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  • 1. A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT John W. Santrock Chapter Two: Biological Beginnings
  • 2. The Evolutionary Perspective
    • Natural selection
      • Evolutionary process where the best adapted individuals in a species survive and reproduce
    • Natural selection and adaptive behavior
      • Darwin: On the Origin of Species (1859)
      • All organisms must adapt in life
  • 3. The Evolutionary Perspective
    • Evolutionary psychology
      • Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior
      • Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors
  • 4. The Evolutionary Perspective
    • Evolutionary developmental psychology
      • Explaining humans and their behavior
        • Larger brains and more complex societies
        • Takes longest of all mammals to mature
        • Some evolved mechanisms of adaptation not compatible with modern society
  • 5. The Evolutionary Perspective
    • Evolution and life-span development
      • Natural selection
        • Benefits decrease with age
        • Failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptive characteristics
        • As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase
        • Alternative: bi-directional view
  • 6. Fig. 2.2 Baltes’ View of Evolution and Culture Across the Life Span
  • 7. Genetic Foundations of Development
    • The collaborative gene
      • Nucleus of a human cell:
        • Chromosomes — thread-like structures
        • DNA — double helix-shaped molecule
        • Genes — units of hereditary information
    • Human Genome Project
      • 20,500 genes in humans
      • Genetic expression and inherited traits
  • 8. Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Fig. 2.3 Nucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genes Chromosomes are threadlike structures composed of DNA molecules Gene : a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the hereditary code
  • 9. Genetic Foundations of Development
    • Genes and chromosomes
      • Mitosis — cell nucleus duplicates
      • Meiosis — cell division forms gametes
      • Fertilization — egg and sperm form zygote
      • Genetic variability in the population
      • X and Y chromosomes determine sex
  • 10. Genetic Foundations of Development
    • Genes and chromosomes
      • Sources of variability
        • Each zygote is unique
          • Identical and fraternal twins
          • Muted genes due to environmental agent
          • Genotype: all of one’s genetic makeup
          • Phenotype: observable characteristics
  • 11. Genetic Foundations of Development
    • Genetic principles
      • Dominant and recessive genes
        • Sex-linked genes
          • X-linked inheritance for males and female
        • Genetic imprinting
          • Imprinted gene dominates
        • Poly-genetically determined characteristics
          • Many genes interact to influence a trait
  • 12. b b B b B b B B b B Blond hair Brown hair How brown-haired parents can have a blond-haired child: the gene for blond hair is recessive Mother B b Father B b
  • 13. Genetic Foundations of Development
    • Chromosomal and gene-linked abnormalities
      • Down syndrome: 2 copies of chromosome 21
      • Sex-linked abnormalities
        • Klinefelter syndrome: XXY instead of XY
        • Fragile X syndrome: X in boys is fragile, breaks
        • Turner syndrome: girl is XO instead of XX
        • XYY syndrome: link to criminal males unproven
  • 14. Genetic Foundations of Development
    • Chromosomal and gene-linked abnormalities
      • Gene-linked abnormalities
        • Phenylketonuria (PKU) – treated by diet
        • Sickle-cell anemia – red blood cells affected
        • Cystic fibrosis, diabetes, hemophilia, spina bifida, Tay-sachs and Huntington diseases
        • Can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events
  • 15. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
    • Behavior genetics
      • Studies genetic impact on traits and development
      • Tests for genetic/environmental influences
        • Twin studies
          • Shared and nonshared factors
        • Adoption studies
          • Effects of biological and adoptive parents
  • 16. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
    • Heredity-environment correlations
      • Passive genotype-environment
        • Parents provide/guide child’s interests
      • Evocative genotype-environment
        • Some traits elicit more adult responses
      • Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment
        • Child seeks/selects favorable environments
  • 17. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
    • Heredity-environment correlations
      • Heredity directs environmental experiences
      • In infancy, environment mostly parent-controlled
      • As child ages, experiences extend beyond family
      • Some environments can mute or strengthen genetic traits
      • Critics: heredity gets too much credit
  • 18. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate
    • Epigenetic view
      • Development is ongoing
      • Bi-directional interchange of heredity/environment
      • Infancy
        • Positive and negative environmental experiences can modify genetic activity
  • 19. The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views Fig. 2.9
  • 20. Prenatal Development
    • Course of prenatal development
      • Germinal period: creation of fertilized egg
      • Embryonic period: cell differentiation of embryo
        • Endoderm – digestive/respiratory systems
        • Ectoderm – nervous system, sensory receptors
        • Mesoderm – circulatory, bones, muscles, excretory and reproductive systems
