Zero tillage
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Zero tillage

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"Zero tillage a profitable resource saving technology in india and global content"....

"Zero tillage a profitable resource saving technology in india and global content".
presented by
Sunil Kumar
M.Sc. Agronomy
Department of agronomy forages and grassland management, CSKHPKV, Palampur. India

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • it is a very help full topic especially in Baluchistan where water shortage is a serious problem
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  • Picture with watercolor overlay background(Advanced)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow below Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Rectangle click Rounded Rectangle.Drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to the left to decrease the width of the donut shape.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size & Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.11” and the widthis set to 5.44”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the Crop pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 30%.In the Size box, enter 102%.In the Blur box, enter 15pt.In the Angle box, enter 0.In the Distance box, enter 0.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:Click Italic.In the Font Color list, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 240, Green: 240, and Blue: 240.In the Font list, select Corbel.In the Font Size list, select 36 pt.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Also in the Fill pane, click the button next to Texture and then choose Blue Tissue Paper.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -40%.In the Contrast box, enter 40%.Select the rectangle. Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.Press DELETE to delete the rectangle.Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and select Paste Special. In the Paste Special dialog box, select Paste, and then under As, select Picture (PNG).Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the Format Picture dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -15%.In the Contrast box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, in the Picture Color pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Artistic Effects in the left pane, in the Artistic Effects pane, click the button next to Artistic Effect, and then click Marker. Also in the Artistic Effects pane, do the following:In the Transparency box, enter 41%.In the Size box, enter 100%.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial. In the Direction list, select From Center.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 100%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 34%. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Press and hold CTRL, and then on the slide, select the picture and the gradient-fill rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Click Align Center.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide (watercolor overlays), do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Freeform.On the slide, click points to create a shape along the top edge of the slide, that fits across the width of the slide and includes multiple points along the bottom edge of the shape (in the example above, 24 points along the bottom edge). Select the freeform shape. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 0, Green: 112, and Blue: 192. Also in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 85%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, under Soft Edges, click the button next to Presets, and then click 10 pt.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate. Right-click the duplicate shape and select EditPoints. Move most of the bottom edge points upward and adjust some of the points left or right also (the edge should not be a duplicate of the first shape).Press and hold CTRL, and select the two freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Press and hold CTRL, and select two new freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 118, Green: 41, and Blue: 20. In the Transparency box, enter 88%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 134, Green: 56, and Blue: 8. In the Transparency box, enter 66%. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Rotate, and then do the following:Click Flip Horizontal.Click Flip Vertical.Position the two new freeform shapes in the bottom left corner of the slide area. Select one of the new freeform shapes. Drag the right sizing handle of the shapes to the left, decreasing the width by approximately 1/3. Note: To bring the center picture and caption to the front, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click Selection Pane.Press and hold CTRL, and in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the picture and text box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Bring to Front.
  • Frames with faded pictures and text(Intermediate)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 3” and the widthis set to 3”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Select the picture. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Copy, and then click Duplicate. Move the duplicate picture to an area below the original picture.Select the original picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Adjust group, click Color, and then, under Recolor, click Grayscale (first row, second option from the left).Also in the Adjust group, click Corrections, and then click Picture Corrections Options. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and then in the right pane, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter 55%.In the Contrast box, enter -70%. Select the duplicate picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow under Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Basic Shapes click Frame (second row, fourth option from the left). Click and drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to increase or decrease frame width. On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select another picture and then click Insert. Select the new picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 3” and the widthis set to 3”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Select the new picture. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Copy, and then click Duplicate. Move the duplicate picture to an area below the original picture.Select the original picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Adjust group, click Color, and then, under Recolor, click Grayscale (first row, second option from the left).Also in the Adjust group, click Corrections, and then click Picture Corrections Options. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and then in the right pane, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter 55%.In the Contrast box, enter -70%. Select the duplicate picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow under Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Basic Shapes click Frame (second row, fourth option from the left). Click and drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to make the frame width the same as the first one. Press and hold SHIFT and select both frames. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, Point to Bevel, and then click 3-D Options. In the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane, and then do the following in the right pane under Bevel:Click the button next to Top, and then under Bevel click Circle (first row, first option from the left).Next to Top, in the Width box, enter 6 pt. Next to Top, in the Height box, enter 6 pt. