The Pressure to Expand: Imperialistic America U.S. Takes Hawaii
Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism.
Describe how the United States acquired Alaska.
Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands.
“ The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe, and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it.” -- U.S. ambassador to Hawaii John L. Stevens to the State Department However, there is only one problem: Hawaii was a sovereign power. Uh, Wait a Second. I’m Queen of Hawaii, which is a constitutional monarchy. Don’t I get a say? Queen Liliuokalani President McKinley NO! We need your natural resources and Pearl Harbor! God Bless America!
Social Darwinism & Cultural Superiority Desire for Military Strength Race with European Powers for Colonies Thirst for New Markets Technology Factor Industrial Revolution provides ability to travel the world
Alfred T. Mahan, 1904
Mahan writes letter to New York Times
Mahan urged annexation due to their “geographical and military importance.”
China, as a growing power, might launch a “barbaric invasion” toward the East and take over the Hawaiian Islands.
To prevent such an occurrence, “a great, civilized, maritime power” needed a “firm hold” on the island group.
Another fear: Britain taking islands to serve as central link between Australia & New Zealand and British Columbia
He considered the U.S. as the “proper guardian for this most important position.”
Following 1893 Overthrow of Hawaiian Monarchy
Hawaiian Islands’ geographic position exert commercial and military control of the Pacific By Annexing Hawaii U.S. advances commercial trade security U.S. Navy has Central Pacific Ocean stronghold Disadvantage “ [I]f the islands were in the hands of any other power, [the loss] would constitute to us disadvantages and threats.” No field of battle on the open sea. No advantage or disadvantage However The islands, as a central location serve as a cross road to improve communication and store supplies and people
CHINA British Columbia United States Alaska Australia This is why we need Hawaii