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Transcript

  • 1. Slide A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Ten:Emotional Development John W. Santrock © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 1 reserved.
  • 2. Slide Exploring Emotion• What are emotions? – Feeling or affect in a state or interaction characterized by • Behavior that reflects pleasure or displeasure • Conscious feelings: specific, intense • Physiological arousal © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 2 reserved.
  • 3. Slide Exploring Emotion• What are emotions? – Biological roots…but shaped by culture and relationships – Facial expressions of basic emotions • Biological nature; same across cultures – When, where, and how to express emotions are not culturally universal © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 3 reserved.
  • 4. Slide Exploring Emotion• Regulation of emotion – A key dimension of development • Effectively managing arousal to adapt and reach a goal – Involves state of alertness or activation – States (e.g. anger) can be too high for effective functioning © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 4 reserved.
  • 5. Slide Exploring Emotion• Regulation of emotion – External sources regulate in infancy, childhood – Shift to internal, self-initiated regulation with increasing age • Better at managing situations • Selects more effective ways of coping – Wide variations in children’s abilities; adolescents have difficulty managing emotions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 5 reserved.
  • 6. Slide Exploring Emotion• Regulation of emotion – Parents’ roles in helping children • Emotion-coaching approach – Monitor child’s emotions – Negative emotion is a coaching opportunity • Emotion-dismissing approach – Deny, ignore negative emotions – Linked to poor emotional regulation in child © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 6 reserved.
  • 7. Slide Emotional Competence Skills– Has awareness of own emotional state– Detecting others’ emotions– Using the vocabulary of emotional terms in socially and culturally appropriate terms– Having empathic, sympathetic sensitivity to others– Recognizing inner emotions do not reflect outer ones– Adaptively coping with negatives; self-regulatory– Aware of emotions’ major impact on relationships– Seeing oneself as feeling the way one wants to feel © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 7 reserved.
  • 8. Slide Development of Emotion• Infancy – Primary emotions • Present in humans and animals • Humans: appears in first six months of life: surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust – Self-conscious emotions • Self-awareness; emerges at 18 mos. or earlier • Empathy, jealousy, and embarrassment © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 8 reserved.
  • 9. Slide Development of Emotion• Emotional expression and social relationships – Infants: two types • Crying – most important for communication – Basic cry: rhythmic pattern – Anger cry: variation of basic cry – Pain cry: long, sudden initial loud cry • Smiling: has powerful impact on caregivers – Reflexive smile: innate origins – Social smile: response to external stimuli © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights 9 reserved.
  • 10. Slide Development of Emotion• Emotional expression and social relationships – Fear: first appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos. • Stranger anxiety: fear and wariness of strangers; intense between 9 and 12 mos. – Affected by social context, stranger’s characteristics – Individual variations • Separation protest — crying when caregiver leaves; peaks about 15 months of age © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights10 reserved.
  • 11. Slide Separation Protest in Four CulturesFig. 10.4 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights11 reserved.
  • 12. Slide Development of Emotion• Emotional regulation and coping – Infants use self-soothing strategies for coping • Controversy: how caregivers should respond – By age 2: language allows defining of emotions – Contexts influence emotional regulation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights12 reserved.
  • 13. Slide Development of Emotion• Early childhood – Young children experience many emotions – Self-conscious emotions • Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt • First appear about age 18 months • Ability to reflect on emotions increases with age © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights13 reserved.
  • 14. Slide Development of Emotion• Early childhood – Ages 2 to 4: increased number of ways and terms to describe emotions – Learn about causes, consequences of feelings – Ages 4 to 5: increased ability to reflect on emotions• Middle and late childhood – Marked improvement in understanding, managing emotions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights14 reserved.
  • 15. Slide Developmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late ChildhoodImproved emotional understandingMarked improvements in ability to suppress or concealnegative emotional reactionsUse of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelingsIncreased tendency to take into fuller account theevents leading to emotional reactionsDevelopment of a capacity for genuine empathy © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights15 reserved.
  • 16. Slide Development of Emotion• Coping with stress – Older children have more coping alternatives and use more cognitive coping strategies • Intentional shifting of thoughts • By age 10, most use cognitive strategies • Unsupportive families, traumatic events may lessen abilities © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights16 reserved.
  • 17. Slide Development of Emotion• Middle and late childhood – Recommendations for helping children cope • Reassure children of safety and security • Allow retelling and discussion of events • Encourage discussion of feelings • Help children make sense of events © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights17 reserved.
  • 18. Slide Development of Emotion• Adolescence – Time of emotional turmoil (“storm and stress”) but not constantly – Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation • Girls more vulnerable to depression • Adolescent moodiness is normal • Hormonal changes and environmental experiences involved in changing emotions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights18 reserved.
  • 19. Slide Self-Reported Extremes of Emotions by Adolescents and Their ParentsFig. 10.5 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights19 reserved.
