USS Arizona battleship sinks during the attack on Pearl Harbor, WWII, 1941.
America Moves Toward War
America Moves Toward War USS Arizona battleship sinks during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941
Today’s presentation brought to you by… Really, really, really bad WWII movies
<ul><li>Describe the U.S. response to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how Roosevelt assisted the Allies without declaring war </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the events that brought the United States into armed conflict with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the American response to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor </li></ul>Learning Objectives!
<ul><li>Mid-1937: Japan continues war with China for oil and other raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1939: FDR stations Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrent to Japanese aggression </li></ul><ul><li>July 1941: Western nations cease trade with Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Japan seizes land in East Indies and Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 1941: U.S. expects attacks in west, not EAST. </li></ul>Timeline
“ I never thought those little yellow sons of bitches could pull off such an attack so far from Japan.” Admiral Husband Kimmel - U.S. and Pacific Fleet Commander
<ul><li>Range: 1,930 miles </li></ul><ul><li>4 Machine Guns </li></ul><ul><li>2 60lb. Bombs </li></ul>Mitsubishi A6M Zero
Battleships USS Yorktown – aircraft carrier Pearl Harbor: Ford Island: May 1940
USS Nevada USS Arizona USS West Virginia & Tennessee USS Oklahoma
USS Oklahoma USS Arizona USS West Virginia & Tennessee
Dec. 8, 1941 President Franklin Roosevelt signs declaration of war against Japan
Japanese Vice Admiral Nagumo He commanded attack on Pearl Harbor
United States Navy USS West Virginia, 106 USS Vestal, 7 USS Utah, 58 USS Tracy, 3 USS Tennessee, 5 USS Sicard, 1 USS Shaw, 24 USS Pruitt, 1 USS Pennsylvania, 18 USS Oklahoma, 415 USS Nevada, 50 USS Maryland, 4 USS Helena, 33 USS Enterprise, 11 USS Downes, 12 USS Dobbin, 4 USS Curtiss, 21 USS Chew, 2 USS California, 98 USS Arizona, 1,104
“cash-and-carry” Neutrality Act of 1939, warring nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash and transported them in their own ships. Providing the arms, Roosevelt argued, would help France and Britain defeat Hitler
“ a decidedly unneutral act.” - Churchill By June he had sent Britain 500,000 rifles and 80,000 machine guns, and in early September the United States traded 50 old destroyers for leases on British military bases in the Caribbean and Newfoundland.
What impact did the outbreak of war in Europe have on U.S. foreign and defense policy? A. Answer Revision of the Neutrality Acts; dramatically increased defense spending; institution of the nation's first peacetime draft.