Chapter 8 OutlinePlease note that much of this information is quoted from the text.I. THE CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENCE A. What Is Intelligence? 1. Intelligence is the ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from experiences. 2. This broad definition does not satisfy everyone. B. Intelligence tests 1. Binet and Weschler a. The Binet Tests •Binet devised a method to identify children who were unable to learn in school. •Mental age (MA) is an individual’s level of mental development relative to others. •Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a person’s mental age divided by chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100. If mental age is the same as chronological age, then the person’s IQ is 100. •Then newest version, The Stanford-Binet 5, has five content areas: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, and working memory. •By administering intelligence tests to many people of different ages from different backgrounds, researchers have found that the scores represent a normal distribution. A normal distribution is symmetrical, with most scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range. •The Stanford-Binet intelligence test continues to be one of the most widely used individual tests of intelligence. b. The Wechsler Scales •The Wechsler scales provide an overall IQ score and several composite scores in different areas of intelligence. •Patterns of strengths and weaknesses in different areas of the student’s intelligence can be examined. 2. The use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests • Psychological tests are tools and their effectiveness depends on the knowledge, skill, and integrity of the user. • Intelligence tests have real-world applications as predictors of school and job success. • The single number provided by many IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations about an individual. • Even though they have limitations, tests of intelligence are among psychology’s most widely used tools. 3. Theories of Multiple Intelligences a. The use of a single score to describe how people perform on intelligence tests suggests intelligence is a general ability. Not all psychologists agree. b. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of intelligence proposes three main types of intelligence: • Analytical intelligence involves the ability to analyze, evaluate, compare, and contrast. • Creative intelligence consists of the ability to create, design, invent,
originate, and imagine. • Practical intelligence focuses on the ability to use, apply, implement, and put into practice. c. Triarchic Theory in the Classroom • Students with different triarchic patterns look different in school. • Students with high analytic ability tend to do well in conventional schools. • Most tasks require some combination of the three types of intelligence. • Some argue that it is important for classroom instruction to give students opportunities to learn through all three types of intelligence. d. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Gardner thinks there are eight types of intelligence: • Verbal skills: the ability to think in words and to use language to express meaning. • Mathematical skills: the ability to carry out mathematical operations. • Spatial skills: the ability to think in three-dimensional ways. • Bodily-kinesthetic skills: the ability to manipulate objects and be physically skilled. • Musical skills: possessing sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. • Interpersonal skills: the ability to understand and effectively interact with others. • Intrapersonal skills: the ability to understand one’s self and effectively direct one’s life. • Naturalist skills: the ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems (farmers, botanists, ecologists, landscapers). • Gardner notes that each of the eight intelligences can be destroyed by brain damage, that each involves unique cognitive skills, and that each shows up in exaggerated fashion in the gifted and in individuals with mental retardation or autism. • Gardner believes that everyone has all of these intelligences to varying degrees. • Multiple intelligences are related to how an individual prefers to learn and process information. e. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom – Currently there is considerable interest in applying Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences to children’s education.5. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptively. This concept was initially developed by Salovey and Mayer. •Critics argue that emotional intelligence broadens the concept of intelligence too far and has not been adequately assessed and researched.• Do People Have One or Many Intelligences? •Gardner’s, Sternberg’s, and Salovey/Mayer’s views of intelligence have stimulated researchers to think more broadly about what makes up people’s intelligence and competence. •Theories of multiple intelligences have motivated educators to develop programs that instruct students in different domains. • Many critics argue that the research base to support these theories has not yet developed. •A number of psychologists still support Spearman’s concept of g, since a person who excels at one type of intellectual task is likely to excel in other tasks.
