What does it take to keep the Union together? Calumniate- make knowingly false statements
Congress angered that many ex-Confederates remained in power.
Louisiana Constitutional Convention 1866 White Republicans and Black veterans angered at not having the vote held their own convention Led to the New Orleans Race Riot of 1866 by paranoid whites, aided by police ENSURED power of “Radical” Republicans in Congress
Edward W. Brooke to US Senate in 1966, R- Mass. Broke the 85 year dry spell of black representation.
1910, 89 percent of all African-Americans lived in the South. Their departure from the South - from separate but equal laws, the Jim Crow restrictions, and the lack of opportunity-gradually picked up speed. The percentage of African-Americans in the South had declined to 85 percent in 1920, 77 percent in 1940, and 53 percent in 1970. [Taeuber, Karl E., and Taueber, Alma F., &quot;The Black Population in the United States,&quot; The Black American Reference Book , Smythe, Mable M., editor, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976, p. 165]
Ran for Missouri senate seat. First German-American to the US senate. Former union general. Wife promoted the kindergarten system in U.S.
Photo from circa 1855…Mcpherson said he weighed 90 pounds!
307 cases under 14 th amendment, 288 with corporations, 19 African Americans
16. reconstruction online version 2012
Reconstruction 1865-1877Successes and Failures
End of the War• Surrender at Appomattox , April 9th• Lincoln Assassinated, April 15
Consider the panic of the country when John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln.
Lincoln’s reburial in the early 1900s. Fears of vandalism created a paranoia ad multiple reburials. What does this tell us about the country in the late 19th century? Check out the memorial site, if interested.
• With over 600,000 dead, abuses at POW camps…how could the country overcome this tragedy?
Andersonville Prison• Horace Greeley, a Northern Republican reaches “across the bloody chasm” to the Southern ex-Confederate.
Reconstruction• How would you define reconstruction?• As a senator, what would be three issues/concerns you would have during the post-war, Reconstruction Era? – Who or what is the biggest concern? – Which is most pressing? – What does Eric Foner say?
• Look at the image on the next slide: – What will the Northern Union do for the South? – What hopes are exposed with this image?
Early Political Reconstruction• Lincoln – 10% Plan- state accepted into the Union if 10% swear loyalty. – How is that for desperate?• Est. a freedman’s bureau – dealt with concerns of ex-slaves – Set up schools for African Americans – Health centers – Voting – Land reform
Primary Source Investigation: Political Cartoons• What is your gut reaction to the next two images?• How are whites and blacks portrayed?• How does these images contrast with the previous one and what does that might that mean for the future of the United States?
Executive v. Legislative Branches• Johnson vetoed many Reconstruction plans, blocked Radicals consistently. – Why would Johnson do that? What was his background? – 1866 Civil Rights Act, which created Freedman’s Bureau • Johnson claimed it would “breed a war of races” and “new rebels” were in government! • Congress overturned veto it became the 14th Amendment
• Supposedly said:"There are no good laws but such as repeal other laws."
Radical Republicans• Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner led a minority group of Radicals in Congress – GOAL: War retribution, ensure rights for African- Americans. Stevens Sumner
“Radicals” Control Congress 1865-1872– “wave the bloody shirt” • meaning? Look this term up online. • Associated Democrats with rebellion • Why is this fatiguing in the political sphere?– Wanted ex-slaves to have “40 acres and a mule” • Compensation, reparation for slavery. (and in 2008?) • Support for Freedman’s Bureau
“The Civil Rights bill was more enormous than the other. I have exercised the veto power, they say. Let me say to you of the threats from your Stevenses, Sumners, Phillipses, and all that class, I care not for them…”
….In bidding you farewell here tonight, I would ask you with all the pains Congress has taken to calumniate and malign me, what has Congress done? Has it done anything to restore the Union of the States? But, on the contrary, has it not done everything to prevent it?” -Andrew Johnson “Cleveland Speech”, 1866 What does it take to keep the Union together?
Impeachment, 1867-1868• In order to protect the Republicans from Lincoln’s old cabinet, the Tenure of Office Act was passed. – Stated that the President need permission from the Senate to remove a cabinet official. – Designed to trap Johnson, lead to impeachment
• Impeach- bring formal charges against an official for “high crimes and misdemeanor”• Need 2/3 of Senate to find the person guilty, remove.• Johnson “saved” by ONE vote• Agreement to stop blocking Reconstruction Acts
• Military Reconstruction Acts- 1. Military occupation of the South, dismissed state governments that refused the 14th Amendment • Divided the South into five military districts, TN not included
2.States also had to write new Constitution before reunification that included the abolition of slavery
Reconstruction Amendments• 13th Amendment, Dec. 6, 1865 – Banned slavery, but did it guarantee freedom?• 14th Amendment, 1868, – Provided citizenship and Due Process rights to A.A. – Opposed by President Johnson
• 15th Amendment, 1870 – granted men the right to vote, irrespective to race. • How did Southern states restrict voting? – Literacy, property, “grandfather” clause – Divided the Woman’s Suffrage Movement. Why? What does this say about the racial element to woman suffrage (starting in 1848 at Seneca Falls)? – Considered by some to be the completion of Reconstruction • Why?