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and then do the following in the right pane:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click Offset Bottom (first row, second option from the left).In the Blur box, enter 30 pt. In the Distance box, enter 18 pt. Press and hold SHIFT and select one of the frames and the corresponding grayscale picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following to position the frame directly on top of the grayscale picture:Point to Align, and then click Align Selected Objects.Point to Align, and then click Align Center.Point to Align, and then click Align Middle. Click Group. Repeat step 14 with the other frame and corresponding grayscale picture. Select each group and drag them so they are next to each other at the desired position on the slide.Press and hold SHIFT and select both groups. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click Align Middle. To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box, and then on the slide, drag to draw the text box.Enter text in the text box, select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, select Franklin Gothic Medium Cond from the Font list and then enter 30 in the Font Size box.On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center to center the text on the slide.Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the WordArt Styles group, click the arrow next to Text Fill, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 50% (sixth row, first option from the left).On the slide, drag the text box to position it inside one of the frames.Repeat steps 1-5 to create text for the other frame. To reproduce the horizontal line effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Line (first option from the left).Press and hold SHIFT, and then on the slide, drag to draw a straight, horizontal line. Select the line. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Shape Width box, enter 10”.On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and then do the following in the right pane:Select Solid line.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 35% (fifth row, first option from the left).Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Style in the left pane, and then in the right pane, in the Width box, enter 0.75 pt.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Copy, and then click Duplicate. Press and hold SHIFT and select both lines on the slide.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Send to Back. Drag both lines so that they are positioned behind the pictures and frames. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align,and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Center.To reproduce the background on this slide, do the following:On the Design tab, in the Background group, click the arrow next to BackgroundStyles, and click Style 5 (second row, first option from the left). (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the background style will be applied to all of the slides.)
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.
  • Picture with mat and frame (Intermediate)To reproduce one of the framed pictures on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles, click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the Shape Height box, enter 2.5”.In the Shape Width box, enter 2.6”.On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 15% (third row, first option from the left). Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, select Gradient line in the Line Color pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 35% (fifth row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left). Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Style in the left pane, and then in the Line Style pane, in the Width box, enter 8 pt. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane, and then do the following in the 3-D Format pane:Under Bevel, click the button next to Top, and then under Bevel click Relaxed Inset (first row, second option from the left). Next to Top, in the Width box, enter 6 pt, and in the Height box, enter 6 pt. Under Surface, click the button next to Material, and then under Standard click Warm Matte (second option from the left). Click the button next to Lighting, and then under Neutral, click Three Point (first row, first option from the left). On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Glow, and then do the following:Under Glow Variations, click Accent color 1, 5 pt glow (first row, first option from the left). Point to More Glow Colors, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, resize or crop the picture as needed so that under Size and rotate, the Height box is set to 1.8” and the Width box is set to 2”. Resize the picture under Size and rotate by entering values into the Height and Width boxes. Crop the picture under Crop from by entering values into the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom boxes. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Picture Styles group, click the Format Picture dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, click Solid line in the Line Color pane, click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors, click White, Background 1, Darker 15% (third row, first option from the left). Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Style in the left pane, and then in the Line Style pane, in the Width box, enter 1 pt. Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and then in the Shadow pane do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Inner, click Inside Diagonal Top Right (first row, third option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 21%.In the Blur box, enter 3 pt. In the Distance box, enter 1 pt. Press and hold SHIFT and select both the picture and the rectangle on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Center.Click Align Middle. To reproduce the other framed pictures on this slide, do the following:Press and hold SHIFT and select both the picture and rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Group.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste and then click Duplicate. Repeat this process for a total of three framed picture groups. Drag the framed picture groups away from the center of the slide.Select one of the duplicate framed picture groups. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Ungroup.Right-click the ungrouped duplicate picture and select Change Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, resize or crop the picture as needed so that under Size and rotate, the Height box is set to 1.8” and the Width box is set to 2”. Resize the picture under Size and rotate by entering values into the Height and Width boxes. Crop the picture under Crop from by entering values into the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom boxes.Select the ungrouped duplicate picture and its frame. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Point to Align, and then click Align to Slide.Point to Align, and then click Align Center.Point to Align, and then click Align Middle.Click Group. Drag this group away from the center of the slide. Repeat steps 4-9 with the other duplicate framed picture group. Drag the three groups into a row across the slide.Press and hold SHIFT and select all three groups on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Middle. Click Distribute Horizontally. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (third option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 169, Green: 169, Blue: 161.
