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# Lecture 1 colors

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• Just how long that wave is will determine the amount of energy that it has. For example, a long wave has a low amount of energy or low frequency, and a short wave has a high amount of energy or high frequency. What we see in a rainbow, then, are the wavelengths of the visible colors. You see, our sun emits its radiation in this visible range, which our eyes interpret as the colors of the rainbow.
• It is basically photons (pieces of energy or particles), and mostly moves as waves.
• Waves exist above and below the visible spectrum, too. Such waves called radio, microwave, and infrared are below the red end of the spectrum, and ultraviolet (UV), x-rays, and gamma rays are above the violet.These cannot be seen by the human eye, and therefore constitute the &quot;invisible&quot; spectrum. Together, the visible and invisible spectrums make up the electromagnetic spectrum.
• There are three things that can happen to a light wave. It can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted. This is determined by the object that the wave hits, and that will give it its color. For an object to be black, it means that all the wavelengths of light hitting that object are absorbed; no light is reflected. Solid objects, for the most part, will reflect light, and transparent objects will transmit light through them. To illustrate this last fact, place a glass of red fruit juice on a table. Hold a piece of white paper on one side of the glass and chances are, if the light in the room is right, you will see red on that piece of paper. The light transmitted the red color of the juice onto the paper.
• The color of anything depends on the type of light sent to our eyes; light is necessary if we are to have any perception of color at all. An object is &quot;colored,&quot; as stated above, because of the light it reflects—all other colors are absorbed into that specific object. So then, an apple appears red because it reflects red light.White light from the sun contains all the possible color variations. Yet, the human eye can only respond to certain colors and wavelengths, and not everyone sees the same colors or exact same shades of a color. We are capable of seeing color because our eyes have light and color-sensitive receptors. These receptors are called rods (receptive to amounts of light) and cones (sensitive to colors). Being able to see color is a sensation, just like smelling a pie fresh out of the oven or tasting your favorite meal. Different foods smell and taste different to each person, and likewise, no color is seen exactly the same by two people, because each person&apos;s rods and cones vary.
• In visual experiences, harmony is something that is pleasing to the eye. It engages the viewer and it creates an inner sense of order, a balance in the visual experience. When something is not harmonious, it&apos;s either boring or chaotic. At one extreme is a visual experience that is so bland that the viewer is not engaged. The human brain will reject under-stimulating information. At the other extreme is a visual experience that is so overdone, so chaotic that the viewer can&apos;t stand to look at it. The human brain rejects what it can not organize, what it can not understand. The visual task requires that we present a logical structure. Color harmony delivers visual interest and a sense of order.
• The relationship of values, saturations and the warmth or coolness of respective hues can cause noticeable differences in our perception of color.
• Red appears more brilliant against a black background and somewhat duller against the white background. In contrast with orange, the red appears lifeless; in contrast with blue-green, it exhibits brilliance. Notice that the red square appears larger on black than on other background colors.
• These are the colors of fire, of fall leaves, and of sunsets and sunrises, and are generally energizing, passionate, and positive.
• In history, it is associated with the Devil and Cupid. Red can actually have a physical effect on people, raising blood pressure and respiration rates. It’s been shown to enhance human metabolism, too.
• In design, red can be a powerful accent color. It can have an overwhelming effect if it’s used too much in designs, especially in its purest form. It’s a great color to use when power or passion want to be portrayed in the design. Red can be very versatile, though, with brighter versions being more energetic and darker shades being more powerful and elegant.
• ### Lecture 1 colors

1. 1. To understand color… we first need to understand light
2. 2. Light is everywhere in our world. We need it to see: it carries information from the world to our eyes and brains.
3. 3. Light Waves
4. 4.  Waves have high and low points, and the distance between one of those highs and lows and the next is called a wavelength.  Visible spectrum—colors of the rainbow known as ROY G. BIV (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)
5. 5. How are light and color related?  Light travels in the form of waves  White Light or the light from the sun, is made of colors and colors are different types of light recognized by their own wavelengths
6. 6. Since light travels, what can happen?
7. 7. Light Transfer Reflect Absorb Transmit
8. 8. Do objects “have” color?
9. 9. Color Models  300 BC: Aristotle  1600s: Aguilonius (SJ)  1660: Newton
10. 10. Color Mixing: Additive vs Subtractive  A range of colors can be reproduced by one of two complimentary approaches:  Additive color  Subtractive color
11. 11.  Additive colors: combine light sources, starting with darkness (black)  beams of light or dots of light on monitor screens  Additive primary colors are red (R), green (G), and blue (B)  Adding red and green makes yellow (R + G = Y); Similarly, G + B = C and R + B = M.  Adding all three additive primaries in roughly equal amounts creates gray or white light.
12. 12.  Subtractive colors: objects that transmit or reflect light (ex: film or prints)  Typically illuminated by white light  Primary colors: cyan (C), Magenta (M), yellow (Y)  Each subtractive primary removes one of the additive primary colors from the reflected or transmitted image.
