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World war ii
World war ii
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World war ii

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  • 1. World War II
  • 2. <ul><li>The Nazi party starts in 1920 and grows out of smaller predecessor. </li></ul><ul><li>National Socialist German Workers’ Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s talent as a leader and especially an orator makes him leader of the party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1921, the executive committee is scrapped and he becomes the leader, the fuhrer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Nazis form their own paramilitary force: the Sturmabteilung, aka the SA, the Stormtroopers, the Brown Shirts. </li></ul>
  • 3. &nbsp;
  • 4. &nbsp;
  • 5. <ul><ul><li>The SA was appealing for many unemployed ex-soldiers and also basic beer hall brawlers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were originally just a bunch of street thugs who acted as a personal bodyguard for Hitler and also disrupted rallies of opposing parties (and roughed up their members). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were a variety of parties trying to gain traction in Germany at this time… communists, real socialists, and others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. 1930 poster
  • 7. 1934 campaign poster: “Labourers awake! Vote for the National Socialist German Workers&apos; Party!”
  • 8. <ul><li>As leader of the majority party, Hitler is made the Chancellor by President von Hindenburg in January 1933. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once in power, Hitler moves quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He used the Reichstag fire in February as a excuse for banning his enemies, especially the communists. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Anyway, Hitler takes firm control of the country and established a personality cult around himself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People say, “Heil Hitler,” and officials now take oaths of loyalty to Hitler instead of Germany. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of Hitler’s secret operations (killings) are carried out by the Schutzstaffel, the SS, i.e. Protective Squadron, the party Praetorian Guard. </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>The toleration of tyranny </li></ul><ul><li>In the East, Japan had invaded and annexed Manchuria and then parts of China. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And they committed unimaginable atrocities along the way, especially in taking the capital in 1937 in what has became known as the Rape of Nanking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infuriated at Chinese resistance, the Japanese took it out on the population. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers who had surrendered were slaughtered. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 Chinese civilian men were taken outside the city and killed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers murdered, raped, and stole at will. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Around 20,000 women were raped in the first four weeks. Many of them were mutilated and/or killed once the soldiers were through with them. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>Bands of civilians were forced to carry away the corpses to mass graves. Then they too were killed and buried with the dead. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civilians were used for target and bayonet practice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands were killed. The exact death toll is unknown, but estimates go as high as 600,000 in six weeks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Japanese government still largely refuses to admit to the atrocities and/or downplays them. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. &nbsp;
  • 13. &nbsp;
  • 14. &nbsp;
  • 15. <ul><ul><li>One of the worst practices was the keeping of “comfort women.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These were Korean, Chinese, Thai, Australian, and other nationalities women who were forced into prostitution in order to service Japanese soldiers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, they were kidnapped or tricked into service and then serially raped. It wasn’t uncommon for women to be expected to have sex 12 to 40 times a day. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women would be classified according to how “fresh” they were and thereby how likely they were to have STDs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were around 200,000 comfort women of various national origins, including Korean. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>To this day, Japan largely denies the use of comfort women. The Japanese now kinda admit to moral culpability but want to limit their legal responsibility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This follows Japan’s pattern in relation to its war crimes. It’s never done well in facing up to them. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. <ul><ul><li>The world did nothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back in Europe, Italy conquered Ethiopia in order to have a colonial empire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ethiopians protested before the League of Nations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world did nothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler, who had long made it clear that he resented and intended to overturn the Treaty of Versailles, starts violating it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He builds up the military in violation of the treaty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He then occupies the Rhineland, a buffer area between France and Germany. France and Britain don’t challenge him. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. <ul><ul><li>Wanting to conquer and expand, Hitler pretends to be concerned about ethnic Germans in territories lost to other countries after WWI, specifically in Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Poland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British and the French follow a policy of appeasement and give Hitler what he wants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Munich Agreement in September 1938 was written by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It said that Hitler could have the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia as long as he went no further. Hitler got the Sudetenland and then he went further. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chamberlain sold out the Czechs. He declared that the agreement was “peace for our time.” Britain and Germany were at war within a year. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 19. &nbsp;
  • 20. Hmmm… maybe I shouldn’t appease tyrants.