  • Picture with watercolor overlay background(Advanced)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow below Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Rectangle click Rounded Rectangle.Drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to the left to decrease the width of the donut shape.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size & Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.11” and the widthis set to 5.44”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the Crop pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 30%.In the Size box, enter 102%.In the Blur box, enter 15pt.In the Angle box, enter 0.In the Distance box, enter 0.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:Click Italic.In the Font Color list, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 240, Green: 240, and Blue: 240.In the Font list, select Corbel.In the Font Size list, select 36 pt.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Also in the Fill pane, click the button next to Texture and then choose Blue Tissue Paper.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -40%.In the Contrast box, enter 40%.Select the rectangle. Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.Press DELETE to delete the rectangle.Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and select Paste Special. In the Paste Special dialog box, select Paste, and then under As, select Picture (PNG).Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the Format Picture dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -15%.In the Contrast box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, in the Picture Color pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Artistic Effects in the left pane, in the Artistic Effects pane, click the button next to Artistic Effect, and then click Marker. Also in the Artistic Effects pane, do the following:In the Transparency box, enter 41%.In the Size box, enter 100%.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial. In the Direction list, select From Center.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 100%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 34%. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Press and hold CTRL, and then on the slide, select the picture and the gradient-fill rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Click Align Center.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide (watercolor overlays), do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Freeform.On the slide, click points to create a shape along the top edge of the slide, that fits across the width of the slide and includes multiple points along the bottom edge of the shape (in the example above, 24 points along the bottom edge). Select the freeform shape. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 0, Green: 112, and Blue: 192. Also in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 85%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, under Soft Edges, click the button next to Presets, and then click 10 pt.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate. Right-click the duplicate shape and select EditPoints. Move most of the bottom edge points upward and adjust some of the points left or right also (the edge should not be a duplicate of the first shape).Press and hold CTRL, and select the two freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Press and hold CTRL, and select two new freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 118, Green: 41, and Blue: 20. In the Transparency box, enter 88%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 134, Green: 56, and Blue: 8. In the Transparency box, enter 66%. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Rotate, and then do the following:Click Flip Horizontal.Click Flip Vertical.Position the two new freeform shapes in the bottom left corner of the slide area. Select one of the new freeform shapes. Drag the right sizing handle of the shapes to the left, decreasing the width by approximately 1/3. Note: To bring the center picture and caption to the front, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click Selection Pane.Press and hold CTRL, and in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the picture and text box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Bring to Front.
  • Picture with watercolor overlay background(Advanced)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow below Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Rectangle click Rounded Rectangle.Drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to the left to decrease the width of the donut shape.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size & Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.11” and the widthis set to 5.44”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the Crop pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 30%.In the Size box, enter 102%.In the Blur box, enter 15pt.In the Angle box, enter 0.In the Distance box, enter 0.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:Click Italic.In the Font Color list, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 240, Green: 240, and Blue: 240.In the Font list, select Corbel.In the Font Size list, select 36 pt.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Also in the Fill pane, click the button next to Texture and then choose Blue Tissue Paper.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -40%.In the Contrast box, enter 40%.Select the rectangle. Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.Press DELETE to delete the rectangle.Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and select Paste Special. In the Paste Special dialog box, select Paste, and then under As, select Picture (PNG).Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the Format Picture dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -15%.In the Contrast box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, in the Picture Color pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Artistic Effects in the left pane, in the Artistic Effects pane, click the button next to Artistic Effect, and then click Marker. Also in the Artistic Effects pane, do the following:In the Transparency box, enter 41%.In the Size box, enter 100%.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial. In the Direction list, select From Center.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 100%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 34%. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Press and hold CTRL, and then on the slide, select the picture and the gradient-fill rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Click Align Center.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide (watercolor overlays), do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Freeform.On the slide, click points to create a shape along the top edge of the slide, that fits across the width of the slide and includes multiple points along the bottom edge of the shape (in the example above, 24 points along the bottom edge). Select the freeform shape. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 0, Green: 112, and Blue: 192. Also in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 85%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, under Soft Edges, click the button next to Presets, and then click 10 pt.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate. Right-click the duplicate shape and select EditPoints. Move most of the bottom edge points upward and adjust some of the points left or right also (the edge should not be a duplicate of the first shape).Press and hold CTRL, and select the two freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Press and hold CTRL, and select two new freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 118, Green: 41, and Blue: 20. In the Transparency box, enter 88%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 134, Green: 56, and Blue: 8. In the Transparency box, enter 66%. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Rotate, and then do the following:Click Flip Horizontal.Click Flip Vertical.Position the two new freeform shapes in the bottom left corner of the slide area. Select one of the new freeform shapes. Drag the right sizing handle of the shapes to the left, decreasing the width by approximately 1/3. Note: To bring the center picture and caption to the front, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click Selection Pane.Press and hold CTRL, and in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the picture and text box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Bring to Front.
