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Ch 23 3 And 23 4   Napoleon
 

Ch 23 3 And 23 4 Napoleon

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    Ch 23 3 And 23 4   Napoleon Ch 23 3 And 23 4 Napoleon Presentation Transcript

    • Ch 23.3 and 23.4
    •  5’3’’  1769-1821  Great Military Leader and Motivator ◦ “He awakened in my soul the desire for glory”  Became a notable military leader early in life by his heroic feats defending the delegates at the National Convention.
    •  (koo day-TAH): “blow of state”:The sudden overthrow of a government by a usually small group of persons in or previously in positions of authority. ◦ A sudden seizure of power ◦ France was at war at the time, which made his coup very easy.  Napoleon pretended to be the constitutionally chosen leader of a free republic. ◦ Restored order and stability to France  Kept many of the Revolution’s reforms  Fixed the economy, including equal taxation  Reduced governmental corruption  Set up lycees, or government run public schools
    •  Restored order and stability to France  Restored the church  Napoleonic Code ◦ Gave the country a uniform set of laws ◦ Reduced many individual freedoms of the people.
    •  Crowned Emperor on Dec 2, 1804  Set off to not only rule France but the New World as well  Tried to regain the control of St. Domingue, which had declared their freedom after the French Revolution.  After an unsuccessful attempt, decided to give up on the New World  Sold The Louisiana Territory to President Thomas Jefferson for $15 million (3 cents an acre!)  “The sale assures forever the power of the United States, and I have given England a rival, who, sooner or later, will humble her pride.”
    •  Fearful of Napoleon’s increasing power, Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden created the Third Coalition to defeat him.  His land victories against the Coalition were decisive and brilliant.  The Battle of Trafalgar ◦ Defeated by British captain Horatio Nelson, caused a serious blow to the French Army and secured the naval dominance of England for the next 100 years
    •  The Continental System ◦ Blocked goods from entering England  Didn’t work very well and ended up with a counter-blockade which hurt the French economy  The Peninsular War ◦ Invaded Portugal  Portugal commenced w/ guerrilla warfare.  300,000 troops lost  Many of the countries controlled by Napoleon now questioned their commitment to France  The Invasion of Russia ◦ Russians defeated the French by retreating and practicing scorched-earth policy. ◦ By the end of the war, Napoleon only had 10,000 soldiers left.
    •  In his army’s weakened condition, the Coalition defeats Napoleon.  Napoleon was given a small pension (salary) and exiled to Elba, a tiny island off of Italy.  Louis XVIII was restored to the throne (Louis’ son died in prison)  He was very unpopular with the peasants, and this encouraged Napoleon to make a comeback  Within days, his army swelled with volunteers.
    •  Napoleon’s major battle as the returning Emperor.  July 18, 1815  British and Prussian forces clashed with the French.  2 days later, the French army was chased from the field.  This ended Napoleon’s return to power, called the Hundred Days
    •  He was shipped off to St. Helena, a small island in the South Atlantic, where he lived for 6 more years.  It was believed he died of cancer.  “He was as great as a man can be without virtue”