  • 21. <ul><ul><li>In August 1939, Hitler and Stalin agreed to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was a non-aggression treaty that also allowed for Germany and the USSR to divide up eastern Europe. A week after the pact was signed, they both invaded Poland and split it between them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Soviets even gave Germany material aid in fighting against the west. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin was quite surprised when Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. &nbsp;
  • 23. &nbsp;
  • 24. <ul><li>World War II weaponry </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main rifle was the Karabiner 98 Kurz, an 8 mm bolt action rifle introduced in 1935. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was ok, but used turn of the century technology. </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. <ul><ul><li>Handguns, which were mainly issued to the officers were the Walther P38 or the classic, the Luger p08, both 9 mm. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. <ul><li>Machine guns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine gun technology had advanced from the WWI days such that they were lighter. This made them more mobile and able to be used as squad-based weapons instead of having to be set into fixed emplacements. </li></ul></ul>MG 34 – 8 mm and could fire 800 rounds per minute – some models could get up to 1,200 rpm
  • 27. MG 42 – 8mm with 1,200 rpm
  • 28. <ul><li>Submachine gun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MP40. 9 mm and could fire 500 rpm. Used by paratroopers and platoon leaders and good for close-quarters urban combat. </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>Grenades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model 24 Stielhandgranate. Called the ‘potato masher’ by the Allies. It wasn’t as powerful as American varieties, but the stick meant it could be thrown further and you didn’t risk it rolling back to you. </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. <ul><li>Anti-tank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panzerfaust (armored fist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rather simple device using a disposable tube and simple trigger and sights. A black powder blast shot the shaped charge at the target. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaped charges don’t merely create an explosion. That’s not effective against armored vehicles, like tanks. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rather, the detonation is focused at a point, allowing it to burrow through the metal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 31. &nbsp;
  • 32. &nbsp;
  • 33. <ul><ul><ul><li>Panzerschreck (tank terror) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rocket propelled shaped charge with reusable mechanism. Less common than the faust and it was copied from captured American bazookas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>Tanks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panzer </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>Tiger </li></ul>
  • 36. <ul><li>Panther </li></ul>
  • 37. <ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Most Japanese small arms weren’t great quality, but they still did the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Handguns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nambu Pistol </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>Rifle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 38 bolt action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was sometimes awkward for Japanese soldiers to use because some of the riles were 4’2” and the average Japanese soldier was 5’3”. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>Machine guns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 96 light machine gun. 6.5 mm. 550 rpm. </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. <ul><ul><li>Type 1 heavy machine gun </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. <ul><li>Aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight, carrier-based craft. Powerful and extremely maneuverable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best fighter in the sky at the outset of WWII, but is outclassed by new American aircraft by the end. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 42. Captured Zero being tested by U.S. intel
  • 43. <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Handgun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colt .45 1911A1 </li></ul></ul>
  • 44. <ul><ul><li>The Colt .45 was the official U.S. military sidearm from 1911 to 1985 when it was replaced by the Beretta 9mm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s not terribly accurate, but it doesn’t need to be since it’s meant for close-quarters combat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The round is relatively slow, but it’s big and has a great deal of stopping power. </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. <ul><li>Rifle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M1 Garand </li></ul></ul>
  • 46. <ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike other rifles of the time, the M1 was semiautomatic, meaning you didn’t have to operate the bolt. This made its rate of fire much greater: 16-24 rpm compared to a max of 15 rpm for the German Karabiner. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most advanced infantry rifle to date at the time and it gave the Allies a huge advantage. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 47. <ul><ul><li>The 1903 Springfield was still around, but mainly as a sniper rifle. </li></ul></ul>
  • 48. <ul><li>Machine guns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browning M1917. </li></ul></ul>
  • 49. <ul><ul><li>Browning M1919 </li></ul></ul>
  • 50. <ul><ul><li>M2 Browning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.50 cal and fired at 550 rpm. Very potent weapon that was introduced in 1932 and is still used by the U.S. military today. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s a big bullet, has an exit velocity of 3,050 ft/s, and is effective to about 2,200 yards. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And it get used in everything. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 51. &nbsp;
  • 52. &nbsp;
  • 53. <ul><li>Submachine guns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) </li></ul></ul>
  • 54. 7.62mm and 300-650 rpm. Only had a 20 round clip, though, so the operator had to conserve ammo.
