Europe 1870 – 1920 - 20 million Europeans arrived in U.S. Prior to 1890 – western and northern Europe England, Scandinavia, Ireland After 1890 – southern and eastern Europe Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
Why did they come? Escape religious persecution Russians drove out Jews Pogroms (organized attacks) Rising population Scarce farm land Not enough jobs Sought independence from political movements
Chinese and Japanese 1851 – 1883 – 300,000 Chinese arrived in U.S. 1898 – (Hawaii annexation) Japanese begin to arrive By 1920 – over 200,000 on West Coast
Why did Chinese come? Seeking fortune in the Gold Rush (1848) Then helped build railroads (Transcontinental Line) Farming, mining, and domestic service
West Indies and Mexico 1880 – 1920 260,000 Jamaicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans and other islands arrive
How did they get here? Steamship (1870s and beyond) Passage from Europe to New York = one week Passage from Asia to San Francisco = three weeks Steerage – cheap passage in cargo hold (Think “Titanic” movie) Old School = 2 months
Where did they arrive? Europe = Ellis Island , New York Harbor 1892 – 1924 = 17 million immigrants Asia = Angel Island , San Francisco Bay 1910 – 1940 = 50,000 Chinese
Processing Physical Exam Any major health issue = goodbye Document inspection and integration No felonies $$$ (1909 = at least $25) Ability to work
Nativism Overt favoritism toward native-born Americans A Nativist believed Anglo-Saxons (Germanic ancestors of the English) superior to all other ethnic groups Irish need not apply However, there were exceptions British, German, and Scandinavians were given leeway. Slavs, Latin Americans, and Asians weren’t favored Religion was a major concern to a Nativist Roman Catholic and Jews Undermine Protestant foundation
‘ Irish need not apply’
“ Every Dog Has His Day” Caption: "Every Dog (No Distinction in Color) Has His Day." Date: February 8, 1879 The second caption of this cartoon reads: "RED GENTLEMAN TO YELLOW GENTLEMAN: Pale face 'fraid you crowd him out, as he did me." The African-American man seated in the background waits for his turn underneath a sign saying, "My time is coming." Caption What federal law is being considered during the time period of this cartoon?
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
Fear of taking jobs for less money
Banned entry to all Chinese workers from 1882 to 1943.
“ The New Colossus” Emma Lazarus “… Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free …
“ The Old Colossus” The Colossus of Rhodes was a 30-meter tall bronze statue of the Greek sun god Helios, erected about 280 BC to guard the entrance to the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece. it was destroyed about 55 years later.