The Spread of Hellenistic Culture<br />Ch. 5.5<br />
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria<br />After Alexander’s death, a vibrant new culture emerged. <br />Greek (Hellenic) culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences.<br />Koine (koy•NAY) Means common in Greek.<br />Enabled educated people and traders from diverse backgrounds to communicate in cities throughout the Hellenistic world.<br />
Trade and Cultural Diversity<br />African city of Alexandria became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.<br />Ships from all around the world docked here.<br />By 300 B.C., had over 500,000 residents.<br />
Alexandria’s Greatest Attractions<br />Both residents and visitors admired Alexandria’s great beauty.<br />Alexandria’s museum and library<br />Library contained over 500,000 papyrus scrolls for research and reading.<br />Included many masterpieces of ancient literature<br />One of the greatest attractions was The Pharos<br />
Science and Technology<br />During the Hellenistic period, the center of scholarship gradually shifted away from Athens.<br />Made significant discoveries in astronomy and mathematics.<br />
Astronomy<br />Aristarchus (AR•ih•STAHR•kuhs) of Samos<br />estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than the earth. (It’s actually about 1.3 million times larger)<br />Concluded the Earth revolved around the Sun, which went against Ptolemy’s idea ( the common view of the time) that the Sun revolved around the Earth. This view was held for the next 14 centuries, until Galileo discovered that it didn’t.<br />
Eratosthenes (EHR•uh•TAHS•thuh•NEEZ) closely calculated the earth’s true size.<br />He skillfully used geometry to compute the earth’s circumference at 24,662 miles.<br />The earth’s circumference is actually 24,860 miles.<br />He was less than 1% off. Not bad….<br />
Mathematics and Physics<br />Euclid (YOO•klihd).<br />His best-known book, the Elements, contained 465 carefully presented geometry propositions and proofs.<br />It is sometimes said that only the Bible has been more widely used and studied. <br />Euclid’s work is still the basis for courses in geometry.<br />
Law of the Lever<br />Archimedes (AHR•kuh•MEE•deez) correctly estimated the value of pi (π ).<br />Archimedes also explained the law of the lever and invented the compound pulley to lift heavy objects.<br />A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T<br />Archimedes took a . . . ship . . . which had just been dragged up on land with great labor and many men; in this he placed her usual complement of men and cargo, and then sitting at some distance, without any trouble, by gently pulling with his hand the end of a system of pulleys, he dragged it towards him with as smooth and even a motion as if it were passing over the sea. PLUTARCH, Parallel Lives: Marcellus<br />
Believed to be over 100 feet tall.<br />Legend says his legs straddled the harbor, but this would have been impossible given the estimation of his size.<br />One of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the Colossus of Rhodes was toppled by an earthquake about 225 B.C. <br />Later, the bronze was sold for scrap.<br />
Hellenic Decline<br />By 150 B.C., the Hellenistic world was in decline. A new city, Rome, was growing and gaining strength. Through Rome, Greek-style drama, architecture, sculpture, religion, and philosophy were preserved and eventually became the core of Western civilization.<br />
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.