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Linked Open Data - A Means for Public Sector Information Management
 

Linked Open Data - A Means for Public Sector Information Management

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Presentation for DEXA11 EGOVIS

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    Linked Open Data - A Means for Public Sector Information Management Linked Open Data - A Means for Public Sector Information Management Presentation Transcript

    • Johann Höchtl, Danube University Kremshttp://www.donau-uni.ac.atPeter Reichstädter, Austrian Chancelleryhttp://www.bka.gv.at Linked Open Data A Means for Public Sector Information Management
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Agenda  Role of Open Data as an Integral Part of Public Sector Information Management  Components of an Open Data Infrastructure  State of Affairs of OGD in Austria DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/  Transparency  Participation  Collaboration“My Administration is committed to creating anUnprecedented level of openness in Government.“ Barack Obama, “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies - DEXA Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009. Toulouse August 29 - September 2, 2011
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.php Neelie Kroeshttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Vice-President of the European Commission responsible for the Digital Agenda “Take the example of public sector information – possibly a €30 billion market in Europe. I have said it before, and I say it again: yes to open data!” “Lift-Off towards Open Government" conference, Brussels, 15 December 2010 DEXA http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/10/752Toulouse August 29 - September 2, 2011
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Open Government Data Open Government Data are data sets released by the government on public interest. Usage is unconstrained with the right to re-share and re-purpose without further notice. DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Open Data Principles  Complete  Primary  Timely  Easily Accessible  Machine Processable  Non-Discriminating  Using Open Standards  Liberal Licensing  Reliable  Free of Charge OR Non-Discriminating fees Source: Sunlight Foundation http://sunlightfoundation.com/policy/documents/ten-open-data-principles/ DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Information Management  Generation, acquisition, collection and management of information [1]  Planning, organisation and supply of the necessary organisational infrastructure to accomplish these goals in the most effective and efficient manner [1]  Information is a critical resource, availability and generation rate treated as a KPI [2][1] Stahlknecht & Hasenkamp: Einführung in die Wirtschaftsinformatik. 11 Th Edt. Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg -New York 2005[2] Mertens, Wieczorrek (in Reference to Krcmar), Management Von IT-Projekten: Von Der Planung ZurRealisierung. Springer, 2006. DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Literature Research [1] J. White, Managing information in the public sector, Armonk N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007. [2] C.M. Shea and G.D. Garson, Handbook of public information systems, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010. [3] B. Rocheleau, Public management information systems, Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., 2006. DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Peculiarities of Public Sector Information Management  Functional discrepancies ● Private: maximizing shareholder value ● Public: political influence; supply of goods without a market  Conflicting targets, perceptions and interests in public & private sector information management [1] ● Risk, Authority, Accountability, Representativeness, Stakeholders  Information management performance measure models complex due to conflicting targets[1] B. Bozeman, Public values and public interest: counterbalancing economic individualism. Georgetown University Press,2007. DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Peculiarities of Public Sector Information Management  States are special: From Webers bureaucratic model [1], Porters economic rooting [2] to Friedmans “Do we need a government?” [3] ● Monopolist; executive and legal power; ● “The benevolent state”: Taking care for social equilibrium  A state (and its administrative bodies) are not mere productive entities (Witness discrepancy to NPM?)  Conclusion: Information out-flow must be treated as a core element of public sector information management[1] M. Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriß der verstehenden Soziologie. Mohr Siebeck, 1980.[2] M. E. Porter, The competitive advantage of nations: with a new introduction. Free Press, 1990.[3] D. D. Friedman, “Do We Need a Government?,” 2005. [Online]. Available: DEXAhttp://www.daviddfriedman.com/Academic/mps_iceland_talk/Iceland%20MP%20talk.htm. [Accessed: 01-Jul-2011]. - September 2, 2011 August 29 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/  Role of Open Data as an Integral Part of Public Sector Information Management  Components of an Open Data Infrastructure  State of Affairs of OGD in Austria DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Architecture Model  Five level saturation model by Tim Berners-Lee presented at Gov2.0 Expo 2010@WDC ★ Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open licence ★★ Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) ★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide contextThe 5 stars of open linked data http://inkdroid.org/journal/2010/06/04/the-5-stars-of-open-linked-data/Linked Open Data star scheme by example http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/star-scheme-by-example/ DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Prerequisites  Everything gets an URI  Data is encoded in RDF  URIs are kept persistent by policies and PURLs  Ontologies describe NON-Information Resources ● Data entities are self-described by these government ontologies  RESTFul APIs for data access  Data gets federated to meta data register  Data searchable à la swoogle DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ URIs for everything  Naming scheme respects federal principle of subsidiarity and autonomy ● Mostly UK: http://{sector}.data.gov.uk/{concept}/<ID> http://education.data.gov.uk/school/4711/ vs. ● Tentatively Austria: http://data.