  • 55. <ul><ul><li>Thompson Submachine Gun (the Tommy Gun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.45 caliber and 600-800 rpm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used a 20-30 round box magazine or a 50-100 round drum. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 56. &nbsp;
  • 57. <ul><li>Flamethrower </li></ul>
  • 58. <ul><li>Grenade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MK2 (the pineapple) </li></ul></ul>
  • 59. <ul><li>Anti-tank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bazooka. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocket propelled and reusable. </li></ul></ul>
  • 60. <ul><li>Tanks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sherman. </li></ul></ul>
  • 61. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Sherman was actually very much inferior to the German tanks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It had a 75mm underpowered gun and light armor compared to, say, the Tiger 88mm gun and heavy armor. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its advantage is that we made A LOT of them: around 50,000 of just one type. We overwhelmed through force of numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 62. <ul><li>Aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-17 Flying Fortress </li></ul></ul>
  • 63. <ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy bomber that could carry up to 8,000 pounds of bombs, but typically just 4,000 to 5,000 lbs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 64. &nbsp;
  • 65. <ul><ul><ul><li>As protection, it was armed with 13 .50 cal Brownings. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 66. &nbsp;
  • 67. &nbsp;
  • 68. &nbsp;
  • 69. &nbsp;
  • 70. &nbsp;
  • 71. &nbsp;
  • 72. &nbsp;
  • 73. <ul><li>They used the Norden bomb sight. </li></ul>
  • 74. <ul><li>B-29 Superfortress </li></ul>
  • 75. &nbsp;
  • 76. <ul><li>P-51 Mustang </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1942 and changes the sky. </li></ul></ul>
  • 77. &nbsp;
  • 78. &nbsp;
  • 79. <ul><ul><ul><li>They were armed with six Browning M2 machine guns that had 2,170 rounds. The guns fired at 550 rpm, so you had to be careful with the trigger. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 80. <ul><ul><li>In today’s money, they originally cost $565,000. They were sold as surplus after the war for as little as $16,000. They now, even partially restored, cost over $1 million. </li></ul></ul>
  • 81. <ul><li>So, all these new weapons, changed tactics. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of the massed formations of WWI, you get squad-based warfare. </li></ul>
  • 82. &nbsp;
  • 83. &nbsp;
  • 84. <ul><li>Germany’s offensive philosophy was the blitzkrieg: lightning war. </li></ul><ul><li>It used combined arms warfare to quickly strike the enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>This often took the opposition by surprise and kept the enemy from getting a firm footing. It was a fast-moving style of warfare that kept the enemy off balance and also prevented the dug-in trench warfare of WWI. </li></ul>
  • 85. <ul><li>Battle of France </li></ul><ul><li>Starting on May 10, 1940, Hitler makes his move. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first instance of blitzkrieg. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once you boil it down, the German plan was to go through neutral Holland and Belgium and down into France. </li></ul><ul><li>Another reason the Germans did things this way was so as to avoid France’s Maginot Line. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France recognized that another war with Germany was possible and so it invested in a potent defensive strategy. </li></ul></ul>
  • 86. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Maginot Line was actually an interconnected complex of reinforced concrete bunkers that ran most of the French-German and Frencg-Italian borders. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It had living quarters, artillery, machine gun emplacements, pill boxes, anti-tank traps, rail links between parts, etc. It was fancy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also faced east, which did little if someone got in behind it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea was to stymie a German advance long enough for the French army to mobilize. The Germans got around the Line by literally going around it. It didn’t cover the French-Belgian border. Oops </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 87. &nbsp;
  • 88. &nbsp;
  • 89. &nbsp;
  • 90. &nbsp;
  • 91. &nbsp;
  • 92. <ul><li>So the Germans go around the Line by going up through Belgium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French and British forces are quickly pushed back up against the English Channel at Dunkirk. </li></ul></ul>
  • 93. &nbsp;
  • 94. &nbsp;
  • 95. &nbsp;
  • 96. <ul><li>The soldiers were essentially stranded at Dunkirk surrounded by the Germans on one side and the sea on the other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortunately, Great Britain was on the other side of that sea. Around 850 ships, most of them privately owned and of all varieties sail across the English Channel from 5/24 to 6/4 and rescue nearly 338,000 men from certain disaster. </li></ul></ul>
  • 97. <ul><li>France falls on June 25 th and surrenders to Germany… in the same stupid railcar in which Germany surrendered to France in WWI and in which France surrendered to Prussia in 1871. It gets destroyed during the war or I’m sure it would’ve gotten more surrender use. </li></ul><ul><li>A new government is established under controversial figure Henri Petain, known as Vichy France. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Charles de Gaulle escapes and becomes leader of the Free French forces. </li></ul></ul>
  • 98. &nbsp;
  • 99. &nbsp;
  • 100. &nbsp;
  • 101. <ul><li>Battle of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>So it’s June 1940, France had fallen, the Eastern Front had yet to be opened up, and the U.S. was thus far not directly involved (though FDR had been providing the British with material aid through the Lend-Lease Act). </li></ul><ul><li>It was Great Britain under Winston Churchill against Nazi Germany. </li></ul>
  • 102. <ul><li>Germany was set on conquering Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem for Hitler was that pesky English Channel. If he wanted to conquer Britain and have the first successful invasion of the British Isles since William the Conqueror in 1066, he’d have to cross it. </li></ul><ul><li>The German navy, while decent, was no match for the British Royal Navy. The Wehrmact decided to use the Luftwaffe to establish air superiority over the Channel and over Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans thought it would take about four days to eliminate the fighter commands and then four weeks of bombing to eliminate aviation and industrial infrastructure. They were wrong. </li></ul>
