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    Dev Psych.ch2.keynote Dev Psych.ch2.keynote Presentation Transcript

    • A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT John W. Santrock Chapter Two: Biological Beginnings
    • The Evolutionary Perspective
      • Natural selection
        • Evolutionary process where the best adapted individuals in a species survive and reproduce
      • Natural selection and adaptive behavior
        • Darwin: On the Origin of Species (1859)
        • All organisms must adapt in life
    • The Evolutionary Perspective
      • Evolutionary psychology
        • Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior
        • Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors
    • The Evolutionary Perspective
      • Evolutionary developmental psychology
        • Explaining humans and their behavior
          • Larger brains and more complex societies
          • Takes longest of all mammals to mature
          • Some evolved mechanisms of adaptation not compatible with modern society
    • The Evolutionary Perspective
      • Evolution and life-span development
        • Natural selection
          • Benefits decrease with age
          • Failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptive characteristics
          • As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase
          • Alternative: bi-directional view
    • Fig. 2.2 Baltes’ View of Evolution and Culture Across the Life Span
    • Genetic Foundations of Development
      • The collaborative gene
        • Nucleus of a human cell:
          • Chromosomes — thread-like structures
          • DNA — double helix-shaped molecule
          • Genes — units of hereditary information
      • Human Genome Project
        • 20,500 genes in humans
        • Genetic expression and inherited traits
    • Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Fig. 2.3 Nucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genes Chromosomes are threadlike structures composed of DNA molecules Gene : a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the hereditary code
    • Genetic Foundations of Development
      • Genes and chromosomes
        • Mitosis — cell nucleus duplicates
        • Meiosis — cell division forms gametes
        • Fertilization — egg and sperm form zygote
        • Genetic variability in the population
        • X and Y chromosomes determine sex
    • Genetic Foundations of Development
      • Genes and chromosomes
        • Sources of variability
          • Each zygote is unique
            • Identical and fraternal twins
            • Muted genes due to environmental agent
            • Genotype: all of one’s genetic makeup
            • Phenotype: observable characteristics
    • Genetic Foundations of Development
      • Genetic principles
        • Dominant and recessive genes
          • Sex-linked genes
            • X-linked inheritance for males and female
          • Genetic imprinting
            • Imprinted gene dominates
          • Poly-genetically determined characteristics
            • Many genes interact to influence a trait
    • b b B b B b B B b B Blond hair Brown hair How brown-haired parents can have a blond-haired child: the gene for blond hair is recessive Mother B b Father B b
    • Genetic Foundations of Development
      • Chromosomal and gene-linked abnormalities
        • Down syndrome: 2 copies of chromosome 21
        • Sex-linked abnormalities
          • Klinefelter syndrome: XXY instead of XY
          • Fragile X syndrome: X in boys is fragile, breaks
          • Turner syndrome: girl is XO instead of XX
          • XYY syndrome: link to criminal males unproven
    • Genetic Foundations of Development
      • Chromosomal and gene-linked abnormalities
        • Gene-linked abnormalities
          • Phenylketonuria (PKU) – treated by diet
          • Sickle-cell anemia – red blood cells affected
          • Cystic fibrosis, diabetes, hemophilia, spina bifida, Tay-sachs and Huntington diseases
          • Can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events
    • Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
      • Behavior genetics
        • Studies genetic impact on traits and development
        • Tests for genetic/environmental influences
          • Twin studies
            • Shared and nonshared factors
          • Adoption studies
            • Effects of biological and adoptive parents
    • Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
      • Heredity-environment correlations
        • Passive genotype-environment
          • Parents provide/guide child’s interests
        • Evocative genotype-environment
          • Some traits elicit more adult responses
        • Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment
          • Child seeks/selects favorable environments
    • Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
      • Heredity-environment correlations
        • Heredity directs environmental experiences
        • In infancy, environment mostly parent-controlled
        • As child ages, experiences extend beyond family
        • Some environments can mute or strengthen genetic traits
        • Critics: heredity gets too much credit
    • Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
      • Epigenetic view
        • Development is ongoing
        • Bi-directional interchange of heredity/environment
        • Infancy
          • Positive and negative environmental experiences can modify genetic activity
    • The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views Fig. 2.9
    • Prenatal Development
      • Course of prenatal development
        • Germinal period: creation of fertilized egg
        • Embryonic period: cell differentiation of embryo
          • Endoderm – digestive/respiratory systems
          • Ectoderm – nervous system, sensory receptors
