Ethnographic Studies In-depth descriptions and interpretations of cultural patterns and meanings within a culture or social group. Researchers observe a culture for an extended period of time, interacting with and interviewing members of the culture, gaining knowledge through the analysis of documents and artifacts. Identifying and Entering the Research Site
Ethnographic Studies Examples: Mary - a study of new mathematics teachers' attitudes of using manipulatives. Ham - comparison of children from three different cultures attending kindergarten.
Case Studies An in-depth investigation of one entity, which is carefully defined and characterized by time and place. Types of Case Studies - Historical Organizational, Observational, Life History, Situation analysis, Multicase, Multisite Research Problem Statement Entering the Site & Selecting Participants Data Collection - Observations - Interviews – Types - Document Analysis Data Analysis - Transcripts and field notes need to be coded, organized, summarized, etc. - Similar to ethnographic studies
Case Studies Examples: Mary - a with-in study of a instructional strategy at a single school Ham - study of a situation analysis on how peer pressure effects the choices that kids make.
Phenomenological Studies To describe and interpret the experiences of participants in order to understand the essence of the experience as perceived by the participants. Focuses on the consciousness of human experiences. Examples: Mary - a study of the relationship between peer tutors and tutoree Ham - on the influence of television on student study habits.
Grounded Theory Studies The intent of a grounded theory study is to discover or generate a theory. Data Collection: - Interviews Data Analysis: - Coding to constantly compare findings to themes Reporting of Results: - As a set of propositions, hypotheses, or theories Examples: Mary -a study of the effect of discipline during elementary school on the later adolescent success Ham - collecting field data on how does exercise influence students grades, how does healthy food assist kids grades, how does outdoor play effect students grades.
Activity: Types of Qualitative Research Name the type of qualitative research for each example:
An investigation of 15 students’ perspectives on their experience in the high school band.
A with-in study of how a specific scheduling system works at a single school district.
Data collected to find out how elementary student’s involvement in physical education programs effect their overall school grades.
An in-depth study of Native American school children on the reservation.
Question # 2 Why is it important for researchers to use multiple methods of data collection? Mary – It is important to yield richness of understanding the phenomenon being studied. In addition, interviews and document analysis could help to verify observations and explain a participant's point of view. Ham - Using multiple methods enhance the credibility of results. Since, researchers judge credibility of results from a holistic perspective. If you are using different methods but get the same results the validity of the research is verified.