Chapter 10 OutlinePlease note that much of this information is quoted from the text. I. Exploring Emotion A.What are Emotions •Emotion is deﬁned as feeling, or affect that occurs when a person is engaged in an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being. •Emotions are inﬂuenced both by biological foundations and by a person’s experience. •Emotions serve important functions in our relationships. •Social relationships, in turn, provide the setting for the development of a rich variety of emotion. •Biological evolution has endowed human beings to be emotional, but embeddedness in relationships and culture with others provides diversity in emotional experiences. B.Regulation of Emotions •The ability to control one’s emotions is a key dimension of development. •Emotion regulation consists of effectively managing arousal to adapt and reach a goal. •In infancy and early childhood, regulation of emotion gradually shifts from external sources to self-initiated, internal sources. •Also, with increasing age, children are more likely to improve their use of cognitive strategies for regulating emotion, modulate their emotional arousal, become more adept at managing situations to minimize negative emotion, and choose effective ways to cope with stress. •There are wide variations in children’s ability to modulate their emotions. •Parents can play an important role in helping young children regulate their emotions. oEmotion-coaching parents monitor their children’s emotions, view their children’s negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labeling emotions, and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions. oEmotion-dismissing parents view their role as to deny, ignore, ore change negative emotions. C.Emotional Competence •The concept of emotional competence focuses on the adaptive nature of emotional experience. •Becoming emotionally competent involves developing a number of skills in social contexts. •Emotionally competent children are more effective in managing their emotions and display greater resiliency in the face of stressful circumstances. II.Development of Emotion A.Infancy 1. Early Emotions • Primary emotions: o Present in humans and animals o Appear in the ﬁrst six months after birth in humans o Include: surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust • Self-conscious emotions: o Require self-awareness that involves self-consciousness and a sense of “me” o Include jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt
o Occur for the ﬁrst time somewhere between 18 months and the third birthday • There is debate about how early in the infant and toddler years these emotions ﬁrst appear and what their sequence is.2. Emotional Expression and Social Relationships • Emotional expressions are involved in infants’ ﬁrst relationships. • Parent-infant interactions are described as reciprocal, or synchronous. • Cries and smiles are two emotional expressions that infants display when interacting with parents. These are babies’ ﬁrst forms of emotional communicating. a.Cries •Crying is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world. •Babies have at least three types of cries: o Basic cry – A rhythmic pattern that usually consists of a cry, followed by a briefer silence, then a shorter inspiratory whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry, then another brief rest before the next cry. o Anger cry – A variation of the basic cry in which more excess air is forced through the vocal cords. o Pain cry – A sudden, long initial cry followed by breath holding. •Most adults can determine whether an infant’s cries signify anger or pain. •Parents can distinguish the cries of their own baby better than those of another baby. b.Smiles •Two types of smiling can be distinguished in infants: oReﬂexive smile – A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. oSocial smile – A smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus. •The infant’s social smile can have a powerful impact on caregivers. •From two to six months after birth, infants’ social smiling increases, both in self-initiated smiles and in smiles in response to others’ smiles. •At six to 12 months, smiles that couple what is called the Duchenne marker and mouth opening occur in the midst of highly enjoyable interactions and play with parents. •In the second year, smiling continues to occur in interactions with parents and peers. Toddlers become increasingly aware of the social meaning of smiles. c.Fear •One of the baby’s earliest emotions is fear. •Infant fear is linked to guilt, empathy, and low aggression at 6 to 7 years of age. •The most frequent expression of an infant’s fear involves stranger anxiety, in which an infant shows a fear and wariness of strangers.