  • 103. <ul><li>The British were tenacious and the RAF fighters were a good match against the Germans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The RAF was using early radar. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Battle started in May. By September, the Luftwaffe started bombing London. </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-September, the invasion was given up, though night bombings continued until May 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler faced his first big defeat. </li></ul>
  • 104. Junkers Ju 88 fighter-bomber Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter
  • 105. Messerschmitt Me 110 fighter-bomber
  • 106. RAF Hawker Hurricane
  • 107. RAF Spitfire
  • 108. &nbsp;
  • 109. &nbsp;
  • 110. <ul><li>North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>There’s fighting here from June 1940 to May 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini decides to attack the British in Egypt in order to capture the strategic Suez Canal. </li></ul><ul><li>The British fight back and paste the Italians, so Hitler steps in to help his ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, the Desert Fox, is quite successful, but British and American landings eventually push him back. </li></ul><ul><li>Rommel was a very competent general and becomes a hero in Germany, though he later falls out of favor with Hitler and is forced to commit suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>British forces were led by Bernard Montgomery who was good, but an arrogant prima donna. </li></ul>
  • 111. &nbsp;
  • 112. &nbsp;
  • 113. &nbsp;
  • 114. Erwin Rommel: The Desert Fox
  • 115. Montgomery
  • 116. <ul><li>U.S. forces were initially led by Dwight Eisenhower, but General George S. Patton gets involved in 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>Patton, known as Old Blood and Guts, was a soldier, a general, and a warrior. All three are a rare combination. </li></ul><ul><li>And he was a butt-kicker. We’ll come back to him later. </li></ul>
  • 117. <ul><li>War also flares in the Balkans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazis defeat Greece in 17 days and raise the swastika over the Acropolis in Athens. That hurts. </li></ul>
  • 118. <ul><li>Eastern Front </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler wanted the USSR and was impatient to get it. He launched a blitzkrieg on June 22, 1941 with over 4 million men. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviets were not well-prepared. While they had a massive army, it was technologically inferior to the Germans, not as well-trained, and not nearly as well-commanded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that Stalin had purged the officer corps shortly before the war. Not only did this get rid of good officers and generals, but it left mostly yes-men behind (would you want to tell Stalin he’s wrong?). </li></ul></ul>
  • 119. <ul><li>The Germans advance quickly, aided by Soviet stupidity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist tanks at this time tended to break down a lot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin initially ordered that no troops could retreat, which only meant the Germans surrounded them and cut them down. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With the German army in sight of the Kremlin, the Soviets launched a major counteroffensive and threw the Germans back. </li></ul>
  • 120. &nbsp;
  • 121. <ul><li>About this time, the Russian winter also set in… the same type of Russian winter that had cost Napoleon 570,000 of a 600,000 strong army. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers froze, so did vehicles, animals, gasoline (temperatures sometimes got down to -22), and grease. The Soviets knew the winter and were better prepared. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the other hand, the blitzkrieg was too blitzkriegy. The German army became overstretched and its supply lines overextended. It didn’t help that Russian roads were bad and the rail system the wrong size. </li></ul></ul>
  • 122. <ul><ul><li>The Germans also underestimated the tenacity of the Soviets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scorched Earth policy was used. Entire factories were dismantled and transported east while the rest was burned, leaving the invaders nothing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Soviets also started rolling out the T-34 tank, one of the best every produced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It had good armor, a decent gun, and much better mobility than German tanks because its wider track was better in the wet and muddy conditions of the Eastern Front. It did even better when it got its 85mm gun. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 123. &nbsp;
  • 124. <ul><li>There were two really nasty parts of the Eastern Front. The first was the Siege of Leningrad (aka St. Petersburg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It lasted from September 1941 to January 1944. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the siege set in, it was estimated there was only about a month’s worth of food in the city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation set in and people ate whatever was available. There was also little fuel and no electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply lines were tenuous and often under attack, though some food did make it in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of a city with 2.5 million people, it’s estimated that about 1 million died of starvation. </li></ul></ul>
  • 125. &nbsp;
  • 126. <ul><li>The other nasty part was the Battle of Stalingrad from July 1942 to February 1943. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was one of the bloodiest engagements in history with over 1.5 million combined casualties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 850,000 of these were Axis troops, about 25% of their force in the east. Losing the battle decimated them and helped turn the tide against them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was brutal close-quarter urban combat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Germans also brought in artillery including the monster 800mm Dora railway gun. </li></ul></ul>
  • 127. The Dora
  • 128. A Dora shell next to a T-34 tank
  • 129. <ul><ul><li>Snipers ran rife. One Soviet sniper killed 500 Germans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, the German forces get surrounded, but they hold out thought they’re short of fuel, ammo, and provisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German commander, Friendrich Paulus, finally surrenders on February 2, 1943. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>91,000 German soldiers were taken as prisoners of war by the Soviets. Only 6,000 ever made it back home. The gulag got the rest. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 130. &nbsp;
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  • 133. &nbsp;

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