        • Organagenesis : organ formation
  • 21. Prenatal Development
    • Course of prenatal development
      • Fetal period: lasts for 7 months, 3 trimesters
      • Brain:
        • 100 billion neurons (nerve cells)
        • Neural tube formed from ectoderm
          • Birth defects can cause death, retardation
        • Neurogenesis – new cells formed
        • Neuronal migration – cell specialization
  • 22. The Three Trimesters of Prenatal Development Fig. 2.10 First trimester 0-4 weeks Less than 1/10th of inch long 8 weeks Less than 1 inch long 12 weeks 3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce Second trimester 16 weeks 5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces 20 weeks 10-12 inches, wt: ½ -1 lbs 24 weeks 11-14 inches, wt: 1-1½ lbs Third trimester 28 weeks 14-17 inches, wt: 2½ -3 lbs 32 weeks 16½ -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs 36-38 weeks 19 inches, wt: 6 lbs
  • 23. Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
    • Tests for abnormality
      • Ultrasound sonography
      • Fetal MRI : better than ultrasound
      • Chorionic villus sampling : samples placenta
      • Amniocentesis : samples amniotic fluid
      • Maternal blood screening (triple screen test)
      • Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) : tests fetal cells (DNA) in mother’s blood
  • 24. Hazards to Prenatal Development
    • Teratogens
      • Agents causing birth defects
      • Severity of damage affected by
        • Dose
        • Genetic susceptibility
        • Time of exposure
      • Prescription, nonprescription drugs
  • 25. Hazards to Prenatal Development
    • Teratogens
      • Psychoactive drugs
        • Caffeine, cocaine, methamphetamines, marijuana, and heroin
        • Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
        • Nicotine’s link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight
          • Paternal smoking during pregnancy
  • 26. Fig. 2.12 Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development
  • 27. Hazards to Prenatal Development
    • Other prenatal factors
      • Incompatible blood types ( Rh factor )
      • Maternal diseases
        • STDs, HIV and AIDS; Rubella measles
      • Diet and nutrition (vitamins, folic acid); weight
        • Toxins in foods, mercury in fish
      • Maternal age, emotional states, and stress
      • Environmental hazards (toxins, waste)
  • 28. Prenatal Care
    • Prenatal care varies around the world
      • Quality of medical care visits, education
      • Low-birth weight and infant mortality rates
      • Outside the United States: free/low cost prenatal care, liberal maternity leave
      • Impact of cultural/ethnic beliefs about pregnancy
  • 29. Birth
    • Birth process
      • Stages of birth
        • Labor occurs in three stages:
          • Uterine contractions
          • Baby’s head begins to enter birth canal
          • Afterbirth (shortest stage)
      • Birth attendants vary across cultures
        • Midwifery
        • Doula
  • 30. Birth
    • Methods of childbirth
      • Natural childbirth : reduce maternal pain through education (breathing, relaxation techniques)
      • Prepared childbirth : Lamaze method
      • Nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain
        • Waterbirth
        • Massage, acupuncture, hypnosis
        • Music therapy
  • 31. Birth
    • Methods of childbirth
      • Cesarean delivery (surgical procedure)
        • Breech position birth
        • Benefits and risks continue being debated
    • From fetus to newborn
      • Vernix caseosa (protective skin grease at birth)
      • Baby must withstand stress of birth
  • 32. Birth
    • Assessing the newborn
      • Apgar Scale : heart, reflexes, and color
      • Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS)
        • A sensitive index of neurological competence
      • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)
        • Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities
  • 33. Fig. 2.14 The Apgar Scale
  • 34. Birth
    • Low birth weight and preterm infants
      • Low birth weight: less than 5 ½ lbs at birth
        • Very low: less than 3 lbs at birth
        • Extremely low: under 2 lbs at birth
      • Preterm: born in 35 weeks or less after conception
      • Small for date ( small for gestational age infants )
        • Birth weight below normal for gestational age
  • 35. Birth
    • Low birth weight
      • Incidences
        • Not all preterm babies are low birth weight
        • High rates in developing countries from poverty
        • Rates increasing in the United States in last two decades
        • Lowest rates in Nordic countries
  • 36. Birth
    • Low birth weight
      • Causes
        • Poor maternal health and nutrition
          • Maternal diseases and infections
        • Cigarette smoking is leading cause
        • Weekly hormone injections can lower rates
      • Consequences
        • Learning difficulties, more behavioral problems
  • 37. Birth
    • Nurturing preterm infants
      • Intensive enrichment (medical, educational)
      • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) interventions
        • Kangaroo care: skin-to-skin contact
          • Stabilizes bodily functions (ie: breathing)
          • Better sleep, weight gain, more alertness
        • Massage therapy
  • 38. Birth
    • Bonding
      • Special part of parent-infant relationship
      • Needs to occur shortly after birth
      • Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital
      • Rooming-in arrangements offered
      • Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development
  • 39. The End