Theories Underlying DirectedTechnology Behaviorist Information-processing Cognitive-behavioral Systems theory & systematic instructional design Objectivist learning theories shape directed learning strategies
Behaviorist: SkinnerLearning as: stimulus-response chains an activity that occurs inside the mind, can be inferred only by observed behaviors http://youtu.be/yBPaQ9ctAwA Behaviors are shaped by “contingencies of reinforcement” to shape desired responses
Info-Process: Atkinson & ShiffrinThe mind as computer Sensory register short term memory long term memory Learning is encoding information into human memory http://youtu.be/O0oOGbt__dI
Cognitive-behavioral: Robert GagneProviding conditionsfor learning Learning isshaped by providingoptimal instructionalconditions Different kinds ofskills require differentlearning conditions
Systems theory & systematicinstructional designManaging the complexity of teaching Learning: using a system of instruction based on behaviorist information processing & cognitive behaviorist theories Stating goals and objectives; task analysis/learning sequence, matching assessment/instruction to objectives, creating materials, field testing and revising materials
What does this look like? Cool math – practice (information- processing) Wii fit biggest loser (behavioral) reinforcement: achieve desired response via weight loss Other examplesanyone?
Choose directed tech strategieswhen Skills & content to be learned are clearly defined, concrete & unambiguous (specific behavioral response can indicate learning) Students need individual tutoring/practice to learn and demonstrate prereq. skills Students need to acquire skills as quickly and efficiently as possible
Theories Foundations ofConstructivist Integration Models Social activism theory Social cognitive theory Scaffolding theory Child development theory Discovery learning Multiple intelligences theories Constructivist learning theories shape inquiry based integration strategies
Social Activism Theory (Dewey)Learning as social experience individual growth via social experiences (hands-on activities connected to real world issues and problems) curriculum should arise from student interest (taught as integrated topics rather than as isolated skills)
Social Cognitive: Albert BanduraSocial influences on learning Learning is an information processing activity resulting from interactions among behaviors, environment and student factors Learn through actions they take or observing othersstep and repeat
Scaffolding: Lev VygotskyLearning as a cognitive building process Learning is shaped by individual differences and the influence of culture Adults supporting learning through scaffolding, helping children build on what they already knowThe anti-example
Child Development: Jean PiagetStages of development Learning is cognitive growth through neurological and social maturation Progress by interacting with their environment When confront unknown they respond with assimilation (fitting into their views) or accommodation (changing their views)1 min skip
Discovery: Jerome BrunerInstructional support for child development cognitive growth through interaction with the environment more likely to understand & remember concepts that they discover during interaction with environment Teachers provide opportunities for exploring & manipulating objects/doing experimentsshadow play
Multiple intelligences: HowardGardnerThe role of intelligence in learning Linguistic Musical Logical-Mathematical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalist
What does this look like? Visual presentations such as prezi or student made videos/propaganda (social activism) Student centered websites (discovery) Electronic manipulatives (child development) Studying subjects from individualized perspectives/interests (scaffolding)http://www.loc.gov/topics/americanhistory.php
Choose Inquiry Based Tech. When: Concepts to be learned are abstract &complex visual activities are essential teachers want to encouragecollaboration and/or allowalternative ways of learning/showing competence increase motivation to learn
Cherry pickingTables on Pg.47 Pg.49 Pg.50 Pg.51Provide great comparisons to help us better understand the benefits and strengths of both strategies & theories in various situations
TIP modelTechnology Integration Planning model Figure 2.8 pg.53 Take all these factors and decide how we want to integrate pieces into our lesson plans – to be effective, follow the model! There’s no one ‘right’ way to integrate technology into our classrooms, because as we’ve learned, we all have different perspectives/ideas
When Technology Works Best Figure 2.10 pg. 65 Funding sources figure 2.11pg. 67
Activity Centers Your job is to figure out what environment and learning style/activity best suits each student (online resource) & fill out the mini-reflections at each station You must sample/try/participate at each station so you can best understand the potential and limits of each ‘environment’
? Can objectivist and constructivist personalities be better suited for certain subjects? Grade levels? Why? How?
Results Share answers/reflections How can we create digitalenvironments within ourparticular classrooms toaddress the needs of students?
Tricky! minute 150 the variable is YOU! Each one of us learns/thinks differently and thrive in different environments, therefore, the way in which we approach these students is always going to be different – one size clearly does not fit most It’s all about perception and perspective