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.
  • Picture with watercolor overlay background(Advanced)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow below Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Rectangle click Rounded Rectangle.Drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to the left to decrease the width of the donut shape.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size & Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.11” and the widthis set to 5.44”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the Crop pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 30%.In the Size box, enter 102%.In the Blur box, enter 15pt.In the Angle box, enter 0.In the Distance box, enter 0.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:Click Italic.In the Font Color list, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 240, Green: 240, and Blue: 240.In the Font list, select Corbel.In the Font Size list, select 36 pt.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Also in the Fill pane, click the button next to Texture and then choose Blue Tissue Paper.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -40%.In the Contrast box, enter 40%.Select the rectangle. Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.Press DELETE to delete the rectangle.Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and select Paste Special. In the Paste Special dialog box, select Paste, and then under As, select Picture (PNG).Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the Format Picture dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -15%.In the Contrast box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, in the Picture Color pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Artistic Effects in the left pane, in the Artistic Effects pane, click the button next to Artistic Effect, and then click Marker. Also in the Artistic Effects pane, do the following:In the Transparency box, enter 41%.In the Size box, enter 100%.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial. In the Direction list, select From Center.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 100%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 34%. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Press and hold CTRL, and then on the slide, select the picture and the gradient-fill rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Click Align Center.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide (watercolor overlays), do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Freeform.On the slide, click points to create a shape along the top edge of the slide, that fits across the width of the slide and includes multiple points along the bottom edge of the shape (in the example above, 24 points along the bottom edge). Select the freeform shape. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 0, Green: 112, and Blue: 192. Also in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 85%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, under Soft Edges, click the button next to Presets, and then click 10 pt.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate. Right-click the duplicate shape and select EditPoints. Move most of the bottom edge points upward and adjust some of the points left or right also (the edge should not be a duplicate of the first shape).Press and hold CTRL, and select the two freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Press and hold CTRL, and select two new freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 118, Green: 41, and Blue: 20. In the Transparency box, enter 88%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 134, Green: 56, and Blue: 8. In the Transparency box, enter 66%. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Rotate, and then do the following:Click Flip Horizontal.Click Flip Vertical.Position the two new freeform shapes in the bottom left corner of the slide area. Select one of the new freeform shapes. Drag the right sizing handle of the shapes to the left, decreasing the width by approximately 1/3. Note: To bring the center picture and caption to the front, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click Selection Pane.Press and hold CTRL, and in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the picture and text box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Bring to Front.
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.
