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Santrock tls 5_ppt_ch09

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Transcript

  • 1. A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT
    • Chapter Nine:
    • Language Development
    John W. Santrock
  • 2. What is Language?
    • Defining language
      • Form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, based on system of symbols
        • Infinite generativity: ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
      • Genie, Wild Boy of Aveyron: raise questions about determinants of language
  • 3. Language’s Rule Systems Phonology Sound system of language; how the sounds are used, combined — phoneme : smallest unit of sound Morphology Morphemes : units of meaning in word formation Syntax Ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences Semantics Meanings of words and sentences Pragmatics Appropriate use of language in context; can be cery complex
  • 4. How Language Develops
    • Infancy
      • Babbling, gestures, and other vocalizations
        • Crying present at birth
        • Cooing: occurs at 2 to 4 months of age
        • Babbling: begins at about 6 months of age
        • Gestures: begin 8 to 12 months of age
  • 5. How Language Develops
    • Infants recognizing language sounds
      • “Citizens of the world”
      • Newborns recognize sound changes
      • Recognize own language sounds at 6 months
    • First words
      • Receptive exceeds spoken vocabulary
      • Timing of first word, vocabulary spurt varies
  • 6. How Language Develops
    • Infants recognizing language sounds
      • Asian child learns verbs earlier than child learning English
      • Referential and expressive styles
      • Overextension and underextension of words
      • Two-word utterances (18-24 months of age)
      • Telegraphic speech
  • 7. Variation in Language Milestones Fig. 9.3
  • 8. How Language Develops
    • Early childhood
      • Complex sentences at 2 to 3 years of age
      • Become more sensitive to language sounds; morphology rules, some overgeneralizations
      • Learn and apply syntax rules; auxillary-inversion rule takes longer
  • 9. How Language Develops
    • Early childhood
      • Vocabulary development is dramatic to age 6
      • Fast mapping
        • Many hypotheses why this occurs
          • Give novel labels to novel objects
          • Use of mutual exclusivity
          • Benefit from hearing mature speakers
  • 10. How Language Develops
    • SES is linked to language development
      • Welfare parents talk less to their children
        • Provide less elaboration
        • Talk less about past events
      • Maternal language and literacy skills positively related to child’s vocabulary; not talkativeness
        • Frequent pointing, gestures
        • Use of diverse vocabulary
  • 11. Language Input and Young Children’s Vocabulary Development Fig. 9.6
  • 12. Fig. 9.6 Language Input and Young Children’s Vocabulary Development
  • 13. How Language Develops
    • Advances in pragmatics
      • 6-year-old is better conversationalist
      • Young children start using extended discourse
        • Learn cultural rules, politeness, and become sensitive to adapting their speech to the setting
      • Age 4 to 5: can change speech style at will
        • More polite, formal when with adults
  • 14. How Language Develops
    • Middle and late childhood
      • New skills learned when entering school
        • Alphabetic principle
        • Learning diverse uses of language, sounds
      • Vocabulary and grammar
        • Process of categorizing becomes easier
        • From age 6 to 11 — 14,000 to 40,000 words
        • Improved logical reasoning, analytic skills
  • 15. How Language Develops
    • Middle and late childhood
      • Development of metalingusitic awareness
        • Knowledge about language; improves considerably during elementary school years
      • In adolescence: most know rules for appropriate language use
      • Child with large vocabulary learns to read easier
      • Vocabulary development linked to comprehension
  • 16. How Language Develops
    • Middle and late childhood
      • Whole language approach
        • Instruction to parallel child’s natural language
        • Learning; reading should be whole, meaningful
      • Basic-skills-and-phonics approach
        • Instruction should teach phonics and its basic rules
        • Reading should involve simplified materials
  • 17. How Language Develops
    • Middle and late childhood
      • Writing
        • 2- to 3-year-olds emerge from scribbling to begin printing letters
        • Most 4-year-olds can print their names; most 5-year-olds can reproduce letters, words
          • Reversed letters are normal
          • Adults should encourage early writing
  • 18. How Language Develops
    • Middle and late childhood
      • Years of practice needed for good writing
        • Linked to cognitive and language skills
      • Concerns about students’ writing competence
        • Grades 4 to 12: about 70% are low-achieving
        • High school grads: 50% not ready for college-level writing
        • Good writing results from good teaching efforts
  • 19. How Language Develops
    • Bilingualism and second language learning
      • Sensitive periods vary across different language systems
        • Native-like accent best learned before age 12
        • Adults learn faster than children, attainment not as high as children’s
        • U.S. students lag behind students in developed countries in learning a second language
        • United States: many miss out on benefits of bilingualism
  • 20. How Language Develops
    • Adolescence
      • Increased use and understanding of
        • Sophisticated words
        • Analysis and abstract thinking
        • Metaphors : implied comparison of unlike things
        • Satire : use of irony, derision, or wit to expose folly or wickedness
  • 21. How Language Develops
    • Adolescence
      • Much better at organizing ideas and writing
        • Dialect : variety of language distinguished by vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation
          • Adolescent dialect with peers often uses jargon or slang
          • Usually used to indicate group membership
  • 22. How Language Develops
    • Adulthood and aging
      • Distinct personal linguistic style is part of identity
      • Vocabulary often continues to increase throughout adult years until late adulthood
        • Most common complaint: retrieving words, hard to hear in less than ideal listening conditions
        • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
      • Non-language factors may be cause of decline in language skills in older adults
  • 23. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • Biological influences
      • Evolution and the brain’s role in language
        • Human language acquired 100,000 years ago
        • Specific brain regions predisposed to language
        • Wernicke’s area: in brain’s left hemisphere involved in language comprehension
  • 24. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • Biological influences
      • Broca’s area: in brain’s left frontal lobe involved in speech production
        • If damaged — fluent incomprehensible speech produced
      • Aphasia : language disorder resulting from
      • brain damage; loss of ability to use words
  • 25. Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas of the Brain Fig. 9.7
  • 26. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • Chomsky
      • Humans biologically prewired for language
      • Language acquisition device (LAD) : biological endowment to detect features, rules of language
      • Theoretical, not physical part of brain
      • Evidence of uniformity in language milestones across languages and cultures
  • 27. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • Environmental influences
      • Behavioral View
        • Language is reinforced chain of responses; a complex skill that is learned
      • Criticisms
        • Cannot explain creation of novel sentences
        • Children learn syntax of native language without reinforcement
      • No longer considered a viable explanation
  • 28. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • Environmental influences
      • Interaction view
        • Children interested in their social world
        • Child-directed speech : higher pitch for attention
        • Parents, older children modify their speech
        • Other strategies:
          • Recasting, Expanding, Labeling
  • 29. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • An interactionist view of language
      • Language has strong biological foundations
      • Acquisition influenced by experiences; enriched environments have more positive effect
      • Worldwide: language milestones reached about the same time
      • Children acquire native language without explicit teaching; some without encouragement
  • 30. Biological and Environmental Influences
    • An interactionist view of language
      • Bruner: stresses roles of parents and teachers help construct language acquisition support system ( LASS )
        • Sociocultural context is extremely important in understanding children’s language development
        • Resembles Vygotsky’s ZPD
  • 31. The End