  • 20. Slide Development of Emotion• Adulthood and aging – Adapt more effectively when emotionally intelligent – Developmental changes in emotion continue through adult years – Older adults have more positive emotions, report better control of emotions • Feelings mellow; fewer highs and lows • Positive connections with friends and family © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights20 reserved.
  • 21. Slide Changes in Positive & Negative Emotion Across the Adult YearsFig. 10.6 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights21 reserved.
  • 22. Slide Development of Emotion• Adulthood and aging – Socioemotional Selectivity Theory • Older adults become more selective about their social networks • Emotional satisfaction is highly valued, positive emotional experiences maximized • More frequent association with neighbors • More motivated to achieve; gain knowledge © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights22 reserved.
  • 23. Slide Model of Socio-emotional SelectivityFig. 10.7 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights23 reserved.
  • 24. Slide Temperament• Temperament – Tendencies reflecting behavioral style and characteristic way of responding• Describing and classifying temperament – Chess and Thomas: three basic types • Easy child — generally positive mood • Difficult child — negative reactions, cries often • Slow-to-warm — low intensity mood and activity levels; somewhat negative © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights24 reserved.
  • 25. Slide Temperament• Describing and classifying temperament – Kagan’s behavioral inhibition • Inhibition to unfamiliar – Shy/avoidance, subdued, timid child • Extremely uninhibited – Extraverted, social, bold child • Inhibition shows considerable stability from infancy through early childhood © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights25 reserved.
  • 26. Slide Temperament• Describing and classifying temperament – Rothbart and Bates’ Classification • Extraversion/surgency – Positive anticipation, impulsivity • Negative affectivity – Easily distressed, fear and frustration often • Effortful control (self-regulation) – Attentional focusing, more cognition used © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights26 reserved.
  • 27. Slide Temperament• Biological Foundations and Experience – Physiological characteristics are associated with different temperaments – Heredity is aspect of temperament’s biological foundations (twin and adoption studies) – Attributes become more stable over time as self- perceptions, behavioral preferences, and social experiences form personality © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights27 reserved.
  • 28. Slide Developmental Connections Child AdultEasy temperament Usually well adjusted in life Poor adjustment, more likelyDifficult temperament to have problems socially, in school and marriageInhibition Low assertiveness, less social support, job and school delaysGood emotional control Good emotional control © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights28 reserved.
  • 29. Slide Temperament• Developmental contexts – Gender may be important factor that influences fate of temperament – Many aspects of child’s environment encourage or discourage persistence of temperament characteristics – Goodness of Fit • Match between child’s temperament and environmental demands © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights29 reserved.
  • 30. Slide Temperament• Goodness of fit and parenting – Some temperament characteristics pose more challenges than others – Management strategies that worked for one child may not work for next one • Be sensitive to individual characteristics of child • Structure environment to be as good a fit as possible • Avoid labeling as “difficult child” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights30 reserved.
  • 31. Slide Attachment and Love• Attachment – Close emotional bond between two people• Social orientation in infants – Face-to-face play: infant-caregiver interactions – Still-face paradigm: shows infants react differently to people than objects – Ages 1 to 2: more locomotion, social play with peers, independence, goal-directed motivation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights31 reserved.
  • 32. Slide Attachment and Love• Social referencing – Child reads emotional cues in others, reacts – By second year of age: much better at this – Social sophistication and insight reflected in infant’s perceptions of others – Advanced social cognitive skills are expected to influence attachment awareness © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights32 reserved.
  • 33. Slide Attachment and Love• Theories of attachment – Freud: infants attach to person or object providing oral satisfaction • Harlow’s study proved otherwise – Erikson: first year of life is critical time for attachment development • Sense of trust or mistrust sets later expectations • Physical comfort plays a role in development © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights33 reserved.
  • 34. Slide Attachment and Love• Theories of attachment – Bowlby: stresses importance of attachment in first year and responsiveness of caregiver • Develops in series of phases – Phase 1: birth to 2 months – Phase 2: 2 to 7 months of age – Phase 3: 7 to 24 months of age – Phase 4: 24 months and older © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights34 reserved.
  • 35. Slide Attachment and Love• Individual differences in attachment – Ainsworth and the “strange situation” • Measure of infant attachment to caregiver • Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions – Securely attached or insecure • Criticisms: – May not reflect real world behavior – Culturally-biased to Western children © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights35 reserved.
  • 36. Slide Ainsworth’s Attachment Categories Securely attached Caregiver is secure base to explore environment from Insecure avoidant Shows insecurity by avoiding caregiver Insecure resistant Clings to caregiver, then resists by fighting against the closenessInsecure disorganized Shows insecurity by being disorganized, disoriented © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights36 reserved.
  • 37. Slide Cross-Cultural Comparison of AttachmentFig. 10.11 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights37 reserved.