  • Picture with watercolor overlay background(Advanced)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow below Crop, point to Crop to Shape, and then under Rectangle click Rounded Rectangle.Drag the yellow diamond adjustment handle to the left to decrease the width of the donut shape.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size & Position dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.11” and the widthis set to 5.44”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the Crop pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 30%.In the Size box, enter 102%.In the Blur box, enter 15pt.In the Angle box, enter 0.In the Distance box, enter 0.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:Click Italic.In the Font Color list, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 240, Green: 240, and Blue: 240.In the Font list, select Corbel.In the Font Size list, select 36 pt.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Also in the Fill pane, click the button next to Texture and then choose Blue Tissue Paper.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -40%.In the Contrast box, enter 40%.Select the rectangle. Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy.Press DELETE to delete the rectangle.Also on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and select Paste Special. In the Paste Special dialog box, select Paste, and then under As, select Picture (PNG).Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Picture Styles group, click the Format Picture dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, in the Picture Corrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, do the following:In the Brightness box, enter -15%.In the Contrast box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Picture Color in the left pane, in the Picture Color pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia.Also in the Format Picture dialog box, click Artistic Effects in the left pane, in the Artistic Effects pane, click the button next to Artistic Effect, and then click Marker. Also in the Artistic Effects pane, do the following:In the Transparency box, enter 41%.In the Size box, enter 100%.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Height box enter 7.5” and in the Width box enter 10”.Also under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial. In the Direction list, select From Center.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 100%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1.In the Transparency box, enter 34%. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Press and hold CTRL, and then on the slide, select the picture and the gradient-fill rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Click Align Center.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide (watercolor overlays), do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Freeform.On the slide, click points to create a shape along the top edge of the slide, that fits across the width of the slide and includes multiple points along the bottom edge of the shape (in the example above, 24 points along the bottom edge). Select the freeform shape. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 0, Green: 112, and Blue: 192. Also in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 85%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, in the Line Color pane, click No line.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, under Soft Edges, click the button next to Presets, and then click 10 pt.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate. Right-click the duplicate shape and select EditPoints. Move most of the bottom edge points upward and adjust some of the points left or right also (the edge should not be a duplicate of the first shape).Press and hold CTRL, and select the two freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Press and hold CTRL, and select two new freeform shapes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradient fill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90.Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 118, Green: 41, and Blue: 20. In the Transparency box, enter 88%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following: In the Position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 134, Green: 56, and Blue: 8. In the Transparency box, enter 66%. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Rotate, and then do the following:Click Flip Horizontal.Click Flip Vertical.Position the two new freeform shapes in the bottom left corner of the slide area. Select one of the new freeform shapes. Drag the right sizing handle of the shapes to the left, decreasing the width by approximately 1/3. Note: To bring the center picture and caption to the front, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click Selection Pane.Press and hold CTRL, and in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the picture and text box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click Bring to Front.
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.
  • Picture with torn border and textured background(Advanced)Tip: Some shape effects on this slide are created with the Combine Shapes commands. To access this command, you must add it to the Quick Access Toolbar, located above the File tab. To customize the Quick Access Toolbar, do the following:Click the arrow next to the Quick Access Toolbar, and then under CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar click MoreCommands.In the PowerPointOptions dialog box, in the Choose commands from list, select All Commands. In the list of commands, click CombineShapes, and then click Add.To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Sizeand Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, under Size and rotate, in the Height box enter 5.76” and in the Width box enter 4”. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then click the button next to Texture and click Newsprint (third row). Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureCorrections in the left pane, in the PictureCorrections pane, under Brightness and Contrast, in the Contrast box enter 40%.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select No Line.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Right-click the rectangle, click EditPoints, right-click the top edge of the rectangle, and then click Add Point to add a new point. Repeat this step to add about 15 new points to the top edge. Do the same for the bottom edge. Individually select each point you added, and then drag up or down to create a ragged edge.Move rectangle to the right half of the slide area. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture and then click Insert.Select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box. In the FormatPicture dialog box, resize or crop the image so that the height is set to 4.74” and the width is set to 3.4”. To crop the picture, click Crop in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Crop position, enter values into the Height, Width, Left, and Top boxes. To resize the picture, click Size in the left pane, and in the right pane, under Size and rotate, enter values into the Height and Width boxes.Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under ColorTone, click the button next to Presets, and then click Temperature 5300 K. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and in the Shadow pane, do the following:Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter.In the Transparency box, enter 80%.In the Size box, enter 101%.Position the picture over the rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignMiddle.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the other shapes on this slide (arched shadows), do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter .50” into the Height box and 3.9” into the Width box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under BasicShapes click Oval. On the slide, drag to draw an oval. Select the oval. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 2” into the Height box and 6.83” into the Width box.Position the oval so that it overlaps the bottom edge of the rectangle. Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, click AlignSelectedObjects, and then click AlignCenter.Press and hold CTRL, select the rectangle, and then select the oval. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Combine Shapes, and then click ShapeSubtract.Select the new shape. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until two stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select the first gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row). In the Transparency box, enter 50%.Select the other gradient stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and in the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Glow and Soft Edges in the left pane, and in the Glow and Soft Edges pane, do the following:Under Glow, click the button next to Presets, and then click No Glow.Under SoftEdges, in the Size box enter 2.5 pt.Select the transparent, gradient-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow to the right of Copy, and then click Duplicate.Position one of the transparent rectangles over the bottom edge of the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Select the other transparent rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, enter 0.34” into the Height box and 3.36” into the Width box.Position the transparent rectangle over the bottom edge of the picture. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then under OrderObjects click Send Backward. Repeat this process until the shape is partially hidden by the texture-filled rectangle.Press and hold CTRL, select the picture, select both transparent rectangles, and select the texture-filled rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click AlignSelectedObjects.Click AlignCenter.To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box.On the slide, drag to draw a textbox. Enter text in the text box, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, select Corbel from the Font list, select 36 pt. from the FontSize list, and then select Black, Text 1 from the FontColor list.Position the text box on the left side of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle. On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane click Noline.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and in the Fill pane, click Picture or texture fill. Click the button next to Texture and choose WovenMat (first row).Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click Picture Corrections in the left pane, and in the Picture Corrections pane, do the following:Under Sharpen and Soften, click the button next to Presets, and then click Soften: 25%.Under Brightnessand Contrast, in the Brightness box enter 14%. Also in the FormatPicture dialog box, click PictureColor in the left pane, and in the PictureColor pane, under Recolor, click the button next to Presets, and then click Sepia (first row).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle.On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Size in the left pane, and in the Size pane, enter 7.5” into the Height box and 10” into the Width box.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeFill, point to Gradient, and then click MoreGradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, in the Fill pane, click Gradientfill, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. In the Angle box, enter 90°. Under Gradient stops, click Add gradient stops or Remove gradient stops until four gradient stops appear in the slider.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient as follows:Select the first stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 48, Green: 50, and Blue: 30. In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 29%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 18%.Select the next stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 51%.Click the button next Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row).In the Transparency box, enter 30%. Select the last stop in the slider, and then do the following:In the Position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click MoreColors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 78, Green: 81, and Blue: 61. In the Transparency box, enter 20%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, and in the LineColor pane select Noline.Press and hold CTRL, and then select both rectangles. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click Align Center.

Zero tillage Zero tillage Presentation Transcript

  • Zero tillage : A profitable resource saving technology in Indian and Global context Speaker : Sunil Kumar (A-2010-30-21)
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Issues Conventional tillage Zero tillageErosion Maximum LessSoil physical health Increase compaction due to Reduced compaction due to heavy traffic, formation of reduced traffic.compaction plough pan.Soil biological health Lower due to frequent More diverse and healthy disturbance. biological properties and populations.Water infiltration and Lower after soil pores are More water infiltration and moresoil organic matter clogged. Reduced soil soil organic matter build-up in the organic matter. surface layers.
  • Continue…. Issues Conventional tillage Zero tillageWeeds Controls weeds and also causes Weeds are a problem especially in more weed seeds to germinate. the early stages of adoption, but problems are reduced with time.Soil temperature More variable. Moderated.Diesel use and High and high costs operations. Much reduced and lowest costs operations.costsYield Can be lower where planting Yield is same or higher if planting delayed. done more timely.
  • Table 1: Extent of no-tillage adoption world wide. FAO 2009* includes area in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal in South Asia
  • EFFECTS OF ZERO TILLAGE
  •  Reduction in machine use  Due to lesser use of tractor during the cultivation process because field is tilled only once at the sowing.  Field is not ploughed and planked again and again. Saving irrigation  The zero tillage allows saving of water to the extent of 25- 30% in the time and quantity of first irrigation.
  • Table 4: Water saving in first irrigation under zero tillage overconventional method of wheat under heavy soil of South Bihar Time in seconds actually taken to irrigate 42 m2 plot with a stream of Irrigation 9 lps discharge Irrigation water depth(cm) saving (%) Conventional tillage Zero tillage 3 224 156 30.36 5 352 252 28.41 7 477 349 26.83 9 575 431 25.04 Singh et al. (2002)
  • Weed population Less weed problem due to less soil disturbance helping in keeping the weed seeds at a depth from where it could not germinate. Germination of Phalaris minor reduces to the extent of 30-40%.