•Some experts who argue for the existence of general intelligence believe that individuals also have specific intellectual abilities.II. CONTROVERSIES AND GROUP COMPARISONS A. The Influence of Heredity and Environment 1. Genetic Influences • The difference in average correlations for identical and fraternal twins is not very high, only .15. • The heritability of a trait refers to the amount of variance in the population that can be attributed to genetic influences. It is important to remember that heritability tells us about a population, not specific individuals. • Researchers have found that the heritability of intelligence increases from as low as 0.45 in infancy to as high as 0.80 in late adulthood. • The heritability index has several flaws: • The data are virtually all from traditional IQ tests, which some experts believe are not always the best indicator of intelligence. • The heritability index assumes that we can treat genetic and environmental influences as factors that can be separated, with each part contributing a distinct amount of influence. 2. Environmental Influences • Most researchers agree that there are both genetic and environmental influences on intelligence. • Variables that have been found to correlate with intelligence include how much parents communicate with their children in the first three years of life, schooling (or lack thereof), and parent training. • Intelligence test scores have increased worldwide in a relatively short amount of time. This phenomenon has been termed the Flynn effect and may be due to increasing levels of education that have been attained worldwide. • Due to the Flynn effect, new norms are periodically developed for IQ tests. o A norm is a performance standard for a test, and it is created by giving the test to a large number of individuals representative of the population for whom the test is intended. • For children born to disadvantaged families, there is an emphasis on early prevention rather than remediation. A recent review of the research on early interventions concluded the following: o High-quality center-based interventions improve children’s intelligence and school achievement. o The effects are strongest for poor children and for children whose parents have little education. o The positive benefits continue into adolescence, although the effects are smaller than in early childhood or the beginning of elementary school. o The programs that are continued into elementary school have the most sustained long-term effects. • Research in Life-Span Development: The Abecedarian Project o This program demonstrated the success of providing early intervention to disadvantaged children. B. Group Comparisons and Issues 1. Cross-Cultural Comparisons • Cultures vary in their definitions of intelligence and depend a great deal on the
environment. • People in Western cultures tend to view intelligence in terms of reasoning and thinking skills, whereas people in Eastern cultures see intelligence as a way for members of a community to successfully engage in social roles. 2. Cultural Bias in Testing • Many of the early intelligence tests were biased against rural children, children from low-income families, minority children, and children who do not speak English proficiently. • Contexts of Life-Span Development – Larry P.: Intelligent, But Not on Intelligence Tests o This section discusses one of the students involved in a class action law suit which challenged the use of IQ tests for placing students in EMR classes at school. o The lawsuit brought to light the bias in some such tests. • Culture-fair tests are tests of intelligence that attempt to be free of cultural bias. • Two types have been devised: one type includes items that are familiar to children from all SES and ethnic backgrounds; the second type removes all verbal questions. • Some people question whether it is even possible to create a culture-free test of intelligence because intelligence itself is culturally determined. Some suggest that the best we can do is produce culture-reduced tests. 3. Ethnic Comparisons • In the United States, children from African American and Latino families score below children from White families on standardized tests. • It is important to note that there is wide variation in scores for all groups of people (15 to 25 percent of all African American children score higher than half of all White children). • The gap between the scores has narrowed as African Americans have experienced improved social, economic, and educational opportunities, which highlights that these differences are environmentally influenced. • One potential influence on intelligence test performance is stereotype threat, the anxiety that one’s behavior might confirm a negative stereotype about one’s group. 4. Gender Comparisons Average scores on IQ tests for men and women do not differ; however, the variability in scores does. Specifically, men are more likely than women to have extreme scores. There appear to be gender differences in specific intellectual capacities. Men score better in some nonverbal areas, whereas women score better in some verbal areas. There is, however, considerable overlap in the scores.III. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE A. Tests of Infant Intelligence • Arnold Gesell developed tests that were mainly used to distinguish normal babies from abnormal babies for the purpose of adoption. • The developmental quotient (DQ) is an overall developmental score that combines subscores in the motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell Assessment of Infants. • The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are widely used in assessing infant
development. The current version, Bayley-III, has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, and adaptive. • The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence is increasingly being used and focuses on the infants’ information-processing abilities.B. Stability and Change in Intelligence Through Adolescence • Strong correlations are found between IQ scores at age 6 and age 10, and between the ages of 10 and 18. • Other studies show even more fluctuation during childhood, especially when individual IQ rather than group IQ tests are used. • IQ scores can fluctuate a lot during childhood and intelligence does not appear to be as stable as it was originally envisioned.C. Intelligence in Adulthood 1. Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence • Crystallized intelligence is an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills, which continue to increase throughout the life span. • Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason abstractly and begins to decline from middle adulthood on through later adulthood. • John Horn argues that crystallized intelligence increases through the life span, whereas fluid intelligence declines in middle adulthood. One caveat of Horn’s work is that his data were cross-sectional and thus could be affected by cohort effects. 2. The Seattle Longitudinal Study • Conducted by K. Warner, Schaie initially tested 500 adults in 1956. Schaie found that when assessed longitudinally, intellectual abilities are less likely to decline and may even improve in middle adulthood than when assessed cross-sectionally. • In further analysis, Schaie recently examined generational differences in parents and their children over a seven-year time frame from 60 to 67 years of age. • Higher levels of cognitive functioning occurred for the second generation in inductive reasoning, verbal memory, and spatial orientation, whereas the first generation scored higher on numerical ability. • The parent generation showed cognitive decline from 60 to 67 years of age, but their offspring showed stability or modest increase in cognitive functioning across the same age range. 