          • Mesoderm – circulatory, bones, muscles, excretory and reproductive systems
          • Organagenesis : organ formation
    • Prenatal Development
      • Course of prenatal development
        • Fetal period: lasts for 7 months, 3 trimesters
        • Brain:
          • 100 billion neurons (nerve cells)
          • Neural tube formed from ectoderm
            • Birth defects can cause death, retardation
          • Neurogenesis – new cells formed
          • Neuronal migration – cell specialization
    • The Three Trimesters of Prenatal Development Fig. 2.10 First trimester 0-4 weeks Less than 1/10th of inch long 8 weeks Less than 1 inch long 12 weeks 3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce Second trimester 16 weeks 5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces 20 weeks 10-12 inches, wt: ½ -1 lbs 24 weeks 11-14 inches, wt: 1-1½ lbs Third trimester 28 weeks 14-17 inches, wt: 2½ -3 lbs 32 weeks 16½ -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs 36-38 weeks 19 inches, wt: 6 lbs
    • Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
      • Tests for abnormality
        • Ultrasound sonography
        • Fetal MRI : better than ultrasound
        • Chorionic villus sampling : samples placenta
        • Amniocentesis : samples amniotic fluid
        • Maternal blood screening (triple screen test)
        • Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) : tests fetal cells (DNA) in mother’s blood
    • Hazards to Prenatal Development
      • Teratogens
        • Agents causing birth defects
        • Severity of damage affected by
          • Dose
          • Genetic susceptibility
          • Time of exposure
        • Prescription, nonprescription drugs
    • Hazards to Prenatal Development
      • Teratogens
        • Psychoactive drugs
          • Caffeine, cocaine, methamphetamines, marijuana, and heroin
          • Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
          • Nicotine’s link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight
            • Paternal smoking during pregnancy
    • Fig. 2.12 Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development
    • Hazards to Prenatal Development
      • Other prenatal factors
        • Incompatible blood types ( Rh factor )
        • Maternal diseases
          • STDs, HIV and AIDS; Rubella measles
        • Diet and nutrition (vitamins, folic acid); weight
          • Toxins in foods, mercury in fish
        • Maternal age, emotional states, and stress
        • Environmental hazards (toxins, waste)
    • Prenatal Care
      • Prenatal care varies around the world
        • Quality of medical care visits, education
        • Low-birth weight and infant mortality rates
        • Outside the United States: free/low cost prenatal care, liberal maternity leave
        • Impact of cultural/ethnic beliefs about pregnancy
    • Birth
      • Birth process
        • Stages of birth
          • Labor occurs in three stages:
            • Uterine contractions
            • Baby’s head begins to enter birth canal
            • Afterbirth (shortest stage)
        • Birth attendants vary across cultures
          • Midwifery
          • Doula
    • Birth
      • Methods of childbirth
        • Natural childbirth : reduce maternal pain through education (breathing, relaxation techniques)
        • Prepared childbirth : Lamaze method
        • Nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain
          • Waterbirth
          • Massage, acupuncture, hypnosis
          • Music therapy
    • Birth
      • Methods of childbirth
        • Cesarean delivery (surgical procedure)
          • Breech position birth
          • Benefits and risks continue being debated
      • From fetus to newborn
        • Vernix caseosa (protective skin grease at birth)
        • Baby must withstand stress of birth
    • Birth
      • Assessing the newborn
        • Apgar Scale : heart, reflexes, and color
        • Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS)
          • A sensitive index of neurological competence
        • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)
          • Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities
    • Fig. 2.14 The Apgar Scale
    • Birth
      • Low birth weight and preterm infants
        • Low birth weight: less than 5 ½ lbs at birth
          • Very low: less than 3 lbs at birth
          • Extremely low: under 2 lbs at birth
        • Preterm: born in 35 weeks or less after conception
        • Small for date ( small for gestational age infants )
          • Birth weight below normal for gestational age
    • Birth
      • Low birth weight
        • Incidences
          • Not all preterm babies are low birth weight
          • High rates in developing countries from poverty
          • Rates increasing in the United States in last two decades
          • Lowest rates in Nordic countries
    • Birth
      • Low birth weight
        • Causes
          • Poor maternal health and nutrition
            • Maternal diseases and infections
          • Cigarette smoking is leading cause
          • Weekly hormone injections can lower rates
        • Consequences
          • Learning difficulties, more behavioral problems
    • Birth
      • Nurturing preterm infants
        • Intensive enrichment (medical, educational)
        • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) interventions
          • Kangaroo care: skin-to-skin contact
            • Stabilizes bodily functions (ie: breathing)
            • Better sleep, weight gain, more alertness
          • Massage therapy
    • Birth
      • Bonding
        • Special part of parent-infant relationship
        • Needs to occur shortly after birth
        • Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital
        • Rooming-in arrangements offered
        • Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development
    • The End