Atomic Bomb


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  • Atomic Bomb

    1. 3. “If atomic bombs are to be added to the arsenals of the warring world then the time will come when mankind will curse the name of Los Alamos and Hiroshima.” - Oppenheimer, Oct. 1945 He opposed development of the hydrogen bomb. 1,000 X more powerful Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer
    2. 4. Oppenheimer with Albert Einstein In 1961 Oppenheimer said in regards to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, "I carry no weight on my conscience." He also added, "Scientists are not delinquents," he added. “Our work has changed the conditions in which men live, but the use made of those changes is the problem of governments, not of scientists.” c. 1930
    3. 5. The Beast The Gadget The Thing The Device Sometimes referred to as It
    4. 6. “ It was agreed that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance. Two aspects of this are: (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released.” Discussed but dismissed Immediately follow Atomic bomb with incendiary bombs Public Relations and Dropping the Bomb Hiroshima pristine condition guaranteed her the ultimate destruction
    5. 7. Potsdam, Germany: July 20, 1945 Joseph Stalin and Harry S. Truman “ Believe Japs will fold up before Russia comes in. I am sure they will when Manhattan appears over their homeland.” - Truman, in his diary the same day this picture was taken Soviets had been working on their own atomic weapon since 1942.
    6. 8. Public Relations and Dropping the Bomb Hiroshima pristine condition guaranteed her the ultimate destruction American planners wanted war to end but hatred of Japanese took on an animalistic vengeance as well. “ When I think of how these bowlegged cockroaches have ruined our calm lives it makes me want to wrap Jap guts around every lamppost in Asia.” -Gen. Joseph Stilwell
    7. 9. Public Relations and Dropping the Bomb Hiroshima pristine condition guaranteed her the ultimate destruction “ It is our feeling that nobody within a radius of five miles could look directly at the gadget and retain his eyesight.” “ Super-powerful” sirens should be dropped just prior to bomb. “ It is certain to have a tremendous morale effect on the troops.” Idea dismissed Trinity Scientists’ Ideas
    8. 10. American General Curtis LeMay Warmonger? “ Bombs Away” “ Iron Ass”
    9. 11. Early July 1945: Hiroshima reserved for Atomic Destruction. By mid-1945 very few targets within Japan left to bomb Low-level incendiary bombing attacks American war machine oiled, tuned, and pitched to perfection Total War Since March 9, 1945 and Tokyo bombings 178 square miles of cities razed 22 million homeless (1/3 of population) 900,000 civilian dead (780,000 Japanese combatants) Hamburg and Dresden pale in comparison to Tokyo
    10. 12. “ Little Boy” <ul><li>First Atomic Bomb Used – Uranium </li></ul><ul><li>Detonated over Hiroshima Aug. 6, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs 9,000 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 tons of TNT explosive capacity (2,000 B-29s w/ standard bombs) </li></ul>
    11. 13. “ Fat Man” <ul><li>Second Atomic Bomb Used – Plutonium </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed after Winston Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>Detonated over Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945 </li></ul>
    12. 17. Tinian Island: Home of the 509 th Composite Bombing Wing
    13. 20. Weather Planes – One hour ahead of Enola Gay Jabit III - Kokura Full House - Nagasaki Straight Flush - Hiroshima Spare B-29 – Fly and remain on Iwo Jima Top Secret Strike Force Necessary Evil - Photographic Instruments The Great Artiste - Scientists and instruments Enola Gay - Lead plane; “Little Boy” Six hour flight Hiroshima Mission Planes
    14. 22. First billionth of a second: 60 million degrees at burst point (10,000 X hotter than sun.)
