Mary ch2 presentation


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Mary ch2 presentation

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Research Problems Mary Ersinghaus New Mexico State University
  2. 2. Highlights of Chapter 2 <ul><li>Research problem statements </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative research problems </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative research problems </li></ul><ul><li>...and questions we still have </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3-2-1 <ul><li>List 3 concepts from this chapter that you think are the most important. </li></ul><ul><li>List 2 things from this chapter that will be most useful to you. </li></ul><ul><li>List 1 question you still have about the ideas in this chapter. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sources of Research Problems <ul><li>Personal interests </li></ul><ul><li>Current issues and problems as identified by professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Current books or journals </li></ul><ul><li>Apply theory </li></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research Problem Statement <ul><li>Discussion question: </li></ul><ul><li>“ How is it possible for a research problem to be too specific? (McMillan, 2008, p. 52) </li></ul><ul><li>How would you balance between being too specific or too general in writing the research statement?” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Start at 1:55 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Quantitative Research Problems <ul><li>Three specific elements are identified: </li></ul><ul><li>Type of research - description, comparison, relationship or difference, cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Variables - relationships between or among variables </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects - population involved in the study </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qualitative Research Problems <ul><li>Focus on the study of a central phenomena (i.e., issues or processes) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop out rates in high schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of recess and increased disruptive classroom behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How teachers communicate with students' parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How students perceive a teacher's care or lack of care </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research Problems <ul><li>Quantitative problems </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Researchable </li></ul><ul><li>Important/relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate type of research </li></ul><ul><li>Specifics </li></ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul>Qualitative problems HOW? WHAT? General Evolving, flexible No expected results Central phenomena
  9. 9. Quantitative Research Problem Types of Variables <ul><li>Independent and dependent variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences or predicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected or predicted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraneous and confounding variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of error affecting result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying degrees of influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous and categorical variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes on any value in continuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign subject or object to a category </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Identifying Types of Variables <ul><li>The effect of two instructional approaches on student achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of SAT scores to predict freshman grade point averages. </li></ul><ul><li>Not controlling for the key-boarding skills of students in a study of computer-assisted instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Not using counselors with similar levels of experience in a study comparing the effectiveness of two counseling approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Test scores range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude scales that range from very negative at 0 to very positive at 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ ages </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic status: low, middle and high </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Hypotheses <ul><li>Discussion question: </li></ul><ul><li>“ In what types of situations is it appropriate to use research hypotheses? Is it more related to quantitative or qualitative research? Why?” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Hypotheses <ul><li>Types of Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed from observations of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tentative explanation of how behaviors are related to variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>derived from theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing contributes to better understanding of theory or application. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research Hypotheses <ul><li>More questions... </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose do hypotheses serve? </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for evaluating research hypotheses? </li></ul><ul><li>Will all quantitative research problems have hypotheses? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Qualitative Research Question <ul><li>Central Question: </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is the ______________________, </li></ul><ul><li>for ___________, at _______________?” </li></ul>
  15. 15. JEOPARDY!