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Htm 3050 week 3 class notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Supervision and Training Hans van Wees [email_address]
  • 2. Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, and Organizing What does planning mean to you?
  • 3. The Nature of Planning
    • Mission driven:
      • Once the mission & goals have been set the next step is planning the appropriate human resources to meet or exceed the goals.
  • 4. Levels of Planning
    • Top Level:
      • Makes long-range strategic plans.
      • This includes setting organizational mission, goals, & strategies to meet or exceed the goals, & policies.
        • This level of planning is called strategic planning .
  • 5. Levels of Planning
    • Middle managers with long-range plans typically make annual plans (& sometimes plan for longer periods).
      • These plans carry forward the strategies, tactics, & programs of the strategic plans within a manager’s own function & area of responsibility.
  • 6. Levels of Planning
    • As plans move down through channels to first-line supervisors at the operating level, management translates them into specific supervisory duties & responsibilities.
    • Here the planning period is typically 1 month, 1 week, 1 day, or 1shift.
    • Plans deal with getting daily work done.
  • 7. Exercise Types of plans in hotels/restaurants
  • 8. The Planning Process
    • Steps
      • Define the goal, purpose or problem & set goals.
      • Collect & evaluate data relevant to forecasting the future.
      • Develop alternative courses of action.
      • Decide on the best course of action.
      • Carry out the plan.
      • Control & evaluate results.
  • 9. Goals & Goal Setting
    • A goal is a desired outcome for individuals, groups, or entire organizations.
    • Goals should be relevant to the vision & mission, specific, clear, challenging yet achievable & made with employee input.
    • Goals should also be written down along with strategies for how to reach the goals.
  • 10. Goals & Goal Setting
    • Goals are set in each of the key result areas of a business: HR, marketing, finance, operations, product, & service quality.
    • HR goals include but are not limited to labor costs, staffing levels, guest service, training, employee compensation & benefits, employee turnover.
    • Goal setting is an important because it establishes “ where we are now & where we want to go & when we want to be there. ”
  • 11. Goals & Goal Setting
    • Goals have 4 key ingredients:
      • Goals should be specific & measurable .
      • Goals should have time limits .
      • Participation .
      • Performance feedback .
    • Benchmarking: the search (amongst competitors) for the best method of doing something & implementing the method to improve performance & meet or exceed goals.
  • 12. SWOT Analysis
    • Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, & threats (SWOT) analysis.
    • This forces management to look carefully & objectively at strengths & weaknesses (internal) & opportunities & threats (external) aspects of its operation to identify areas of opportunity & concern.
    • A major goal of a SWOT analysis is to identify core competencies.
  • 13. Forecasting
    • Find out what happened in the past to estimate what will happen today.
    • If no conditions change, you can predict what can reasonably be expected to happen in the future.
    • Controls staffing, purchasing, & production decisions.
  • 14. Managing Risk
    • The future is always more-or-less uncertain.
    • You reduce the degree of uncertainty, the risk , when you collect the relevant data & apply it to your forecast.
    • If you have less than 1% of the relevant data, conditions are completely uncertain & the degree of risk is 99%.
  • 15. The Risk Factor
    • In some foodservices the degree of certainty about tomorrow is high (nursing home, cruises).
      • Airline catering is preplanned according to number of seats reserved & is updated as boarding passes are issued.
      • Hotel occupancy is also fairly predictable, since most people make reservations ahead.
      • In planning repetitive work, most of the data are known or predictable, the risk factor is low.
      • You can reduce the risk by having an alternative plan in reserve (a contingency plan), keeping records, & consulting with people with more experience .
  • 16. Qualities of a Good Plan
    • Provides a workable solution to the original problem & meets the objectives.
    • Is comprehensive; raises all relevant questions & answers them.
    • Minimizes the degree of risk necessary to meet the objectives.
    • Is specific as to time, place, supplies, tools, & people.
    • Is flexible/can be adapted.
  • 17. Standing Plans
    • Established routines, formulas, blueprints, or procedures used in recurring/repetitive situations (i.e. daily reports, procedures manual, recipe).
    • Any standing plan will simplify a supervisor’s task of planning & organizing.
    • If the situation recurs every day, the supervisor’s need to manage is reduced to seeing that the workers meet the standards set & to dealing with the unexpected events.
      • This is known as management by exception .
    • Most workers are happier with standing plans than they are being dependent on the supervisor.
    • Large companies usually have them, but smaller operations may not.
  • 18. Standing Plans
    • Every hospitality operation must have standing plans & policies for dealing with matters affecting health & safety (i.e. sanitation, fires, & accidents).
      • The law requires such plans.
    • Usually, they consist of 2 parts: preventive routines & standard emergency procedures.
  • 19. Standing Plans
    • Standing plans have certain potential drawbacks:
      • Rigidity.
      • Changes often evolve in practice but written plans are not kept up to date.
  • 20. Single-Use Plans
    • One-time plan developed for a single occasion.
    • Often, the purpose of a single-use plan is a major change of some sort.
    • For such changes the planning must be very thorough.
    • The risks must be carefully assessed & the effects of each alternative weighed carefully.
    • May involve a change in the way the work is done
    • Sometimes a supervisor is required to make a departmental budget, another kind of single-use plan.