  • Table 5: Effect of sowing techniques on density of Phalaris minor in wheat at farmer’s fields Population of Phalaris minor (no./m2) 35 DAS Site Sowing technique 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 Zero tillage 590 208 70 1 Conventional tillage 935 315 124 Zero tillage 684 285 135 2 Conventional tillage 920 408 170 Zero tillage 418 345 136 3 Conventional tillage 632 560 210 Hissar Singh et al. (2002)
  • Table 6: Effect of crop establishment methods in rice and wheat on population and dry matter of weeds in wheatTillage method Weed population ( no. m-2) Dry matter Chenopodium Medicago Total of weeds album hispida (g m-2) 2004-05 2004-05 2004-05 2004-05Conventional 4.2 2.7 5.0 7.0Zero 3.5 2.1 4.0 5.5CD (P=0.05) 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.7 Jabalpur Mishra & Singh, 2007
  • Control of erosion  Improved aggregation and high proportion of water-stable aggregates.  High soil organic matter content and high biotic activity of soil fauna.  Soil detachability is also reduced by a high proportion of roots concentrated in the top soil horizons.  Reduced rill erosion due to decrease in runoff rate, amount and velocity.
  • Improved soil health Retention of crop residues helps in improving soil organic matter, soil structure and microbial population. The upper soil surface comparatively soft, more moisture content (up to 14%).Insect pests Retention of residues provide a food source to beneficial insect, earthworms and predators. Provide a widest way to tackle pest problems.
  •  Reduce pollution  Reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding burning of straw.  Reduced consumption of diesel by tractors during field preparation produce less CO2.
  • Higher grain yield  The number of days the crop gets from sowing to harvesting, contributes to higher grain yield.  Efficient use of inputs, improvement in soil properties, better rate and extent of germination and better growth from seedling to maturity stage.
  • Table 7: Grain yield of different crops (kg ha-1) under different tillage practicesTreatment Rice Wheat MustardConventional tillage (residue 3166 2257 512removal)Zero tillage (residue retention 4371 3379 775and no-till for rabi crop)Minimum tillage (residue 4176 2761 625incorporation)CD(P=0.05) 632 493 220 Umiam Ghosh et al. (2010)
  • Table 8: Effect of tillage on wheat yield and its attributing characters Grain yield Straw yield 1,000-grainTreatment Grains/spike Spikes/ m2 (q ha-1) (q ha -1) weight (g)Zero tillage 46.2 74.1 45.9 55 385Conventional 40.1 63.7 43.9 49 355tillageCD (0.05) 1.9 5.1 1.1 4 13 Karnal Tripathi and Chauhan (2001)
  • Grain yield of wheat after 11 years of zero-tillage at farmers field in Haryana (Average of 6 sites) 6000 Zero-Tillage Conventional Tillage 5000 4000 Grain Yield (kg ha -1) 3000 2000 1000 0 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 98 99 2K 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Ye ar Malik et al. (2008)
  • Long-term yield trends of wheat under no-till in pearl millet-wheat rotation 7000 ZT-ZT CT-ZT CT-CT 6500 6000 5500Yield (t/ha) 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 Hisar Malik et al (2008)
  • Table 9: Effect of tillage methods on bulk density of soil at harvest of maizeTillage method Bulk density (Mg m-3) 0-15 cm 15-30 cm 2002 2003 2002 2003Zero 1.209 1.216 1.238 1.248Conventional 1.178 1.179 1.214 1.193Raised seed-bed 1.172 1.156 1.198 1.181CD (P=0.05) 0.016 0.036 0.021 0.039 Palampur Chopra and Angiras, 2008
  •  Soil temperature Increase and decrease in temperature from 1 to 3oC in upper 0-5 cm soil layer. Crop residue lowers the maximum soil temperature and improves germination, seedling establishment and crop growth and yields. Soil moisture High soil moisture content due to both improved soil structure and the decrease in evaporation due to the crop residue mulch.
  • Table 10: Effect of tillage methods on seedling emergence, soil temperature and soil moisture regimes in cowpea Maximum soilTillage method Soil moisture (%) Emergence (%) temp. oCConventional tillage, 43 8.3 83.2ridgesConventional tillage,flat 41 11.2 89.4Strip tillage 39 15.8 96.7Zero tillage 36 14.4 97.8 Ohio Rattan Lal (1986)
  • Table 11: Effect of tillage method on moisture content in maize Moisture content (%) 0-5 cm 5-10 cmTillage method 2002 2003 2002 2003Zero 23.50 25.00 26.20 28.77Conventional 21.77 22.40 23.63 24.23Raised seed 20.30 21.23 22.13 23.97bedCD (P=0.05) 2.23 2.72 2.03 3.82 Palampur Chopra and Angiras (2008)
  • Carbon dioxide evolution: Reduce the oxidative loss of soil C and result in the build up of C and organic matter in soil.