  • 38. Slide Attachment and Love• Interpreting differences in attachment – Secure attachment important in first year; provides foundation for healthy development – Some developmentalists believe too much emphasis on attachment bond in infancy • Ignores the diversity of socializing agents and contexts that exists in an infant’s world • Ignores highly resilient and adaptive infants © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights38 reserved.
  • 39. Slide Caregiving Styles and AttachmentBaby’s Attachment Caregiver Behavior Secure Sensitive to signals, available Avoidant Unavailable or rejecting Resistant Inconsistent Disorganized Neglect or physically abuse © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights39 reserved.
  • 40. Slide Attachment and Love• Mothers and fathers as caregivers – Dramatic increase in stay-at-home fathers • Many have career-focused wives • Fathers have ability to nurture, be as sensitive and responsive as mothers – Maternal interactions: mostly child-care centered – Paternal interactions: more likely to include play, engage in rough-and-tumble acts © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights40 reserved.
  • 41. Slide Attachment and Love• Child care – Most U.S. children have multiple caregivers • Parental concerns: reduced emotional attachment to parents, harm to cognitive development, improper socialization – About 2 million children currently receive formal, licensed child care • Types of child care vary extensively in United States © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights41 reserved.
  • 42. Slide Attachment and Love• Parental leave – Far more extensive in other countries than United States – Europe led the way: paid fourteen-week maternity leave • Most countries: restrictions as to minimal employment period before leave taken – In the United States: twelve weeks unpaid leave to care for newborns © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights42 reserved.
  • 43. Slide Attachment and Love• Parental leave – In most European countries: • Working parents get 70% or more of wages and paid leave averages 16 weeks • Gender-equality family leave policies in Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) • Sweden: most liberal of all — 18 month leave with benefits for full and part-time workers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights43 reserved.
  • 44. Slide Attachment and Love• Five types of parental leave from work – Maternity leave: before and after birth – Paternity leave: more important if second child born – Parental leave: allows either parent – Child-rearing leave: supplements maternity leave but typically paid at much lower level – Family leave: covers reasons other than birth• United States does not have paid leave policy © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights44 reserved.
  • 45. Slide Attachment and Love• Variations in child care – Many factors affect child care: • Age of child • Type of child care • Quality of program — this makes a difference • Number of hours per week the child is in care – High quality may not erase negative effects • SES or families with few resources © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights45 reserved.
  • 46. Slide Attachment and Love• Variations in child care – Ongoing national study in U.S. (NICHD) • Patterns of use: infants being placed sooner • Quality of care: lower for low-income families • Amount of child care: extensive time lessened attachment sensitivity to mother, more behavioral issues • Family and parenting influences are important © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights46 reserved.
  • 47. Slide Attachment and Love• Variations in child care – Child care strategies for parents • Quality of parenting is key to child development • Make decisions that enhance good parenting • Monitor child’s development • Take time to find the best child care © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights47 reserved.
  • 48. Slide Attachment and Love• Adolescence – Secure attachment to both parents positively related to peer and friendship relations – Types of attachment to parents • Dismissing/avoidant: caregiver rejection • Preoccupied/ambivalent: inconsistent parenting • Unresolved/disorganized: high fear due to traumatic experiences © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights48 reserved.
  • 49. Slide Attachment and Love• Adolescence – Dating and romantic relationships • Spend lots of time dating or thinking about it – Form of recreation – Source of status or achievement – A way to learn about close relationships – Function for mate selection © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights49 reserved.
  • 50. Slide Attachment and Love• Adolescence – Dating and romantic relationships • Younger adolescents getting involved • Comfort in numbers; youth “hang out” in groups – More time in mixed-gender peer groups • Dating involvement linked to later adjustment • Sociocultural contexts influences dating and role expectations © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights50 reserved.
  • 51. Slide Attachment and Love• Adulthood and attachment – Adults count on romantic partners to be a secure base to which they can return and obtain comfort, security in stressful times • Childhood attachment patterns can impact here – Influences choices and behaviors • Secure, avoidant, anxious attachments • Other factors like communication can impact © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights51 reserved.
  • 52. Slide Attachment and Love• Adulthood and romantic love – Also called passionate love or eros – Strong components of sexuality and infatuation – Complex intermingling of emotions – Often predominates early part of love relationship• Affectionate love or companionate love – Have deep, caring affection for person © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights52 reserved.
  • 53. Slide Attachment and Love• Adulthood – Sternberg’s triangular theory of love • Stresses three main components/dimensions – Passion: physical, sexual attraction – Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing – Commitment: intent to remain together • Varying combinations create qualitatively different types of love © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights53 reserved.
  • 54. Slide Sternberg’s Triangle of LoveFig. 10.15 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights54 reserved.
  • 55. Slide Attachment and Love• Adulthood – Falling out of love • Collapse of close relationship – Tragic feelings initially – Over time — happiness and personal development may benefit – One-sided relationships are harmful © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights55 reserved.
  • 56. SlideThe End © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights56 reserved.