Professional Development Of Chinese Mathematics Teachers Research A Review Of The Past Thirty Years
Professional Development of Chinese Mathematics Teachers Research: A Review of the Past Thirty years Ping Yu School of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Nanjing Normal university E-mail: email@example.com
Part Ⅰ History of Researches on Professional Development of Mathematics teachers 1. 1978—1990: Rising stage; 2. 1991—1999: Advancing stage; 3. 2000—2008: Deepening stage.
Part Ⅱ Characteristics of Researches on Professional Development of Mathematics teachers <ul><li>Contents: </li></ul><ul><li>Less -> More; Narrower -> Wider; Lower -> Deeper </li></ul>Figure 1 A statistics graph on the research contents in the last 30 years
(1)On how teachers to introduce a certain teaching content, ↓ On how teachers to make students learn it ↓ On what quality to have for teachers to make sure teaching effective (2) On cognition: know or not ↓ On affection: wish or not ↓ On epistemological beliefs: believe or not
2. Theories : Introducing theories abroad -> Constructing theories in line with Chinese teachers <ul><li>On Knowledge Structure of Mathematics Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>● Ping Yu (2004) proposed Math teachers’ knowledge structure (see figure 2) and its five ingredients (A,B,C,D&E). </li></ul>
Ingredient A: Concerning Mathematics A1: Knowledge of Math theory A2: Epistemological knowledge of Math A3: Comprehension of Math methodology A4: Knowledge of Math history
Ingredient B: Concerning education General education Mathematics education B1: Pedagogy knowledge B2: Educational Technology knowledge B3: Knowledge of management in teaching and learning B4: Knowledge of Math curriculum B5: Knowledge of Math teaching and learning
Ingredient C: Concerning psychology Psychology of teachers Psychology of students C1: Supervisory C2: Self-monitoring C3: Teaching styles C4: Teachers’ moral character C5: Mathematics cognitive knowledge C6: Meta-cognitive knowledge of learning C7: Noncognitive Knowledge C8: Psychological development C9: Learning styles
Ingredient D: Concerning other subjects Ingredient E: Concerning teaching and learning environments ● Miao Li et. al. (2007) made an empirical study regarding the above knowledge structure.
● Jiliang Shen & Qiong Li (2001) compiled a professional knowledge questionnaire specially for primary math teachers, investigated 97 participants with the questionnaire, and found that knowledge about the subjects and knowledge about the environments that teaching rooted in are mainstay for teaching practices. ● Tao Xin (2005) examined 162 elementary school math teachers’ performances on subject-matter knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical practical knowledge and indicated that pedagogical practical knowledge played an important role as a theoretical support in introducing subject-matter knowledge.
(2)On Ability Structure of Mathematics Teachers ● Dunjia Sun (1995); ● Zhonglin Ma & Jiongtao Hu (1996); ● Liping Wei (2001); ● Ping Yu (2004); ● Min Fu (2005); ● Fanzhe Kong (2006)
3. Practices: Attention on pre-service education -> Formation of pre-training and post-training system (1) On Pre-training ① Thinking on the general concepts; ② Thinking on mathematics teaching and learning ; ③ Thinking on construction of curriculum system. ● An experiment of teaching contents and curriculum system reform of higher pedagogical education oriented to 21st century had been lasted for 3 years since 1998 supported economically by Ministry of Education. ● Shoubo Zhang et.al. put forward a curriculum model for mathematics education, based platform courses plus modularized courses.
(2)On post-training ● In China, training for these in-service teachers has grown up and developed a multifaceted system from the country to province, to city, and even to county. It has been a routine work. ● Case + Reflection; ● Theme – Reflection -- Involvement; ● Lesson as a carrier;
4. Approaches : Speculation only-> Combination of speculation and empirical study (1)Comparative studies between expert and novice teachers; (2)On math teachers’ education conception; (3)On development of teachers in a certain region; (4)On knowledge development of elementary school math teachers in rural areas.
Part Ⅲ Disadvantages of Researches on Professional Development of Mathematics teachers 1.Lack in the specialty of mathematics teachers; 2.Inadequate in research systematicness; 3.Deficient in research level.
Part Ⅳ Further research questions on Professional Development of Mathematics teachers 1. Increase researches on math teachers’ mental aspects; 2. Stress specialty of math teachers contrasting with other subjects; 3. Search for a breakthrough for theories integration; 4. Develop a professional development theoretical framework specific to Chinese math teachers.