• Pay special attention towho is voting!How might this overturn the idea of a monolithic African American population?
Black Political Success• 633 state legislators• 14 US House Representatives• 2 US Senators• IMAGINE THAT TRANSFORMATION!
Short-lived Success• After “Redemption” return to white power…• Click on this link to see the change over time.Black Americans in Congress – No Senate members 1881 until 1966 • Still none from the South – No Representatives 1887 until 1929 • none in the South until 1975
• Again….What does it take to maintain unity according to Johnson and others?• This will be very clear after reading the David Blight essay (on BB).
Economic Reconstruction• How to rebuild the southern economy?
Sharecropping– tenants farm another’s land and share the produce as payment/rent. • Often worked former master’s land or nearby. – Before the “Great Migration” – 1910- 89% of African Americans lived in the South – 1920- 85% – 1940- 77% – 1970- 53%
• Up to 50% of produce could be extracted by the owner• Owners often charged for use of tools, seed which put workers into debt, and the need to remain on the farm. (crop-lien system)• Sharecropping continued until WWII in the United States.
Free in Name Only• Black codes- racist laws meant to limit the new freedmen, ensure white supremacy – Denied suffrage – Work only as servants/ farm hands – Sign contracts to work for a year- could not leave – Vagrancy law- arrested for walking around – Any economic future? Bank loans?
Mississippi Black Codes 1865What is the end result of such codes?SECTION 5. Every freedman, free negro and mulatto shall, on the second Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, and annually thereafter, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have written evidence thereof as follows, to wit: if living in any incorporated city, town, or village, a license from that mayor thereof; and if living outside of an incorporated city, town, or village, from the member of the board of police of his beat, authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work; or a written contract, as provided in this act; which license may be revoked for cause at any time by the authority granting the same.
Southern White Response• In addition to Black Codes which enforced 2nd class citizenship, groups such as the KKK and the White League operated to intimidate blacks.• Social intimidation/ridicule increased for whites who supported Reconstruction. – Scalawags-whites who supported reconstruction (Rep.) – Carpetbaggers-Northern Whites who moved to the South to “get rich quick” during the rebuilding effort
• Enforcement Acts, 1870-1871– Designed to stop terrorism…and it does.– But does it matter any more when the government becomes the terrorist organization?
White Redeemers• Redemption- return to white, Democratic Party, ex-Confederate control. – A COUNTER REVOLUTION to Reconstruction – “The Mississippi Plan” (1875)- use violence to redeem the South, regain political control for whites
Violence Continues• Colfax Massacre Easter Sunday, 1873 in Louisiana. – worst mass murder of Americans in US history • Rival politics (R and D) led to increased violence • Whites attacked blacks who gathered in Colfax for protection • 80-150 freedmen executed, mutilated. • Despite Federal investigation, only 3 men convicted
Return of the Confederates• Alexander Stevens – Georgia representative – VP of the CSA – Governor of GA in 1880s
Supreme Court and Reconstruction• Although the court was heavily Republican, the S.C. did not enforce strict Reconstruction• How was the 14th used for something other than ensuring black citizenship? – Please watch the excerpt from the film: The Corporation • Who benefited? What did the courts preference?
End of Reconstruction• 1874 “Radicals” lose control of Congress – Disinterested public, tired of the “bloody shirt” – Scandals of the Grant Administration – Desire to forget war, move on and away from black rights – Economic Panic begins in 1873 • Impact?
• Election of 1877 – Initial results: • Tilden 184 • Hayes 165 – Florida, South Carolina, Louisiana, Oregon disputed results. – Why charges of fraud? Who would promote it? • Democrats? • Republicans?
• Hayes -“a third rate non-entity” according to Henry Adams…one of the greatest quotes ever!
Results of the Hayes Presidency• End of Military Occupation, withdrawal of federal outposts.• Abdication of Federal authority – “Redemption” just a matter of time – States reassert their authority – Ignore or Circumvent Reconstruction Amendments
When does Reconstruction End?• 1877 Withdrawal of military?• Did it ever begin? – Civil Rights Movement of 1950-1960s as a “Second Reconstruction” of the South.