    15. 23. Hiroshima After the Bombing All wooden structures within a radius of 1.2 miles destroyed 80,000 killed initially
    16. 24. Hiroshima, April 13, 1945 Five months before “Little Boy” Detonated Bombardier Tom Ferebee’s Target Aug. 6 Weather: 80 degrees, Sunny, Calm Breeze
    17. 25. Hiroshima, August 11, 1945 Five days after “Little Boy” Detonated Bridge survives; only a few buildings with reinforced concrete remain
    18. 26. Reduced to rubble
    19. 30. <ul><li>Hiroshima ceased to exist as a city </li></ul><ul><li>United States Strategic Bombing Survey: </li></ul><ul><li>109,000 building entirely destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>140,000 killed ( 80,000 immediately, others from radiation poisoning and injuries) </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>13 square-miles reduced to ashes </li></ul><ul><li>90% of city’s doctors dead or injured </li></ul><ul><li>1,654 out of 1,780 nurses dead or injured </li></ul><ul><li>42 out of 45 civilian hospitals destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>80% telephone service destroyed (1/3 of all its employees killed) </li></ul><ul><li>65% streetcars destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>16 pieces of firefighting equipment operational (80% firemen killed) </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 water main breaks (very little water pressure to fight fires) </li></ul><ul><li>23 American prisoners of war (unknown to planners) </li></ul><ul><li>25,000 of 53,000 Koreans killed (1/6 of total) (Forced labor) </li></ul><ul><li>“ As might be expected the primary reaction to the bomb was fear – uncontrolled terror.” </li></ul><ul><li>- American observers’ report of their bombing survey </li></ul>
    20. 31. “ The whole mission was perfect, it was a picture-perfect mission. You couldn’t have wanted a better mission.” -Dutch Van Kirk, navigator, May 2004 “ I knew what the Japs were in for, but I felt no particular emotion about it.” - Captain Deak Parsons, weaponeer, immediately after attack. He armed “Little Boy.” “ I can assure you of one thing. Nobody in my airplane every had the least emotional problem or lost a night’s sleep over the Hiroshima mission.” - Colonel Paul Tibbets, 1985 “ This is the greatest thing in history” - President Harry Truman, Aug. 6, 1945
    21. 32. The Enola Gay lands on Tinan after having dropped the bomb
    22. 35. 3 days, 3 hours after Hiroshima B-29: Bockscar Captained by Major Chuck Sweeney Original Target: Kokura Thick clouds prevented clear target.
    23. 36. Nagasaki After the Bombing 40,000 killed initially
    24. 41. Two years later Survivors were shunned, as radiation sickness was long considered contagious
    25. 42. Sept. 15, 1945 “ Estimated Bomb Requirements for Destruction of Russian Strategic Areas.” Major General Leslie Groves Memo A month after the war, American strategists were already focused on the USSR. 204 Total (66) 6 Moscow # of atomic bombs Sq. Miles Soviet Cities
    26. 43. To the President From the Secretary of War “Big Bomb dropped on Hiroshima August 5 at 7.15 p.m. Washington time. First reports indicate complete success which was even more conspicuous than earlier test.” “He was not actually laughing but there was a broad smile on his face. In the small dispatch which he waved at the men on the ship, he saw the quick end of the war.” - Merriman Smith, United Press reporter “This is the greatest thing in history….We won the gamble!” - President Harry Truman, Aug. 6, 1945
    27. 44. This is a human being? Look how the atom bomb has changed it. All men and women take one shape. Flesh swells fearfully. The voice that trickles from swollen lips On the festering, charred-black face Whispers the thin words. Please help me. This, this is a human being. This is the face of a human being. - Tamiki Hara, Hiroshima survivor, born 1905, committed suicide 1951
    28. 46. Less than two hours after the bomb exploded, it rained hard for three hours. The bomb had created rain – called “Black Rain” It was dark in color and very sticky. Created by the bomb’s dust cloud, the rain was highly radioactive. Parched by the city’s heat and fires, citizens opened their mouths to the sky to drink the rain. On Tinian a huge celebration was being prepared Hundred of pies for a pie-eating contest Thousands of hot dogs, beef and salami sandwiches Potato and fruit salads Beer and lemonade Jitter Bug Contest All Star Softball Game
    29. 50. Spends 45 seconds hurtling toward Hiroshima after release from Enola Gay Bomb detonated at 1,850 feet Redundant radar systems on bomb
    30. 51. Deak Parsons <ul><li>How to arm “Little Boy” </li></ul><ul><li>Check that green plugs are installed </li></ul><ul><li>Remove rear plate </li></ul><ul><li>Remove armor plate </li></ul><ul><li>Insert breech wrench in breech plug </li></ul><ul><li>Unscrew breech plug, place on rubber pad </li></ul><ul><li>Insert charge, 4 sections, red ends to breech </li></ul><ul><li>Insert breech plug and tighten home </li></ul><ul><li>Connect firing line </li></ul><ul><li>Install armor plate </li></ul><ul><li>Install rear plate </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and secure catwalk and tools </li></ul>