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Part 1<br />Context Analysis <br />Learning Goal: Rounding Numbers<br />The Need to Learn the Skill<br />Rounding numbers is a skill that is used in the daily lives of thousands of people. Whether it is rounding the price of groceries, rounding the miles you are driving, or rounding the number of party guests you expect to arrive; rounding helps people estimate how much or how many of something they need or have. Rounding is a life skill as well as a standard skill taught in many elementary schools. <br />For this reason, rounding numbers shows up on almost all schools’ and states’ learning/teaching standards at the elementary level. These standards are complied by state departments of education, with the idea in mind that rounding is a skill that is not only helpful in the upper levels of education but also in the world outside of a classroom.<br />Many elementary teachers have found that teaching rounding with a textbook or only by direct instruction is ineffective. Since this had been the case, there is a need to develop a system in which young learners can follow step by step the procedure of rounding numbers. After this procedure is mastered, learners can then be exposed to why the procedure will work for rounding any number to any place value and why it works in relation to the overall concept of rounding.<br />Learning Environment<br />The learning environment for this lesson will be in a third grade classroom. The teacher who will lead and facilitate the learning task has seven years experience in third grade and a background with power point software, which is the medium being used for this lesson.<br />The rounding lesson will fit into the mathematics curriculum currently used in the classroom. The students will have already mastered place value and will naturally transition into rounding following the curriculum’s sequence. While the medium for this learning task will differ from the teacher’s normal medium for mathematics instruction, the vocabulary and expectations in the learning environment will remain the same.<br />Students learning in this environment will be using tools that they are commonly exposed to in the classroom setting. Available to the students will be the instructional power point (which will be narrated for those students who may be impaired in the area of reading), a personal laptop, paper, pencil, and a quiet work area free from distraction.<br />Target Audience<br />The target audience for this task will be third grade students who are either eight or nine years of age. In this third grade classroom, there are nine females and ten males ranging in levels of experience in mathematics. All of these students have the aptitude to succeed at rounding, and have no learning disabilities in the mathematical area that would prevent them from learning this task. Some of the students have a specific aptitude to see an example of mathematical work and pick up on it right away, while others require more guided practice. <br />The students in this classroom range in reading levels from beginning first grade to advanced seventh grade. For this reason the power point lesson will be narrated. All students’ levels of visual literacy are average for this age group, so a power point should be an appropriate medium. <br />While the students all have differing learning strategies that they employ on their own, this task will be asking them to employ a strategy where they follow a list of steps in order to come up with a correctly rounded number. The task will also be asking them to use a declarative knowledge strategy and give them a rhyme/jingle to remember this portion of the task. This strategy is something all students in this environment have experience with.<br />The learning goal, when explained in the power point, should be easy for all students to relate to their own lives. Each student has knowledge of the world outside of the classroom and when explained why rounding really is a life skill, they will understand. This will also motivate them to learn the skill. <br /> These students have the correct prior mathematical knowledge needed to move into rounding. They also have the knowledge of how a power point works, and the motivation to succeed at these types of learning tasks. Using the laptops will be another perk for them since they are extra motivated whenever they are able to learn with the laptops. This will most definitely increase the students’ attitude toward the day’s math lesson, and they should seem confident using the laptops since they are all exposed to this technology regularly.<br /> <br />Goal Identification and Task Analysis<br />Learning Goal: Rounding Numbers<br />Instructional Goal<br />When presented with a number, students will be able to on their own accurately round the number to a specified place value.<br />Learning Outcome<br /> Students will be able to round numbers accurately. This goal represents an intellectual skill. Student will need to use declarative knowledge, as well as a procedural process in order to meet the instructional goal.<br />Steps Used to Complete the Goal<br /> Reading or listening to directions<br />Prerequisite: being a good listener.<br /> Underlining the correct place value in a number (as per directions).<br />Prerequisite: having a solid understanding of place value.<br />Understanding and using the helpful jingle “If my neighbor is 4 or less I stay the same. If my neighbor is 5 or more make I turn into one more”<br />Prerequisite: Being able to listen and process information in order to comprehend the jingle.<br />Completing the correct change to the underlined digits<br />Prerequisite: knowing what is one more than any digit ranging from 0-9.<br />Turning the “neighbor digit (s)” into a zero(s).<br />Performance Objectives <br />Students will be able to read/listen to directions.<br />Students will be able to comprehend the directions at the vocabulary level they are given.<br />Students will be able to accurately identify place values within a number.<br />Student will be able to use a jingle in order to remember a process.