{federallevel}.gv.at/{sector}/{concept}/<ID> http://data.bmf.gv.at/education/school/4711/  Spot a difference? DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Trust by Reliability  Internet Addresses come and go  URIs shall be reliable by organizational consensus. UK: 10 years [1], Austria: 5 years  Fancy URIs remain invariant by means of permanent Urls (PURL) [2]  PURLs interpretation of HTTP-Header response values harmonize with Semantic Web Interpretation[1] [1] Chief Technology Officer Council, “Designing URI Sets for the UK Public Sector.” Chief Technology Officer Council,Oct-2009.[2] http://purl.oclc.org/docs/index.html DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Functional requirements  Data provider ● Data upload ● Metadata handling ● Search & browse facility ● Managing restrictions concerning dowload limits / API access  Metadata provider ● Powerful search service ● Discovery service ● Harmonized ontology of resources ● Generation of new information DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Data provider – metadata provider Search Search Search Content ## ## Content Metadata DB DB DB # Interest to get content into metadata-DB DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Data provider RESTFul JSON-Interface Web Interface SPARQL Search Service broadcast RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Publish/Subscribe data.gv.at/admin api.data.gv.at data.gv.at data.gv.at/rss External View Internal Database Open DB1 Data Store DB2 Internal View Filtering stage data.<organisation>gv.at/katalog DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Metadata provider RESTFul JSON-Interface Web Interface SPARQL Publish/Subscribe get announcement RDF-Browser Search Service Endpoint retrieve metadata Ontology Modelling Javascript Libraries Tool Discovery Service Ontology Database data.<organisation>gv.at/katalog DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Ontologies for Non- Information Resources (NIR)  Ontologies about NIRs classify Open Linked Data about Information Resources (IR)  Enable computer systems to reason about reality  Automated service discovery  Optimal resource allocation for processes DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/  Role of Open Data as an Integral Part of Public Sector Information Management  Components of an Open Data Infrastructure  State of Affairs of OGD in Austria DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Austria is no more a white spot oin the map! DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Status Quo Austria  OGD prepared by competence center for internet society (“KIG”) and approved by Counsel of Ministers on February 25 2011  Part of government programme of red/green coalition Vienna  1 Official Site ● http://data.wien.gv.at/  2 Initiatives of “Civil Society” ● http://gov.opendata.at ● http://www.open3.at  3 “Scraping sites” ● http://offenedaten.at/ ● http://www.open3.at ● http://at.ckan.net/ DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Status Quo Austria ctd.  There is no single politician or political party pushing the “movement”  First: pushed by “civil society” ● Technology Center Vienna (ZIT) funded project OGD Austria ● Individuals & enthusiasts ● Public administration service providers & suppliers  Later: Endorsed by (parts of) public administration ● Vienna, Linz, Salzburg?, Graz? ● Municipal (city) level!  Organisational setting: Cooperation OGD Austria, members of administration (municipalities, provinces & federal level), academia, economy & specific topic members (eg. INSPIRE)  Target: Jointly agreed conventions on Metadata, Naming & Design Rules (URIs) & best practices on how to publish Open Government Data on all federal levels DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Status Quo Austria Tentative Principles  10 sunlight-principles with more attention to data protection and data persistence  License: CC-BY 3.0 AT ● With PPDL under consideration for cases not applicable to CC-BY eg. Law  Use CKAN for Metadata-Repository ● Use CKAN for Data Repository?  Naming schemas: ● data.<body>.gv.at/katalog/<sector> ● data.<body>.gv.at/nutzungsbedingungen gives License ● data.<body>.gv.at/formate – Which data formats are supported and their meaning  Metadata is required subset of Dublic Core with some attributes extended from INSPIRE ● Strong connex to INSPIRE DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ In the Future ...  Semantically parseable thesaurus of administrative domains seen from a user perspective (“Lebenslagen”)  Open Data Apps challenge  Meta-data portal Austria ● Harvesting all officially available OGD under a coherent, accessible and intuitively navigable UI  Publish to European Data Portal  Harmonized ontology of Public Administration services ● With links to external knowledge resources like DBPedia, etc. for international comparability  Incorporate elements of OGD infrastructure into national government data exchange framework DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse
    • http://www.donau-uni.ac.at/en/department/gpa/telematik/index.phphttp://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ Thank you! Questions ? Johann Höchtl, Danube University Krems http://www.donau-uni.ac.at johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at Peter Reichstädter, Austrian Chancellery http://www.bka.gv.at peter.reichstaedter@bka.gv.at DEXA August 29 - September 2, 2011 Toulouse