      • A budget is an operational plan for the income & expenditure of money by the department for a given period.
      • Preparing the budget requires forecasting costs of labor, food products, supplies, & so on.
  • 21. Day-by-Day Planning
    • Planning the day’s work has top priority for the first-line supervisor. Examples:
      • Purchasing
      • Scheduling may be planned by the week & updated daily as necessary.
  • 22. Day-by-Day Planning
    • Some advice:
      • Plan before the day begins. Make it a regular routine.
      • Established routines simplify planning but do not take its place entirely.
      • Wherever possible, reduce risks by increasing predictability (more facts) & flexibility (more options).
  • 23. Management by Objectives (MBO)
    • Planning goal setting.
    • Employees jointly set goals & plan strategies as to how to meet or exceed them.
    • Progress toward the goals is monitored & rewards are given for outstanding performance.
  • 24. Management by Objectives (MBO)
    • 5 key ingredients in an MBO program:
      • Goal specificity
      • Participation
      • Time limits
      • Who will do what
      • Performance feedback
  • 25. Planning for Change
    • Most people resist change.
    • Change upsets the environment, routines, habits, & relationships, it creates anxiety & insecurity in those affected.
    • People also resist change if it means a loss for them: less status, less desirable hours, etc.
  • 26. Planning for Change
    • The 1 st essential for dealing with resistance to change is a climate of open communication & trust.
    • Workers must feel free to express their feelings.
    • Don’t oversell the change.
    • Your people should feel that you want to make the change as easy for them as possible.
    • Involve your workers in planning & carrying out the change.
      • People will respond positively to being included in planning changes that concern them.
  • 27. Case Study Case study: Dealing with change
  • 28. Dealing with change
    • Describe a situation at work or at home where you were faced with change
  • 29. Dealing with change
    • What was your initial reaction, or of those around you?
    • How did you deal with this change?
    • What was the outcome?
    • What worried you most?
  • 30. 5 Steps of dealing with change
    • Define problem and set objectives
    • Gather relative data from past, present what future might be
    • What alternatives are there? What are their pros and cons? What risks and benefits does each have?
  • 31. 5 Steps of dealing with change
    • 4. Choose alternative most suitable weighing off:
      • Risk versus benefit
      • Economics
      • Feasibility
      • Acceptability
      • Meeting objectives
  • 32. 5 Steps of dealing with change
    • 5. Implement the plan (what may be involved? Training? Meetings?
  • 33. Planning your own time http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4S8rQaOupU&playnext=1&list=PL6FAA287E7A69331A
  • 34. Planning Your Own Time
    • There is never enough private time for planning & reflective thinking.
    • There are never enough long blocks of time in which to plan your time.
    • Your job requires that you spend the time in your day in several different ways.
    • There are certain parts of the day when the job controls your time, when customer needs & demands are high, you must be at the disposal of anyone & everyone who needs you.
  • 35. Planning Your Own Time
    • If you analyze the ways in which you spend your time now, you can probably find ways to spend it better.
      • Keep a running log for at least 1 typical day, several if possible.
      • Next, see what the record shows.
      • Total the time you spent in each activity, & divide by the number of days to figure your daily average for each.
      • Get rid of activities that waste time or are not worth the time they take.
  • 36. Planning your own time
    • Exercise: http://www.studygs.net/schedule/
  • 37. 5 Major Reasons for High Turnover & Low Productivity
    • 1. Workers don’t know what they are supposed to be doing.
    • 2. They don’t know how they are supposed to be doing it.
    • 3. They don’t know how well they are doing it.
    • 4. The supervisor has not given them any direction.
    • 5. They have a poor relationship with the supervisor.
  • 38. Job Description
    • Describes the job as a whole.
    • Performance standards:
      • what
      • how to
      • How well are you doing it
  • 39. Job Description
    • Job Title: the name of a job.
    • Job Summary: a brief summary of the major duty & purpose of this job.
    • Units of Work: work sequences that together comprise the content of the given job.
    • Job Setting: conditions under which the job will be done.
    • Social Environment: the extent of interpersonal interaction required to perform the job.
  • 40. Organizing for Success
    • Long-range plans that will help you solve time problems will also result in your unit running more efficiently & effectively.
    • Setting everything up to run efficiently is organizing .
    • Keeping it running efficiently & effectively is managing.
  • 41. Organizing for Success
    • A well-organized & efficient unit is one in which:
      • Lines of authority & responsibility are clearly drawn & observed.
      • Jobs, procedures, & standards are clearly defined & followed.
      • People know what to do & how to do it & they do it.
      • Standards of quality, quantity, & performance are clearly set & met.
  • 42. Organizing for Success
    • Set out to organize things better:
      • Find out what you need to know about your own job.
      • Find out where poor organization is causing problems.
        • Chain of command
        • Job content & procedures
        • Training
        • Evaluation & controls
        • Standing plans
      • Plan what you will do to improve the organization & efficiency of your operation.
    © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 43. Next class
    • Recruitment, Selection and Orientation
    • Compensation
    • Read: Chapter 4
    • Homework:
      • Page 141 review questions 1, 3, 4, 8 and 9
      • Time management exercise: http://www.studygs.net/schedule/