<br />Students will be able to change a digit between 0 and 9 to be one more.<br />Students will be able to change a specified digit into a zero.<br />Students will be able to accurately round numbers.<br />Part 2<br />Assessment Design<br />Rounding Numbers<br />Purpose and Design Model<br />The purpose of the assessment instrument is to measure if a student is proficient at accurately rounding numbers to a specified place value. <br />In developing this assessment instrument, the model followed will be that of an extend response test. The student will be provided with clear directions, presented with a number, and allowed work time and work area with on the testing page to use as scratch paper to round the number. The student will be encourage to show their work, and then expected to write down the answer.<br />Type of Assessment<br />Their will be no pre-assessment since it is assumed that none of the third grade students have rounded numbers. After the instructional power point, students will take a post assessment. If this post assessment is not proficient, students will be ability grouped for guided practice with a teacher. The groups will be based on the teacher’s analysis of the students’ understanding of the rounding concept. The teacher will analyze the work shown on the assessment to pin point each student’s particular strengths and weaknesses in the rounding process and groups will be formed from there.<br />Item Specifications<br />Objectives:<br />Given a two digit number, students will accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br /> Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br />Given a four digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />Description of Test Form:<br />Paper and pencil written/extended response<br />Sample Item:<br />Directions: Round each number to the nearest ten. Show all of your work. Write the rounded number on the line.<br /> 32 ______________<br />Question Characteristics:<br />Students must show their work by using the process learned in the power point lesson. The evaluator should see that the tens place is identified, and that the student understands that the digit in this place either stays the same or increases by one. The student should also show that they are turning the digits in lesser place values into zeros.<br />Response Characteristics:<br />The same process should be followed each time when rounding all numbers on the assessment, and the same markings should be made throughout the process by the students.<br />Number of Items:<br />The assessment will consist of 20 items. <br />The types of items will be:<br />5 items rounding to the tens place and will be numbers with two digits.<br />5 items rounding to the tens place and will be numbers with three digits.<br />5 items rounding to the hundreds place and will be numbers with three digits.<br />5 items rounding to the hundreds place and will be numbers with four digits.<br />Mastery Criteria:<br />To be considered proficient at rounding, a student needs to correctly round all but one of each type of rounding questions.<br /> Instrument Blueprint <br />Objectives: <br />Given a two digit number, student accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br /> Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br />Given a four digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />Form: <br />Paper and pencil written/extended response<br />Number of Items: <br />The assessment will consist of 20 items. <br />5 items rounding to the tens place and will be numbers with two digits.<br />5 items rounding to the tens place and will be numbers with three digits.<br />5 items rounding to the hundreds place and will be numbers with three digits.<br />5 items rounding to the hundreds place and will be numbers with four digits.<br />Criterion Level: <br />To be considered proficient at rounding, a student needs to correctly round all but one of each type of rounding questions.<br />Proportion: <br />Assessment items 1-5 will cover 25 % of the overall assessment’s weight<br />Assessment items 6-10 will cover 25 % of the overall assessment weight<br />Assessment items 11-15 will cover 25 % of the overall assessment weight<br />Assessment items 16-20 will cover 25 % of the overall assessment weight<br />FORMNUMBER OF ITEMSCRITERION LEVELPROPORTIONObjective 1Paper/Pencil54/525%Objective 2Paper/Pencil54/525%Objective 3Paper/Pencil54/525%Objective 4Paper/Pencil54/525%<br />Post Assessment<br />Rounding Numbers<br />Directions: Round each number to the nearest ten. Show all of your work. Write the rounded number on the line.<br /> 32 ______________<br /> 87______________<br />08______________<br />12_____________<br />55______________<br />101______________<br />358______________<br />587______________<br />999______________<br />211______________<br />Directions: Round each number to the nearest hundred. Show all of your work. Write the rounded number on the line.<br />823______________<br />500______________<br />055______________<br /> 242______________<br /> 100______________<br /> 1,000______________<br /> 2,899______________<br /> 4,444______________<br /> 9,755______________<br /> 3,101______________<br />Part 3 <br />Organization and Media Rational<br />Learning Goal: Rounding Numbers<br />Orientation of Project to Course<br />This project will combine my knowledge of best practices for teaching third graders, and the knowledge of the math curriculum that needs to be taught during the third grade year. Students have already learned place value, which is a prerequisite for learning to round. In the scope and sequence of math concepts taught in the third grade this lesson will fit in nicely. <br />Plan for Sequence and Organization of Objectives<br />The organization of the objects will follow the sequence below:<br />Given a two digit number, student accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br />Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br />Given a four digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />The objects will be taught in the lesson in this order, following the expanded events of instruction. The order is based on the level of difficultly of the objects to master, then start at the most basic and increase in difficultly.