•Stranger anxiety appears around 6 months of age and increases until it peaks around the ﬁrst birthday. •Individual differences, social context, and characteristics of the stranger are all factors in stranger anxiety. •Infants express fear of being separated from their caregivers. Separation protest may result. •Separation protest appears around 7 to 8 months of age and peaks around 13 to 15 months of age. 3. Emotional Regulation and Coping • Infants gradually develop an ability to inhibit, or minimize, the intensity and duration of emotional reactions. • Early in infancy, infants depend upon others to assist them in soothing their emotions; however, later in infancy they are sometimes able to redirect their attention or distract themselves. • By 2 years of age, toddlers can use language to deﬁne their feeling states and the context that is upsetting them. • Contexts can inﬂuence emotional regulation. • Controversy still characterizes the question of whether or how parents should respond to an infant’s cries.B.Early Childhood – the young child’s growing awareness of self is linked to the ability to feel an expanding range of emotions. 1. Self-Conscious Emotions – these emotions become more common during the early childhood years. 2. Young Children’s Emotion Language and Understanding of Emotion – there is an increased ability to talk about their own and others’ emotions and an increased understanding of emotion in early childhood. a.When children are 4 to 5 years of age, children show an increased ability to reﬂect on emotions.C.Middle and Late Childhood – children show marked improvement in understanding and managing their emotions. 1. Developmental Changes in Emotion: • Improved emotional understanding • Marked improvements in the ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions • The use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings • An increased tendency to take into fuller account the events leading to emotional reactions • Development of a capacity for genuine empathy 2. Coping with Stress • An important aspect of children’s lives is learning how to cope with stress. • As children get older, they are able to more accurately appraise a stressful situation and determine how much control they have over it. • The ability to generate coping strategies improves with age. • The use of cognitive coping strategies improves with age. • Some recommendation for helping children cope with the stress of especially traumatic and devastating events include: o Reassure children of their safety and security o Allow children to retell events and be patient in listening to them o Encourage children to talk about any disturbing or confusing feelings
o Help children make sense of what happened o Protect children from re-exposure to frightening situations and reminders of the trauma D.Adolescence •Adolescence can be a time of emotional highs and lows. •The intensity of emotions may be out of proportion to the eliciting event. •Adolescents may struggle in appropriately expressing their emotions. •Adolescents may experience more negative emotions and moods than during childhood. •Adolescents’ emotional regulation and mood may play a pivotal role in their academic success. E.Adulthood and Aging •Adults adapt more effectively when they are emotionally intelligent. •Developmental changes in emotion continue through the adult years. •Older adults report better control of their emotions and fewer negative emotions than do younger adults. •Older adults experience more positive emotions and less negative emotions than younger adults. •Older adults are more inclined to use passive emotion self-regulation strategies than younger adults. •Older adults experience less intense emotions than younger adults. •Socioemotional selectivity theory states that older adults become more selective about their social networks. •Socioemotional selectivity theory also focuses on the types of goals that individuals are motivated to achieve. oMotivation for knowledge-related goals decrease across the adult years. oEmotion-related goals increase across the adult years. oPerception of time is one reason for these changes in goals.III.Temperament – an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding A.Describing and Classifying Temperament 1. Chess and Thomas’s Classiﬁcation a.An easy child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences. b.A difﬁcult child reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change. c.A slow-to-warm-up child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood. 2. Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition a.Another way of classifying temperament focuses on the differences between a shy, subdued, timid child and a sociable, extraverted, bold child. b.Kagan regards shyness with strangers as one feature of a broad temperament category called inhibition to the unfamiliar. c.Kagan has found that inhibition shows considerable stability from infancy through early childhood. 3. Rothbart and Bates’ Classiﬁcation a.Extraversion/surgency includes “positive anticipation, impulsivity, activity level, and sensation seeking” b.Negative affectivity includes “fear, frustration, sadness, and discomfort”