  •  Soil Chemical Properties Organic matter  Decomposition of plant residue of previous crop improves organic matter.  Surface layer is usually wetter, cooler, less oxidative causes the organic matter content to increase. Soil pH  Increased acidification is found due to nitrification of NH4+ from acid- forming N fertilizer applied to the soil surface.  The acidification problem occurs in a thin layer at the soil surface so neutralization is easier.
  • Table 12: Organic carbon and biological activity under different tillage practices Organic Carbon SMBC EarthwormTreatment (%) (μg/g soil) populationConventional 1.47 91.3 60,000tillageZero tillage 2.23 128.5 1,60,000Minimum tillage 2.17 121.3 1,00,000CD (P=0.05) 0.78 12.1 Umiam Ghosh et al. (2010)
  •  Nutrient distribution in soil  Crop residues influence nutrient availability through altering temperature and moisture regimes.  The surface layer is characterized by higher organic matter and organic N, which can be a valuable N source.  Fertilizers are more responsive to crop under no tillage.  Lower quantities of NO3- in the upper soil layer is due to more leaching of nitrates. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) Zero-till soils had a significantly higher level of CEC (26%) than conventional tillage.
  • Table 13: Response of NPK level on productivity of wheat (q ha-1) under zero and conventional tillage conditions Tillage practicesFertilizer NPK (kg ha-1) Zero tillage Conventional tillage120:60:40 40.6 36.0150:75:50 48.5 41.0180:90:60 49.6 43.3 Karnal Tripathi and Chauhan (2001)
  •  Soil Biological Properties Soil flora and fauna  Soil flora and fauna increases in no-till system because of favourable conditions.  Moisture regime, temperature moderation, good soil structure, high organic matter favours the high biotic activity.
  •  Earthworms Favour No-till Farming Earthworms form burrows which can enhance gas exchange and improve water infiltration rates 2-10 times in soils. Stabilizes soil aggregates, improves soil structure and limits erosion. Increase in the extent and density of plant roots. Breakdown of organic matter.
  • Effect of Zero Tillage on Plant Growth
  •  Germination  Proper seeding depth and proper placement of fertilizer below the seed gave an advantage to germination.  Moreover, no-till soil contains high moisture, high organic matter and soft soil, which gave favorable conditions to germination. Zero till Rice-wheat system Zero till Maize-wheat system
  •  Crop growth Better crop growth due to early sowing, uniform crop stand and higher fertilizer use efficiency due to placement below seed while drilling. Root growth  More root growth in the surface layer immediately beneath the residue mulch.  Some roots also grow in deeper horizons facilitated by worm holes and biochannels.
  • Important consideration for adoption of Zero Tillage Ensure that standing stubble is not longer than 15 cm. Calibrate the zero till machine before planting so that proper amount of seed and fertilizer is placed in the field. Seed depth should be kept at 5 cm. Use of granular fertilizers so that pipes of the ZT machine are not choked. Apply first irrigation after 15-20 days of sowing. Use flat fan nozzle for spraying herbicides.
  • What is needed? Double Zero-till system must be developed. Suitable cultivars for Zero-tillage. Technology for management of loose crop residues to avoid burning. Development of suitable machinery for residue management. Development of suitable package of practices for new tillage technologies. Research and Extension systems must work hand in hand.
  • Future Prospects Integrated approach for identification and development of different crop varieties, responsive to zero tillage. Refinement or development of suitable multi-purpose farm machines, suitable for different size categories of farmers, located under varying production environments. Effect of zero tillage on soil health in long run– physical, chemical and biological structure of soil, responsive to crop productivity.
  • CONCLUSIONS Zero tillage can serve as corrective measures for ill-effects of modern agriculture which include intensive tillage. Provides an opportunity to grow more food at less cost and thus improve farmers livelihoods. Food security by maintaining the natural resource base. Overcoming age old prejudices about “more tillage giving better crops”. The suitable policies are needed in order to further facilitate promotion of zero tillage technology by encouraging private sector cooperation and educating farmers about the use of this technology. The participatory research at farmers’ field could play important role in technology improvements and dissemination.
  • Thank You