<br />Rational for Media Selection<br />The type of media being used for this lesson is a power point. This media is being used because I can ensure everyone in the class is getting the same information, and I can have a scripted copy of the lesson to refer to. The students will also use a paper and pencil so that they can practice the skills they are learning and receive feedback along the way. They will also be testing in a paper and pencil format, so using paper and pencil during the lesson will bridge this type of media from the lesson to the assessment. <br />Part 4<br />Strategy Plan<br />Learning Goal: Rounding Numbers<br />Strategy Appropriate to Task<br />Both using a power point lesson and following the expanded events of instruction are appropriate to the task of rounding numbers. This task is basically learning to follow a system or steps so that students can accurately round numbers. A power point will be helpful because it will present to steps for students to follow, and repeat them so that over the course of the lesson they will learn to memorize the steps and eventually be able to round numbers without the aid of the power point. The expanded events of instruction will give structure to the order in which information is presents and practice time is given to the students.<br /> <br />Strategy Appropriate to Medium<br />This strategy is appropriate to a power point, because I can narrate the power point just like I could talk through a lesson. It may even be better, because students will have the opportunity to pause or rewind directions if they need to take more time, or hear them again. The use of the power point on individual laptops will also focus the learners on the laptop on top of their desk, and they will not have to focus on me at the front of the room. This should help some students who get distracted during a large group direct instruction lessons. <br />Strategy Appropriate to Learners<br />The expanded events of instruction are very appropriate to the learners in the third grade. It is a nice plan to follow to set them up for learning, to teach them the skills, to let them practice the skills, and to eventually assess them on the skills. These students are already very used to information and lessons being presented in this order. The use of the narrated power point will be helpful to students who struggle with reading directions, since they can now just listen for the directions. It will also help to motivate the students, and to focus attention. <br />Strategy Appropriate to Context<br />A. Sequencing and grouping of lesson objectives<br />Given a two digit number, student accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br />Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />Given a three digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest ten<br />Given a four digit number, students accurately round the number to the nearest hundred<br />B. Introduction Strategy<br />Deploy attention to lesson<br />I will tell a short story about how I used rounding in my own adult life.<br />“I want to tell a quick story about something that happened to me yesterday before we start this math lesson. Yesterday after school, I went to the grocery store. When I got there, I realized I only had $5.00 with me, so I knew I would have to be careful not to get too much or I would not be able to pay for my groceries. As I was filling my cart, I knew I could never add up all of the prices in my head, it was too hard and I had no paper. So, I did something that adult people do all the time called rounding. Rounding helps people make numbers easier to add or subtract. Today, just like adult people you are going to be round. It is not hard, if you follow a few steps”<br />Establish instructional purpose<br />I will tell how rounding helped me, and how it can help the students in their lives in the classroom and outside of the classroom.<br />“If I had not known how to round, I might have spent more than my $5.00 at the store. Luckily I rounded all of the prices, and knew that I could get them all with the money I had. You can use rounding in your life, just like adult people if you ever need to know about how many of something instead of the exact amount. Like if you are making cookies for class, or cupcakes for a birthday treat. You can round the numbers to see about how many you need. Rounding will make using numbers from now and for the rest of your life easier.”<br />Arouse interest and motivation<br />I will give a rounding example that students would likely see in their own lives. I will also point out that they, as third graders, can learn an adult skill.<br />“Let me show you what I mean.” (At this point a list of numbers will appear on the power point.) “Let’s pretend that you need to know about how many third graders go to school at our school for a class project. Here is the exact count of third graders by class. Would you rather add up these numbers, or these (now rounded numbers appear on the screen next to the other numbers.) “I bet you rather add up the second set of numbers, it looks easier, and it is- because they are rounded. Let’s start to learn how to round numbers so that you can use rounding just like adult people do.” <br />Preview lesson<br />I will tell what will happen on the power point, what I expect of them, and what materials they need.<br />“In today’s lesson I will be talking as the computer screen is showing you what I mean. You should have a piece of paper and a sharp pencil. Remember, the best learning happens when we are flat on our chair, and only worrying about ourselves so please make sure you are doing these things. It will not matter what anyone but you write down or where your neighbor is in the power point. The important thing is that you watch your computer and do what I am asking you to do as you hear it in your headphones. Okay let’s start.”<br />C. Body<br />5. Recall Relevant Prior Knowledge<br /> I will remind them about learning place value.