Enrichment centers offer students a variety of learning experiences incorporated with an instructional unit (TeacherVision, 2012). Students participate in the centersafter direct instruction of key concepts (TeacherVision, 2012). Enrichment centers provide opportunities to enrich or enhance the students appreciation and understanding of the topics through individual experiences (TeacherVision, 2012). These centers require the teacher to be cognizant of individuals learning styles and prior knowledge regarding a topic (TeacherVision, 2012).Skill centers can focus on math facts, phonics elements, or other tasks requiring memorization,or repetition (TeacherVision, 2012). Using centers occurs after the initial instruction of a concept (TeacherVision, 2012). The teacher assigns activities in the center rather than student choice (TeacherVision, 2012). Thus skill centersreinforce the previous information presented (TeacherVision, 2012). Teachers need to know the areas students need to enhance.Interest and exploratory centers capitalize on the interests of students (TeacherVision, 2012). These centers include more hands-on experiences at a student’s pace and level of curiosity (TeacherVision, 2012). Students select the centers they want to engage for meaningful self-learning (TeacherVision, 2012).Math and science centers can incorporate technology, manipulatives, activities. Math activities include connect four, dice, number stamps, etc. (Utah Education Network, 2003). Science centers can incorporate weather charts, scales, class pets, etc. (Utah Education Network, 2003).
Trends in Differentiation
Four Current Trends inDifferentiated Instruction by Learning Team A Sara Sladecek, Charles DeCesari, and Janice Howard University of Phoenix, MTE/532 Andrea Tracy January 6, 2013
Outline• Differentiation• Four Current Trends – Technology – Inquiry-Based Instruction – Flexible Grouping – Center-Based Learning• Lesson Plan Description• References
Differentiation is a process that allows students tolearn at a pace that is most beneficial to the student.The process utilizes a variety of instructional strategies designed toengage students in a way that stimulates each individual.
Every student benefits from differentiatedinstruction. However, significant advantages areseen in students that differ from the norm ormiddle performance area. Differentiation in the Classroom, 2012
Philosophy of Differentiation• Different ways to gain and show knowledge.• Different times for completion of task.• Different approaches to delivering information.• Different levels of ability among students.• Different assignments for different students within the same class. Differentiation in the Classroom, 2012
Differentiated instruction in the classroom canbe achieved through the use of: Technology
Technology Provides• Access to online tutorials that engage several learning styles.• Support for students with physical limitations that cannot manipulate physical manipulatives.• Additional support for language learners. Interactive programs guide students while supporting critical thinking skills.• Applicable and beneficial in all content areas
Technology Instructional Issues• Limits personal interaction with peers.• May limit social development gained through interaction, such as sharing, manners, and cooperative skills.• Economically challenging.• May not directly support content and/or standards.• Teachers not properly trained to implement or utilize the technology.
http://www.edutopia.org/tech-to-learn-differentiated-instruction-interactive- games-videoA picture is worth a thousand words. Click the link above for additional information.
Differentiated instruction in the classroom canbe achieved through the use of: Inquiry-Based Instruction
Inquiry-Based Instruction"Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember,involve me and I understand." This is the essenceof inquiry-based learning, according to Joe Exline(Inquiry-based Learning, 2012).Inquiry promotes involvement that leads tounderstanding. Such involvement in learningsupports possessing skills and attitudes thatrequire students to seek resolutions to questionsand issues while constructing new knowledge. Inquiry-based Learning: Explanation, 2012
Beneficial in Math & ScienceInquiry-based instruction allows students toconstruct their own understanding ofinformation.Rote memorization is replaced by thoughtprovoking questions that stimulate long-termunderstanding. Inquiry-based Learning: Explanation, 2012
Outcomes of Inquiry-Based LearningStudents should gain useful information andskills that are directly related to real world task.Through the process of inquiry, students arediscovering important information to supportconceptual context needed for learning.
Inquiry –based learning is one the most populardifferentiation strategies in math and sciencebecause of the sub-categories associated withthis strategy:• Problem-based Learning• Project-based Learning• Journals that utilize prompts• Cooperative Learning Groups
Inquiry-Based Instruction Instructional Issues• Lesson plans and preparation are time consuming.• Is less time efficient for some concepts (addition, subtraction, definitions) that are better taught through direct instruction.• Teachers can impede the process by failing to facilitate properly.• Students can end up with the wrong solution. Whitt, The Impact of Inquiry-Based Learning on the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students 2010
http://teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=155631Inquiry-Based Instruction in Action Click link above for additional information.