c.Effortful control (self-regulation) includes “attention focusing and shifting, inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity, and low-intensity pleasure” B.Biological Foundations and Experience 1. Biological Inﬂuences • Physiological characteristics have been linked with different temperaments. • Twin and adoption studies suggest that heredity has a moderate inﬂuence on differences in temperament within a group of people. 2. Developmental Connections • Some aspects of temperament (such as activity level) show continuity across time. • Some aspects of temperament (such as emotionality) show discontinuity across time. • There may be connections between certain aspects of temperament (such as emotionality and inhibition) and adult adjustment. 3. Developmental Contexts • Physiological and heredity factors likely are involved in continuity; however, experiences and context may shape how different characteristics develop. • Gender can be an important factor shaping the context that inﬂuences the fate of temperament. • Culture may be another factor that shapes reactions to an infant’s temperament. • In summary, many aspects of a child’s environment can encourage or discourage the persistence of temperament characteristics. C.Goodness of Fit and Parenting •Goodness of ﬁt refers to the match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with. 1. Applications in Life-Span Development: Parenting and the Child’s Temperament •Sanson & Rothbart propose the following parenting strategies to use in relation to children’s temperament: oAttention to and respect for individuality oStructuring the child’s environment oThe “difﬁcult child” and packaged parenting programsIV.Attachment and Love – Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. A.Infancy and Childhood 1. Social Orientation/Understanding a.Social Orientation oFrom early in their development, infants are captivated by the social world. oFace-to-face play often begins to characterize caregiver-infant interactions when the infant is about 2 to 3 months of age. oInfants respond differently to people than they do to objects, showing more positive emotion to people than inanimate objects, such as puppets. oThe still-face paradigm is a method used to study infant reaction to caregiver behavior. oInfants also learn about the social world through contexts other than face-to-face play with a caregiver, such as peer interaction.
oPeer interaction and play improves considerably between 18 months and 24 months. b.Locomotion oAs infants develop the ability to crawl, walk, and run, they are able to explore and expand their social world. oOnce infants have the ability to move in goal-directed pursuits, the reward from these pursuits leads to further efforts to explore and develop skills. c.Intention, Goal-Directed Behavior, and Cooperation oPerceiving people as engaging in intentional and goal-directed behavior is an important social cognitive accomplishment, and this initially occurs toward the end of the ﬁrst year. oCooperation is dependent upon children connecting their own intentions with peer intentions and using this understanding in interacting with peers to reach a goal. d.Social Referencing oSocial referencing is the term used to describe “reading” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a speciﬁc situation. e.Infants’ Social Sophistication and Insight oResearchers are discovering that infants are more socially sophisticated and insightful at younger ages than previously envisioned. oThis social sophistication and insight is observable in their perceptions of others’ actions as intentionally motivated and goal-directed and their motivation to share and participate in that intentionality by their ﬁrst birthday.2. What is Attachment? •Freud theorized that infants become attached to the person or object that provides oral satisfaction. Harlow’s classic study rebuked this idea. •Harlow’s class monkey study clearly demonstrated that feeding is not the crucial element in the attachment process and that contact comfort is important. •Erikson theorized that physical comfort and sensitive care are key to establishing a basic trust in infants. This trust is the foundation for attachment and sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to be. •Bowlby stresses the importance of attachment in the ﬁrst year of life and the responsiveness of the caregiver. He stresses that both infants and its primary caregivers are biologically predisposed to form attachments. •Following are four phases of attachment development based on Bowlby’s conceptualization: oPhase 1 (from birth to 2 months): Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human ﬁgures. oPhase 2 (2 to 7 months): Attachment becomes focused on one ﬁgure, usually the primary caregiver, as the baby gradually learns to distinguish familiar form unfamiliar people. oPhase 3 (7 to 24 months): Speciﬁc attachments develop. With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father.
