 28. In 2002, the first Woman Olympic was held. The President of the Chinese Mathematical society, Member of the Chinese Academic is in charge of the Mathematical olympic Competition himself. 2002
  • 29. In 2005, the first South East Mathematical Olympic was held. 2005
  • 30. The mathematical competitions are popular in China since then. It was first held for high school students, then for middle school students. Now, there are competi- tions hled for elementary school students.
  • 31. In 1987, there was first a summer math camp for college students. It was expanded to mathematical competitions for college students later.
  • 32. There are also mathematical modelling competitions for college students. The math modeling and application competitions were also held for high school students in Shanghai (1991), Beijing (1993)
  • 33. In 1991, the Olympic Mathematics for Grammer School was founded. This competition used to have a national level final and then was only held in different provinces. Mathematical competitions became popular in all levels.
  • 34. This competition used to have a national level final and then was only held in different provinces. Mathematical competitions became popular in all levels.
  • 35. In 21st centuary, the mathe-matical competitions are very popular and welcomed. It has divisities. It has different levels, from elematary school to college levels. Teaching,training, judging are specified. This situation really affects the teaching, textbooks in schools.
  • 36. In college, especially in normal colleges, there are new courses are offered, such as "compitition maths". Some school even offer graduate course and degree in "compitions Mathematics".
  • 37. In high schools and elematary school, private schools, many teachers became the coaches for math competitions. In after school programe and and training camps, not only the excellent students study for the math competitions but also the average level students.
  • 38. Being winners in the math competitions not only brings honors to the students and their teachers but also beneficts their career. For example, the winners in the math competitions can select the most famous college in china.
  • 39. The math competions in China have become a popular educational event for Chinese students.It impro-ved and encouraged math teaching dramatically. It has helped thous-ands of talented students. It also flourished and discovered a lot of gifted students.It really contributea lot to Chinese education and pro-gress.
  • 40. Competitions in mathematics also inspire the Olympic spirals. It has positive effects on Edu-cation, Mathematics and produ-cing talented students. Here we list three main results:
  • 41. (1) It produces a new branch in mathematical education. Olympic Mathematics, it is the higher level fundamental education. It polishs students' talents, it brings intere-sting creative after school pro-gram, it populize modern mathe-matics.
  • 42. (2) It produce a newer level of mathematical education.
  • 43. (3) It forms a new academic school in mathematics, this schools inclu-des math educators,Mathemati-tians,adimistrators and high school teachers. There are many Chinese leading mathematicians are among this group, such as the national coaches for the Chinese IMO team.
  • 44. However, there are also some problems in mathematical competi-tions, such as, too many, a lot of re-peats,too much economic interests involved. One problem is that, in order to make sure the excellent student to get good ranking in math competitions, very specified know-ledge are taught in very early stage of their educations.
  • 45. Another problem is that spending too much time and efforts on training.
  • 46. We should pay serious atten-tions to these problems and fix them, otherwise it would seriously japerdize the healthy developmen-ts of mathematical competitions in China.
  • 47. 2. Studies of Elementary Mathematics
  • 48. It has been well known that Chinese mathematics has a long history. 11 to 14 Century is the golden age of Chinese mathema-tics. It was in the leading position of the world.
  • 49. From mondern mathematical view piont,the mathematics from that time belong to the "elementary mathematics". We have to view the "advanced" and "elementary"in a historic contexts.
  • 50. After suffering a long decay, Chinese mathematics started to catch up with the mondern math-ematics since 1940s. The study of elementary mathenatics is also making progress. Thousands of high school math teachers partici-pate in the research in elementary mathematics.
  • 51. These high school teachers study mathematical problems with great interests through teaching practice, reading mathematical books and comm uni cations with colleagues.The researches they did are imense amount. But it also has some problems such as lower level in creativity and originality.
  • 52. However, among them, there are also excellent researchers and some of the achievements are great. The researchers' results are deed and with a lot of applications. Let me list some names of these researchers and their results.
  • 53.
    • FuzhongSun,MinhongLiang, JingzhongZhang'sresults in classical Euciliangeometry;
    • Lu Yang,ZunShan,JIchangKuang, Xuezhi Yang, Ji Chen on Inequality. mathematics);
    • Ke ZhaO, Qi Sun, Maohua Le one equations ( part of them belong to elemetary
  • 54. In other areas such as combinatorics, counting, Conic Curve, Sequence, Functional equations,Absolute equations, Combinatoric geometry, Elementary Number theorem, there a lotof wonderful resluts that contribute to the world.
  • 55. Especially in the fields related to the mathematical competitions, the results are excellent. A famous mathematican, Lizhi Xu wrote" It is hard to imagine to have a first class IMO math team without the support from the researchers's first class work in the elementary mathema-tical research" (Preface from" Elementary Mathematics").
  • 56. On August, 1991, the first national meeting on elementary mathematical research was held in Tianjin normal Unversity. A committee on comunication and coorperation of elementary math research was formed. Chunli Zhou, Shiming Yang, ZhiYang contributed a lot to these.
  • 57. In 2006, the 6 th national meeting on elementary research was held in Hunan University. After that, on November 2007, on the general meeting of the excutive board of the meeting, the National Associationon Elementary Mathematics was founded.
  • 58. There will be another national meeting on communications on elementary mathematical research in Shenzhen this Auguest .
  • 59. The regional mathematical associations are founded in different provinces and cities, some of them are the sub-branch of the mathematical association, such as Hunan, Fujian, Jiangxi and Guizhou. Most siganificantly, the research groups are also formed based on research area, such as Inequality Research group (founded as early as 1985).
  • 60.
    • It also publishs Journals, the "Communications on Inequlities" hasbeen published 16 volumes (total 60 issues). A lot of research papers were published on this journal.
  • 61. There are will a new journal "Studies on Elementary Mathem-atics" published by Harbi Indutrial University, which was supported by the famous mathematician Shingshen Chern. There are so many excellent books on elemen-tary mathematics published .
  • 62. We really hope that the Natio-nal Elementary Mathematical Association can be accepted and recognized by Chinese Mathema-tical Association and become a branch of them.
  • 63. Thus, the elementary mathema -tics in China can be more vivid, active, and make larger progress. Eventually it will become part of the science communities in the new century.
  • 64. Thank you Thank you for listening my talk, best wishes to you all.