Ch. 4.4 and 4.5 urban and economic geography


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Ch. 4.4 and 4.5 urban and economic geography

  1. 1. Urban Geography<br />Ch. 4, Sec. 4<br />
  2. 2. Urban areas develop around a central city<br />Suburbs = built up area around central city<br />Exurbs = cities or towns with space btw. them and the central city<br />All 3 = Metropolitan area<br />Megalopolis = more than one metropolitan area that has grown together<br />
  3. 3. Exurb Exurb<br />Suburbs<br />Central<br /> City Exurb<br /> Exurb<br /> Exurb<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. City locations<br />Cities grew for easy transportation access<br />Rivers, coast line, railroads<br />Specialize in what is available around them<br />Ex: Pittsburgh – close to iron ore and coal sources = produce steel<br />
  6. 6. Land Use<br />Residential<br />Industrial – manufacturing goods<br />Commercial – buying and selling of goods<br />Central business district – core of the city that focuses on commercial activities<br />
  7. 7. Functions of a city<br />Business<br />Entertainment<br />Education<br />Cultural activities<br />Religious and social services<br />
  8. 8. Economic geography<br />Ch. 4, Sec. 5<br />
  9. 9. Economy – production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people<br />Economic system – the way people produce and exchange goods and services<br />
  10. 10. Types of Economic systems<br />Traditional economy – goods and services are traded w/o using money (bartering)<br />Command economy – production is determined by the central gov’t (planned economy)<br />Market economy – production determined by the demand from customers (demand economy/ capitalism)<br />Mixed economy – combination of command and market<br />
  11. 11. Economics of Natural Resources<br />Natural resources – materials on or in the earth that have economic value<br />Not evenly distributed around the earth<br />3 basic types<br />Renewable – can be replaced (trees)<br />Non – renewable – cannot be replaced (metals, fossil fuels)<br />Inexhaustible energy sources – unlimited amount<br />Sunlight, geothermal heat, and wind<br />
  12. 12. Infrastructure – basic support systems needed to keep an economy going<br />Power<br />Communication<br />Transportation<br />Water<br />Sanitation<br />Education system<br />
  13. 13. Measuring Economic Development<br />Per Capita Income – average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit<br />Gross National Product (GNP) – total value of all goods and services produces by a country over a year<br />Goods do not have to be produced in that country<br />Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – total value of all goods and services produced within a country over a year<br />
  14. 14. Developed vs. Developing Countries<br /> In terms of the distribution of wealth, there are two categories of countries on earth: developed and developing. Developed countries are those that have made major social, political, and economic progress. Their economies are based on service and manufacturing industries. They have a low population growth rate, a high per capita gross domestic product, good educational opportunities, and easily available health resources. Developing countries generally have economies based on agriculture. They have a rapid population growth rate and limited resources. Many of their residents lack the basic necessities of life. About three fourths of the world’s people live in developing countries<br />
  15. 15. Cottage Industry<br />Home-based industries that produce on a small scale<br />Big businesses that manufacture in mass quantity<br />Commercial Industry<br />
  16. 16. 4 levels of Economic Activity<br />Primary Activities<br />Gathering of raw materials<br />Example: drilling for oil<br />Secondary Activities<br />Adding value to materials<br />Example: car manufacturing<br />Tertiary Activities<br />Business or professional services<br />Example: teachers, doctors<br />Quaternary Activities<br />Information, management, and research services by highly-trained persons<br />