3. Cognitive Mechanics and Cognitive Pragmatics • Paul Baltes clarified the distinction between those aspects of the aging mind that decline and those that remain stable or even improve. He makes a distinction between cognitive mechanics and cognitive pragmatics. • Cognitive mechanics refer to the “hardware” of the mind; in other words, the biology of the brain. These include things such as the speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input, attention, visual and motor memory, and so on. Because these things are strongly associated with biology and evolution, it is very likely that they will decline with age. • Cognitive pragmatics refers to the “software programs” of the mind. These include reading and writing skills, language comprehension, knowledge about the self and life, and so on. Culture seems to have a strong effect on these processes, thus they can actually improve with age. • Some experts now use the terms fluid mechanics and crystallized pragmatics due to the similarity of the types of intelligences and these terms. 4. Wisdom
• Wisdom is expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permit excellent judgment about important matters. • Research by Baltes and his colleagues have found the following: • High levels of wisdom are rare. • The time frame of late adolescence and early adulthood is the main age window for wisdom to emerge. • Certain life experiences, such as having wisdom-enhancing mentors, contribute to higher levels of wisdom. • People higher in wisdom have values that are more likely to consider the welfare of others rather than their own happiness. • Personality-related factors, such as openness to experience, generativity, and creativity, are better predictors of wisdom than cognitive factors such as intelligence. • Sternberg argues that wisdom is linked to both practical and academic intelligence.IV. THE EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY • Intelligence tests can assess incidences of mental retardation and intellectual giftedness. A. Mental Retardation • Mental retardation is a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, has difficulty adapting to everyday life, and first exhibits these characteristics by age 18. • Mental retardation can have an organic cause, or it can be social and cultural in origin. • Organic retardation is mental retardation caused by a genetic disorder or by brain damage; organic refers to the tissues or organs of the body, so there is some physical damage in organic retardation. • Cultural-familial retardation is a mental deficit in which no evidence of organic brain damage can be found; individuals’ IQs range from 55 to 70. Psychologists suspect that these mental deficits often result from growing up in a below-average intellectual environment. B. Giftedness 1. What Is Giftedness? • People who are gifted have above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something. • Schools typically select children who have intellectual superiority and academic aptitude, whereas talented children in other areas (music, arts) are often overlooked. • Recent research has found no relationships between giftedness and mental disorders. 2. Characteristics of Gifted Children • Contrary to popular belief, Terman found that gifted children are NOT maladjusted. • Ellen Winner described three characteristics of gifted children: — Precosity: Mastering an area earlier than their peers. — Marching to their own drummer: They learn in a qualitatively different way, needing little help or scaffolding from adults and often preferring to solve problems in unique ways. — A passion to master: They are driven to understand the domain in which they
have high ability. They display intense, obsessive interest and ability to focus. 3. Life Course of the Gifted • Giftedness is likely a product of heredity and environment. •Individuals who are gifted recall that they had signs of high ability in a particular area at a very young age, prior to or at the beginning of formal training. •Researchers have also found that individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support and years of training and practice. •Deliberate practice is an important characteristic of individuals who become experts in a particular domain. •In Terman’s research on children with superior IQs, the children typically became experts in a well-established domain; however, they did not become major creators. •One reason that some gifted children do not become gifted adults is that they have been pushed too hard by overzealous parents and teachers. 4. Education of Children Who are Gifted • An increasing number of experts argue that the education of gifted children in the United States requires a significant overhaul. • Underchallenged gifted children can become disruptive, skip classes, and lose interest in achieving. • Some educators conclude that the inadequate education of children who are gifted has been compounded by the federal government’s No Child Left Behind policy. • A number of experts argue that too often children who are gifted are socially isolated and underchallenged in the classroom.C. Creativity 1. What Is Creativity? • Creativity is the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems. • Guilford distinguishes between convergent and divergent thinking: • Convergent thinking produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking required on conventional intelligence tests. • Divergent thinking produces many different answers to the same question and is more characteristic of creativity. 2. Steps in the Creative Process Preparation Incubation Insight Evaluation Elaboration 3. Characteristics of Creative Thinkers • Flexibility and playful thinking: Including the use of brainstorming, a technique in which members of a group are encouraged to come up with as many ideas as possible, play off each other’s ideas, and say practically whatever comes to mind. • Inner motivation: They tend to be less inspired by grades, money, or favorable feedback from others. • Willingness to risk: Creative thinkers learn to cope with unsuccessful projects and to learn from failures. • Objective evaluation of work: They may use an established set of criteria or rely
on the judgments of respected, trusted others.4. Creativity in Schools • An important teaching goal is to help students become more creative. • School environments that encourage independent work, are stimulating but not distracting, and make resources readily available are likely to encourage students’ creativity. • Some strategies for increasing children’s creative thinking include: o Encourage brainstorming o Provide environments that stimulate creativity o Don’t overcontrol students o Encourage internal motivation o Build children’s confidence o Guide children to be persistent and delay gratification o Encourage children to take intellectual risks o Introduce children to creative people • Applications in Life-Span Development: Living a More Creative Life • Try to be surprised by something every day. • Try to surprise at least one person every day. • Write down what surprised you and how you surprised others. • When something sparks your interest, follow it. • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal to look forward to. • Take charge of your schedule. • Spend time in settings that stimulate your creativity.5. Changes During Adulthood • Research suggests that creativity peaks in the 40s and then declines. • The decline is gradual, and an impressive array of creative accomplishments occurs in late adulthood. • The decline is likely to be domain specific.