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Chapter 8 Learning Goals 1. Explain the nature of intelligence. What is intelligence? What are the main individual tests of intelligence? What are some issues in the use and misuse of intelligence tests? What theories of multiple intelligences have been developed? Do people have one intelligence or many intelligences? What are some criticisms of the multiple intelligences concept? 2. Outline key controversies about differences in IQ scores. What evidence suggests that genetics influences IQ scores? What evidence suggests that the environment influences IQ scores? What do IQ tests tell us about intelligence among people in different cultures and ethnic groups? What do IQ tests tell us about the intelligence of males and females? 3. Discuss the development of intelligence across the human life span. How is intelligence assessed during infancy? How much does intelligence change through childhood and adolescence? To what extent does intelligence change as adults age? What is wisdom and how can it be characterized? 4. Describe the characteristics of mental retardation, giftedness, and creativity. What is mental retardation and what are its causes? What makes people gifted? What makes people creative? Key TermsBayley Scale of Infant Development Developmental quotient Intelligence quotientBrainstorming Divergent thinking Mental ageCognitive mechanics Emotional intelligence Mental retardationCognitive pragmatics Fluid intelligence Normal distributionConvergent thinking Gifted Stereotype threatCreativity Heritability Triarchic theory of intelligenceCrystallized intelligence Intelligence WisdomCulture-fair tests Key People Paul Baltes Daniel Goleman Peter Salovey Nancy Bayley Elena Grigorenko K. Warner Schaie Alfred Binet John Horn Robert Serpell Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi John Mayer Theophile Simon James Flynn Robert McCall Robert J. Sternberg Howard Gardner Robert Plomin Lewis Terman
Arnold Gesell Craig Ramey David Wechsler Ellen Winner