<br />“Remember when we learned about place value? You will be using place value to round numbers, so be ready to find different place value spots within a numbers.”<br />6. Process information and examples <br /> <br />Here I will narrate and let them practice identifying place values, and then I will talking about the steps they go through to round numbers using place value and a rhyme I will be narrating and teaching as well. They will learn the process by repetition of the process itself.<br />7. Focus attention<br />And<br /> 8. Employ learning strategies<br />“Now that we have practiced the process you use to round numbers let’s try some problems that are a little different.” Here I will go through the process again and they will need to now employ the strategies they learned on numbers that have more place values or with direction that ask to round the number to different place values then we practiced before. <br />9. Practice and feedback<br />Students will practice rounding many numbers, all with feedback and the correct answers and sets to be followed showed after they work the problem. This will be immediate feedback. Students will see practice problems that are similar to those on the assessment.<br />D. Conclusion<br /> 10. Summarize and review<br />I will tell them what they just learned, and point toward how they can use this skill in the future.<br />“Now that you can round numbers just like adult people do, next time you need to only know about how many of something you can use rounding too.<br /> 11. Transfer learning, re-motivate and closing<br /> <br />“In fact tomorrow we will be using rounding in class during our science lesson, so it is a good thing you learned how to round today because rounding is not just a skill you use in math. Remember, I used it when I was shopping and tomorrow we will use it in science.”<br />E. Assessment<br /> 14. Assess performance<br />Immediately after the power point lesson is finished students will get the assessment presented in part 2 of this assignment. I will allow students to interact with the power point as they complete the assessment.<br /> 15. Evaluate feedback and seek remediation<br />The assessments will be graded, and I as the teacher will make a decision on what breakdowns in the knowledge there are. I will then group students according to the errors they are making and do some re-teaching with these groups.<br />Part 5<br />Instructional Materials<br />See Power Point lesson in attached file.<br />The quiz this lesson refers to is the post assessment in Part 2.<br />Part 6<br />Formative Evaluation<br />Design Reviews and Revisions:<br />My students, who pilot tested this lesson, told me I sounded funny on the recording. I thought that too. It was not very relaxed like I am when I am teaching, and it did sound unlike my regular lessons. I was trying to be too scripted I think and at one point make a mistake, but just keep going. I would never do this in a direct instruction lesson. I make mistakes and I own up to them- it is important for kids to see that too! <br />As a result of this feedback, is I use this power point lesson in the future I will re record the narrative.<br />Expert Reviews:<br />I gave this lesson the six other third grade teachers. They thought it was well done, and some used it in their classrooms to work on rounding. The teachers who did not use thus power point told me they used the sequence and the steps taught in this lesson in direct instruction within their classroom. I would say that this was a good review by my colleagues.<br />Evaluation of Students’ Learning:<br />Questions to be answered<br />Students have to complete the power point lesson, and take a twenty question test. There were five questions on the test for each one of the four objectives of the rounding lesson. Student who missed one of less question on each objective were considered proficient.<br />Characteristics of materials<br />The power point lesson was not a new medium for these students, and they did fine with this media. I observed students pausing, going back to a slide, and working through the lesson with the power point. <br />The paper pencil quiz was also very familiar to the students, as were the directions on the quiz- they matched the directions from the power point lesson.<br />Learners' characteristics<br />The students who participated in this lesson are all proficient with technology and power points. They are English speaking, and functioning at a third grade level in math. They had one formal, previous lesson on rounding prior to viewing this power point lesson. The same steps were taught in the one prior rounding lesson.<br />Procedures followed<br />Students were instructed to view and work with the power point<br />Students were told that they could pause or return to previous slides<br />Students watched and worked through the power point lesson<br />Students took the rounding quiz immediately after the lesson<br />Data gathered, interpretations, and revisions <br />17 out of 19 students were proficient when taking the rounding quiz.<br />I feel as though the power point lesson was successful because of these results. I do plan on revising the lesson’s narrative to sound “more like me” and possible to go slower in some spots where I noticed students pausing the lesson. <br />Part 7<br />Project Management<br />I did all of the creating, implementing, and evaluating of this project on my own following the timeline below:<br />September 25……………………………Analysis<br />October 2…………………………………Assessment Design<br />October 16……………………………….Organization and Media Rational / Strategy Plan<br />November 16…………………………….Instructional Materials<br />November 19…………………………….Implement Lesson (in third grade classroom)<br />November 19…………………………….Give Evaluation to Students<br />November 20…………………………….Share with Colleagues<br />December 4………………………………Formative Evaluation<br />December 4………………………………Project Management Report<br />December 8……………………………..Submission of Final Project<br />
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