13. 13. Color Models  RGB  CMY (K)  HSV  HSL
14. 14. RGB  Red, Green, Blue  Additive primary colors  Used for monitor screens and most image file formats
15. 15. CMY(K)  Cyan, Magenta, Yellow  Subtractive primary colors  Used in inks for printing with black (K) added because CYM pigments and inks rarely give deep, rich black tones by themselves (they tend to make a muddy brown).  Important to the prepress (printing) industry
16. 16. HSV  Hue, saturation, value  Hue—perceived as color  Saturation—100% is a pure color, 0% is a shade of gray  Value—related to brightness
17. 17. HSL  Hue, Saturation, Lightness  Saturation is similar for dark colors but quite different for light colors.
18. 18. Color Theories  Color theories create a logical structure for color.  Color Wheel  Color Harmony  Color Context
19. 19. Color Wheel  Sir Isaac Newton developed the first circular diagram of colors in 1666
20. 20. Categories of Color based on the Color Wheel  Primary Colors  Secondary Colors  Tertiary Colors
21. 21. Primary Colors  Red, Yellow and Blue  3 pigment colors that can not be mixed or formed by any combination of other colors  All other colors are derived from these 3 hues
22. 22. Secondary Colors  Green, Orange, Purple  Colors formed by mixing the primary colors
23. 23. Tertiary Colors  Yellow-orange, redorange, redpurple, bluepurple, bluegreen, yellow-green  Colors formed by mixing a primary and a secondary color
24. 24. Color Harmony  Harmony—pleasing arrangement of parts  Delivers visual interest and a sense of order
25. 25. Formulas for Color Harmony 1. A color scheme based on analogous colors  Analogous colors are any three colors which are side by side on a 12 part color wheel  Example: yellow-green, yellow, yellow-orange
26. 26. Formulas for Color Harmony 2. A color scheme based on complimentary colors  Any two colors which are directly opposite each other  Creates maximum contrast and maximum stability
27. 27. Formulas for Color Harmony 3. A color scheme based on nature  Provides a perfect departure point for color harmony
28. 28. Color Context  How color behaves in relation to other colors and shapes  The relationship of values, saturations and the warmth or coolness of respective hues can cause noticeable differences in our perception of color.
29. 29. Compare the contrast effects of different color backgrounds for the same red square.
31. 31. The Meaning of Color
32. 32. Warm Colors  Includes red, orange, yellow and variations of those three colors  Used to reflect passion, happiness, enthusiasm and energy
33. 33. Red (Primary Color)  A very hot color  Associated with fire, violence, warfare  love and passion  Anger but also with importance (red carpet)  Danger (stop light, warning labels)
34. 34. Red (Primary Color)  In China, prosperity and happiness, good luck  In other eastern cultures, red is worn by brides on wedding days  In South Africa, it is mourning  In design, it is a powerful accent color
35. 35. Orange (Secondary Color)  Very vibrant and energetic color  Associated with the earth and autumn  Represents change and movement  Health and vitality  In designs, orange commands attention without being as overpowering as red  More friendly, inviting and less in-your-face
36. 36. Yellow (Primary Color)  Brightest and most energizing among the warm colors  Happiness, sunshine  Also associated with deceit, cowardice  Hope but also with danger
37. 37. Yellow (Primary Color)  In Egypt  bright yellow is happiness and cheerfulness  Softer yellow is used as a gender-neutral color for babies and young children  Dark yellow and gold-hues yellow look antique and used in designs where a sense of permanence is designed
38. 38. Cool Colors  include green, blue, and purple, are often more subdued than warm colors  colors of night, of water, of nature, and are usually calming, relaxing, and somewhat reserved
39. 39. Green (Secondary Color)  Very down-to-earth color  Represents new beginning and growth  Also envy or jealousy and a lack of experience  In design, it can have a balancing and harmonizing effect, and is very stable  Appropriate for designs related to wealth, stability, renewal, and nature
40. 40. Blue (Primary Color)  Associated with sadness, calmness and responsibility  Light blues are refreshing and friendly  Dark blues are strong and reliable  Also associated with peace and has some spiritual connotations in some cultures
41. 41. Purple (Secondary Color)  Associated with royalty, creativity and imagination  In Thailand, purple is the color for mourning of widows  In design, dark purples give a sense of wealth and luxury  Light purples are associated with spring and romance
42. 42. Neutrals  Serve as the backdrop in design  Combined with brighter colors
43. 43. Black  Strongest of the neutral colors  Associated with power, elegance and formality  Also, with evil, death and mystery  In design, black is commonly used for typography and other functional parts, because of it’s neutrality.
44. 44. White  At the opposite end of the spectrum from black  Also works well with just about any other color  Associated with goodness and health care  In design, it is a neutral backdrop that lets other colors in a design have a larger voice  Conveys cleanliness and simplicity, popular in minimalist designs
45. 45. Gray  Is at the cool end of the color spectrum  Considered moody and depressing  conservative and formal but also modern  A color of mourning  A sophisticated color, used in corporate designs
46. 46. References:  http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/01/28/colortheory-for-designers-part-1-the-meaning-of-color/  http://www.normankoren.com/light_color.html  http://www.fi.edu/color/  http://www.colormatters.com/color-and-design/basiccolor-theory  And some lecture notes from Fr. Charlie Cenzon of ADMU