Differentiated instruction in the classroom canbe achieved through the use of: Flexible Grouping
Flexible GroupingFlexible grouping is the foundation of Americaneducation. First utilized in the one-roomschoolhouse were students of every age weretaught in the same location. Increasedpopulations resulted in the need for largerclasses which ultimately led to groupingstudents by age. This change ushered themovement for whole-class instruction. Valentino, 2000
Types of Flexible Grouping: Teacher-LedTeacher-led groups are the most common and traditionallyused form of instruction in classrooms. Teacher-led groups arebest used to introduce material, summarize information, andprovide direct individual instruction and/or attention.• Whole-Class Instruction - most common practice until recently. Typically used as an introduction or review of information. Full class involvement.• Small-Group Instruction - teacher led instruction directed at to a small group. Typically homogenous learning group to support specific needs.• One to One Instruction - direct instruction from the teacher to an individual. Great for informal assessment or additional support for special circumstances. Valentino, 2000
Student LedStudent-led groups afford students the opportunity to takeresponsibility for personal learning. These groups tend tomodel “real world” situations requiring team work. Workingwith a diverse group of peers enhances social skills as well asprovides students with new ideas and a different way ofsolving problems.• Collaborative Groups-requires students to collaborate on ideas to solve problems or complete a task. Typically a small group.• Circle Sharing-a whole class grouping allowing the class to contribute to an idea or project. Students sit in a circle and record responses. Great class brainstorming activity.• Four Corners-requires students to accomplish a small portion of a project. Each station or work center is responsible for their portion which will be added to a final product. Valentino, 2000
Performance-Based GroupsPerformance based groups are short termarrangements to complete a task. These groups aresuccessful at proving additional support inunderstanding of specified concepts or skills.• Group Study – best when used after whole-group instruction. Small groups work better but must be closely monitored for accuracy.• Interview for Options - best when used after individual work. Group members interview each other to gain an understanding of how peers solved a problem or completed a task. Valentino, 2000
Flexible Grouping Instructional Issues• Developing lesson plans that are meaningful and meet the standards requires forward planning.• Teacher-led groups may not support all learning styles; visual, kinesthetic, etc.• Grouping promotes peer review of information which could reinforce incorrect concepts or skills.• Student-led groups could result in inaccurate information.• Homogenous groups could limit lower level learners from benefiting from higher level thinking skills presented in heterogeneous groups. Valentino, 2000
Differentiated instruction in the classroom canbe achieved through the use of: Center-based Learning
Center-based Learning• Learning centers are specified locations in the classroom where students engage in pre-determined learning activities (TeacherVision, 2012).• Three types of center based learning (TeacherVision, 2012) . – Enrichment Centers – Skill Centers – Interest and Exploratory Centers• Center-based learning enables students to learn independently through hands-on activities (Rateliff-Barr, 2012).• Students can actively move through centers to interact with lessons and peers (Rateliff-Barr, 2012).• All content areas can use center-based learning to include mathematics and science.
Center-based Learning Advantages• Teachers can tier or scaffold lessons for different learning levels or styles• Encourages independent learning and permits construction of personal meaning• Offers flexibility and choice• Social interaction with fewer disciplinary issues• More efficient use of student learning time
Center-based Learning Issues• Increased planning time• Difficult to procure materials• Viewed as informal or unstructured• Teacher needs to consistently demonstrate withitness• Off task behavior can become common• Hard to assess student performance
Learning Centers in Action• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=94cmgLBE dSE Click the link for additional information.
Lesson Plan Description Project-BasedGraphing ProjectThis lesson would be used as a culminatingproject or an assessment. Student will havecompleted lessons to gather data, classify data,create a graph, and interpret information on agraph.
Project Based Lesson PlanThis is a project to be completed at home withparental or guardian support.Students will:• Pick a topic• Survey a minimal of 10 people• Create a graph to represent dataGraph must be properly labeled and include akey.
Project Based Lesson Plan• A letter to parents and a sample will be provided for reference.• The letter and sample will be introduced to the students as the closing activity of the final lesson for the unit.• The class will complete the project as a group, creating the sample which will be taken home and used as a guide.
Summary• Differentiation• Four Current Trends – Technology – Inquiry-Based Instruction – Flexible Grouping – Center-Based Learning• Lesson Plan Description• References
ReferencesA Different Place. (2009). A differentiated classroom. Retrieved from http://www.adifferentplace.org/classroom.htmBarr, K. R. (2013). What is center-based learning? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_7755167_centerbased-learning.htmlBorovoy, A. E. (2012). Tech2Learn series: Differentiating instruction through interactive games. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/tech-to-learn-differentiated- instruction-interactive-games-videoDifferentiation in the Classroom (2012, December). What is differentiation/differentiated instruction? Retrieved from http://www.differentiationintheclassroom.com/p/what-is- differentiationdifferentiated.htmlOhio Department of Education. (2012). Using effective instructional strategies: Grouping and differentiated instruction. Retrieved from http://ims.ode.state.oh.us/ode/ims/rrt/research/Content/grouping_what_we_kn ow.aspTeacherTube (n.d.) 5th grade science lesson. Retrieved from http://teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=155631
ReferencesTeacher Vision. (n.d.). Learning centers. Retrieved from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/learning-center/new-teacher/48462.htmlThirteen Ed Online (2004). What is inquiry-based learning? Retrieved from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index.htmlUtah Education Network. (2012). Learning centers: Providing a wide variety of learning activities. Retrieved from http://www.uen.org/k- 2educator/learning_centers.shtmlValentino, C. (2000). Flexible grouping. Retrieved from http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.htmlWitt, C. (2010). The impact of inquiry-based learning on the academic achievement of middle school students. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/724764/The_Impact_of_Inquiry- Based_Learning_on_the_Academic_Achievement_of_Middle_School_StudentsYouTube. (2008, July). Learning centers. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=94cmgLBEdSE