Components of an Open Government Data Infrastructure
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Components of an Open Government Data Infrastructure

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Poster of Open Government Data Conference 2011 Wien Palais Strudlhof

Poster of Open Government Data Conference 2011 Wien Palais Strudlhof

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Components of an Open Government Data Infrastructure Components of an Open Government Data Infrastructure Document Transcript

  • Components of an Open Government Data Infrastructure § US president Obama releases a § Granada Ministerial Declaration on the European Digital Agenda: Agreed on 19 memorandum concerning the freedom April 2010 (ministers responsible for of information act directed to the 2003: The Java based Jena semantic December 2007: The initial 8 open data the Information Society Policy of the heads of federal agencies in which he web framework reaches V 2.0. It is the principles get drafted and are the basis European Union Member States) proclaims: “In the face of doubt, 1999: RDF, the Resource most feature complete for amendments and interpretations openness prevails” Description Framework for storing implementation of semantic web Austria: OGD performs arbitrary entities and relations among them, declared as a W3C functionality and widely adopted by business and academia 2008: OWL, the Web Ontology Language § The Ministerial Declaration on eGovernment approved unanimously Workshops with government and business recommendation reaches V2 specification. OWL extends the in Malmö, Sweden, on 18 November representatives and civil expressive power of RDF & RDFS with 2009 includes several declarations of society 2004: W3C adopts RDF as formal semantics to support reasoning for intent regarding increased standard automated information generation. transparency and openness in the administration process 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 § 2011: Austria: Council of Tim Berners Lee describes § 1. DIRECTIVE 2003/98/EC OF § 14 March 2007: INSPIRE Directive Ministers agrees on the URIs as the crucial THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 § Germany adopts Freedom of Information law on 2007/2/EC establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information requirement of an Open Data strategy element of Semantic Web federal level in the European Community November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information Open3 conducts an Open 2009: Pellet 2.0, the most feature Government survey among complete semantic web reasoner Austrian parliamentarians 2001: Foundation of Creative Commons (CC). with support for OWL 2.0 released The Creative Commons organization releases a 24 May 2004: The Open Knowledge set of licences suitable for creative and ingenious work and partly adaptable for data. Foundation is founded and promotes open May 2009: Going live of US data.gov § 15 December 2010: Neelie Kroes says “Yes to Open Data” content, data and information and Most importantly, the CC actively promote to becomes a strong open data supporter. the discussion of openness and transparency October 2009: DC Apps in the society as a whole. for democracy. “4000% § In October 2010, the Australian Government adopted an open ROI in 30 days” access policy, with Creative January 2010: Commons as the preferred licence Going live of US for the release of government data.gov information The Origin of Species 2010: Austria: Open3 and OGD § Legal decision or directive Austria, civil society open data movements, are founded as § October 2010: Vienna agrees on Open Data Strategy associations. Web site or public appearance 2010: Foundation of Open Commons Civil society movement or action Region Linz with aim to open Government Data Technical specification or SDK Open Government Data time-line with a focus on Austria Legislation SocietyMake Openness the Default Uncharted Waters Policy ModelsCountries having Freedom of Information Acts (FOIA), with an assumption of “In The effects of releasing Open (Government) Data are For open datasets to bethe face of doubt, openness prevails” , can move much faster towards open data boldly touted: More openness and transparency and beneficial to more but a smallby circumnavigating discussions of purpose, meaning, entitlement and legal valuable data sets will spur new economic models, “data elite”, concerns of datanecessity. thus lead to new levels of economic growth. There is and media literacy have to be little supportive, quantitative data to back this raised and tacked by adaptedApply Meaningful Licences assumptions. Observations of medieval change from curricula, starting at primaryhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8034134/Open-Government-Licence-promises-unlimited-use-of-government-data.htmlOpen Government Data beneficiaries require meaningful licenses in order to alchemy to science by transparency of methods and school pupils and their teachers.securely base services on released data and create additional value. Those licences research results support the prospect of broadregulate IPR, legal liability, naming attribution and societal change. Shirky, Clay. Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age. Penguin Press, 2010. Role of Civic Society eParticipationderived work. The more liberal those licences Chance for eParticipationare, the more uptake published data will see. evaluation of success or failure Initialisation Open Data eConsultation Derived work is required to be re-shared? http://wiki.okfn.org/OpenDataLicensing of government, Open Data eConsultation License requires attribution to the issuer? strengthened by quantitative data Evaluation Co-DraftingLicence / Remarks Co-Production Co-Production #Creative Commons Attribution 3.0, # Müller, Weitzmann, Lesch et.al. Offene √ Xhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode Staatskunst- Bessere Politik durch Implementation URI Open Government? Berlin, October 2010. 0CC-0, very liberal licence, the issuer waives all Service / 0of his or her copyright and neighbouring andrelated rights in a work, worldwide applicable; X X Discoveryre-assertion of copyright not allowed Service Open Data PrinciplesPublic Domain Dedication and Certification http://sunlightfoundation.com/policy/documents/ten-open-data-principles/ 3 Web Interface 3(PDDC), based on U.S. law, enforceabilityoutside US questionable; interesting concept of For open data to be useful to the X X public, technical aspects have to 2non-normative community norms.http://www.opendatacommons.org/norms/,focus on data-bases/setsOpen Database License (ODbL), Derivative and JSON-Connectors 1 1 2 Web Interface be met. These include • machine readabilitycreative work allowed, originator must beattributed, resulting work must be released √ √ Web Interface • ease of physical access SPARQLunder same licence, focus on data-bases/sets RDF • permanenceOpen Data Commons (ODC), Extraction, re- RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries DB • royalty-free data formatsutilisation, creation of derivative and creation √ Xof collective Databases allowed; Work-in-progress, focus on data-bases/sets api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Organisation Data Separation economy.data.gv.at External and intra-organisational External View IPSec Tunnel data representation has to beEmbrace OpenInnovation Internal Databases 4 Web Interface separated. By separation, data not meant for disclosure will be DB1 filtered, prepared to meet open =Social and commercialentrepreneurs play a core role atturning OGD into new services. RDF Database DB2 = RDF DB standards and semantically enriched.This requires an attitude of Internal View Filtering stage Semantic Annotations Organisation“letting loose” to enable an inflow finance.data.gv.at Trust is leveraged by interlinkingof new ideas. Organisation data.gv.at datasets, thus enabling a user or eService to inspect datasets,Leverage the Benefits of preferably down to the data Architectural Components origin (political decision, censusPeer ProductionPeer Production will harness 0 0 User retrieves URIs by querying open data search engine / URI service (optional) 4 4 Cross-site Javscript call require proxy service; Obsolete as of HTML5 CORS data, electronic metering point). This is achieved by meaningful and permanenthuman skill, ingenuity and intelligence more New datasets get syndicated as soon as URIs, a core element of the semantic web. Information ressource URIs are resolvedefficiently and effectively. The ability to integrate 1 1 against RDF web server, which queries # # they become available by RSS, ATOM or pubsubhubbub A National URI Infrastructurethe talents of dispersed individuals and PURL DB to resolve stale URIsorganizations is becoming and important skill and URIs by their segmented nature (namespaces) fitrequires more uptake by politicians and heads of 2 2 Web server returns RDF or HTML data based on client request. = = Staging and filtering area at which internal datasets, identified as open data, are the need of democratic governments by followingpublic administration agencies. amended by publicly addressable URIs the principles of subsidiarity and local authority. The establishment of a national URI infrastructure 3 3 Mobile devices query against JSON API; Advanced services issue SPARQL queries has to take place at the national CIO level whileUnderstand Prosumerism itemisation can be left to the respective federalOpen Innovation is not a one-way administrative bodies, eg. http://{domain}.{federallevel }.data.gv.at/{concept }/IDentifier.{RDF|html}game. Once an administrative body Collaborative Innovation Frameworkdecides to open-up, the inflow has Search and Publication Service Participation Community Innovation mall Opento be carefully revised and Innovation The federal nature of open data by URI segmentation requires a higher level service forincorporated into subsequent tasks. Elite Circle Consortium Closed aggregation, search and ontological harmonisation. Local government data providersIf society input is neglected, built-up Governance sources publish changes to their data sets to this higher level service by RSS ortrust will vanish. Hierarchical Flat pubsubhubbub. Pisano et. al. “Which collaboration is right for you?” HBR 2008 Koumenides, Christos, Harith Alani, Nigel Shadbolt, and Manuel Salvadores “Global Integration of Public Sector Information.” 26-27, Raleigh, NC, USA, 2010 Organisation Technology http://hbr.org/2008/12/which-kind-of-collaboration-is-right-for-you/sb1 http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21025/. © Johann Höchtl, Research fellow at Center for E-Government, Danube University Krems, Austria and PhD student at Business Informatics Group, Technical University Vienna, Austria. http://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com/ johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at @myprivate42 http://www.facebook.com/myprivate42 http://www.slideshare.net/jhoechtl