oPhase 4 (24 months +): Children become aware of others’ feelings, goals, and plans and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions. •Recent research suggests that some of the characteristics of Bowlby’s phase 4, such as understanding the goals and intentions of the attachment ﬁgure, appear to be developing in phase 3 as attachment security is taking shape. •Bowlby argued that infants develop an internal working model of attachment, a simple mental model of the caregiver, their relationship, and the self as deserving of nurturant care. •This internal working model inﬂuences future relationships, emotion understanding, conscious development, and self-concept.3. Individual Differences in Attachment • Ainsworth devised the Strange Situation as an observation measure of infant attachment. • In using the Strange Situation, researchers hope that their observations will provide information about the infant’s motivation to be near the caregiver and the degree to which the caregiver’s presence provides the infant with security and conﬁdence. • Based on how babies respond in the Strange Situation, they are described as being securely attached or insecurely attached (in one of three ways) to the caregiver. a.Securely attached babies use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment. b.Insecure avoidant babies show insecurity by avoiding the mother. c.Insecure resistant babies often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by ﬁghting against the closeness. d.Insecure disorganized babies are disorganized and disoriented.4. Evaluating the Strange Situation • The Strange Situation may be culturally biased. • Some critics stress that behavior in the Strange Situation might not indicate what infants do in a natural environment. However, research does not seem to support this criticism.5. Interpreting Differences in Attachment • Secure attachment in infancy provides an important foundation for psychological development later in life. • Early secure attachment is linked with positive outcomes during childhood and adolescence, although not all studies have found such continuity. • Attachment and subsequent experiences, especially maternal care and life stresses, interact to inﬂuence children’s later behavior and adjustment. • Some developmentalists feel that too much emphasis has been placed on the attachment bond in infancy. • Another criticism of attachment theory is that it ignores the diversity of socializing agents and contexts that exist in an infant’s world. • Despite such criticisms, there is ample evidence that security of attachment is important to development.6. Caregiving Styles and Attachment • Securely attached infants have caregivers who are sensitive to their signals and are consistently available to respond to their infants’ needs. • Avoidant babies tend to have unavailable or rejecting parents.
• Resistant babies tend to have inconsistent parents. • Disorganized babies often have parents that are neglectful or physically abusive.7. Mothers and Fathers as Caregivers • An increasing number of U.S. fathers stay home full-time with their children. • Observations of fathers and their infants suggest that fathers have the ability to act as sensitively and responsively as mothers with their infants, although many do not choose to follow this pattern. • Maternal interactions with their baby usually center on child-care activities. • Paternal interactions with their baby are more likely to include play. • There are also gender differences in style of play.8. Childcare • Many children today do not have a parent staying home to care for them; instead, the children have some type of care provided by others – “child care.” a.Parental Leave o About 2 million children in the U.S. currently receive formal, licensed child care, and uncounted millions of children are cared for by unlicensed baby-sitters.9. Contexts of Life-Span Development: Child-Care Policies Around the World o Child care policies around the world vary in eligibility criteria, leave duration, beneﬁt level, and the extent to which parents take advantage of the policies. o There are ﬁve types of parental leave from employment: • Maternity leave • Paternity leave • Parental leave • Child-rearing leave • Family leave o Most countries restrict eligible beneﬁts to women employed for a minimum time prior to child birth. • Variations in Child Care o Because the U.S. does not have a policy of paid leave for child care, childcare has become a major national concern. o The type of child care varies extensively. o The quality of child care varies widely. o Children are more likely to experience poor-quality child care if they come from families with few resources (psychological, social, and economic). • The NICHD initiated a longitudinal study of child care in the U.S. in 1991. Some of their ﬁndings are: o Patterns of use: Many families placed their infants in child care very soon after the child’s birth, and there was considerable instability in the child care arrangements. By 4 months of age, nearly 75% of the infants had entered some form of nonmaternal child care. o Quality of care: Only 12% of the children studied experienced positive nonparental child care.
o Amount of child care: The longer children spend in child care, the less optimal their outcomes. o Family and parenting inﬂuences: The inﬂuence of families and parenting was not weakened by extensive child care. • McCartney offers the following advice to parents in regard to child care: o Recognize that the quality of your parenting is a key factor in your child’s development. o Make decisions that will improve the likelihood you will be good parents. o Monitor your child’s development. o Take some time to ﬁnd the best child care.B.Adolescence 1. Attachment to Parents – secure attachment to parents in adolescence is linked to many positive outcomes; including, emotional adjustment, physical health, successful autonomy, good peer relations, and less depression and delinquency. a.Dismissing-avoidant attachment is an insecure category in which adolescents deemphasize the importance of attachment. It is linked with violent and aggressive behavior in some adolescents. b.Preoccupied-ambivalent attachment is an insecure category in which adolescents are hyper-tuned to attachment experiences. There may be high levels of parental conﬂict hindering optimal development. c.Unresolved-disorganized attachment is an insecure category in which the adolescent has an unusually high level of fear and is often disoriented. 2. Dating and Romantic Relationships • Dating and romantic relationships can lead to attachment. • Functions of dating include recreation, a source of status and achievement, a setting for learning about close relationships, and mate selection. a.Types of Dating and Developmental Changes oMixed-gender group provide a safe setting for young adolescents to begin exploring relationships with the opposite sex. b.Dating and Adjustment oTeens who date are often more accepted by peers and perceived as more attractive. oDating is linked to a number of problems in adolescence: oMore externalized problems (such as delinquency) oMore substance use oMore genital sexual behavior oDepression in females oIncreased co-rumination (predictive of symptoms of depression) oPregnancy oProblems at home and school c.Sociocultural Contexts of Dating oThe sociocultural context exerts a powerful inﬂuence on adolescents’ dating patterns. oDating may be a source of cultural conﬂict for many adolescents whose families come from cultures in which dating begins at a late age with little freedom, especially for adolescent girls.C.Adulthood
1. Attachment o Although relationships with romantic partners differ from those with parents, romantic partners fulﬁll some of the same needs for adults as parents do for their children. o Secure attachment to parents in childhood is predictive of secure attachment in adult relationships; however, stressful and disruptive experiences can lessen this link. a.Secure attachment style – Security attached adults have positive views of relationships, ﬁnd it easy to get close to others, and are not overly concerned with their romantic relationships. b.Avoidant attachment style – Avoidant individuals are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships and once in a relationship tend to be distant. c.Anxious attachment style – These individuals demand closeness, are less trusting, and are more emotional, jealous, and possessive. o Secure attachment in adulthood is linked with many positive outcomes such as longevity, providing support to those in distress, resiliency, mindfulness, emotional control, and experiencing trust and commitment in relationships. o Insecure attachment in adulthood is linked with some suboptimal outcomes, such as unwanted (yet consensual) sex and relationship problems. o Attachment categories are somewhat stable in adulthood, but adults do have the capacity to change their attachment thinking and behavior.2. Romantic Love o Romantic love is also called passionate love, or eros. o It has strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and it often predominates in the early part of a love relationship. o Romantic love includes a complex intermingling of emotions – fear, anger, sexual desire, joy, and jealousy.3. Affectional Love o Affectionate love, also called companionate love, is the type of love that occurs when individuals desire to have the other person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person. o Passion and sexual intimacy are more important to young adults than older adults. o Affection and loyalty are more important to older adults. o At all ages, emotional security is ranked as the most important factor in love.4. Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love o The triangular theory of love states that love has three main dimensions: passion, intimacy, and commitment. o Infatuation occurs when there is only passion. o Affectionate love is when intimacy and commitment are strong, but passion is lacking. o Fatuous love occurs when there is passion and commitment, but no intimacy. o If passion, intimacy, and commitment are all strong, the result is consummate love, the fullest type of love.5. Falling Out of Love o Falling out of love may be painful, yet, beneﬁcial if the relationship was harmful.
o Being in love when the feelings are not returned can lead to many negative feelings.o Some people get taken advantage of in relationships. a.Research in Life-Span Development: Personal Growth Following a Romantic Relationship Breakup oSometimes, personal growth can follow the breakup of a romantic relationship. oGrowth can occur in various domains; including, personal, relational, and environmental. oWomen report more positive growth than men.