Absolute Monarchs Of Europe
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Absolute Monarchs Of Europe



Philip II, King Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the Great

Philip II, King Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the Great



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Absolute Monarchs Of Europe Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Ch. 21 Absolute Monarchs of Europe
  • 2. Philip II
    • Absolute Monarchs
  • 3. Philip II
    • Son of Charles V
    • Took power after Charles V divided his empire into 5 parts and retired to a monastery.
      • Inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies.
    • Philip was considered shy, serious, and deeply religious.
    • Philip’s guarded personality left many people suspicious of him, and he was equally suspicious of other people.
      • His court historian wrote, “His smile and his dagger were very close.”
  • 4. Philip’s Empire
    • Thanks to the American Colonies, Spain was becoming very rich.
      • Between 1550 and 1650, Spain had imported 339,000 pounds of gold and 16,000 tons of silver from the Americas.
      • Free money, thanks to mercantilism!!!
  • 5. How much money?
    • Time for some math: get your calculator’s out.
    • Based on today’s prices, let’s see how much gold and silver was stolen from the Americas.
    • This gold and silver was mined by the Native Americans, who were never paid for their work or minerals.
      • Today, gold is selling at $1100/ ounce and silver at $16.40/ ounce
  • 6. Do the Math
    • Gold @ $1,100/ounce
    • Silver @ $16.40/ounce
    • 339,000 lb of gold
    • Convert lbs to oz: 339,000 X 16
    • 5,424,000 oz X $1,100
    • $5,966,400,000
    • 16,000 tons of silver
    • Convert tons to oz: 16,000 X 2,000 X 16
    • 512,000,000 oz X $16.40
    • $8,396,800,000
    Total: $14,363,200,000
  • 7. Philip’s Cut
      • The king himself kept between ¼ to 1/5 of every shipload for his royal share
      • $14,363,200,000 X .25
      • So, King Philip II kept about $3,590,800,000 worth of gold.
      • Since money = power, it was pretty easy to see how Philip continued to gain more power until he was ultimately considered Spain’s absolute monarch.
  • 8. The Escorial, Philip II’s Palace El Escorial
  • 9. Defender of Catholicism
    • Philip II took the throne while Europe was experiencing many religious wars.
      • 1571, Philip sent the Spanish Armada to fight against the Ottoman Empire’s Navy
        • The Battle at Lepanto was one of the world most decisive battles, with the Spanish Armada completely destroying the Ottoman Empire’s Navy.
      • Later, he battled against Protestant England.
        • Didn’t fare as well. His fleet was defeated.
    • These many religious battles, along with rising inflation from all of that free money from the American Colonies, would eventually cause the Spanish state to declare bankruptcy!
    • Que Lastima!!!
  • 10. Louis XIV
    • Absolute Monarchs
  • 11. King Louis XIV
    • His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days.
      • longest documented reign of any European monarch.
      • Became ruler when he was only 5
    • When he first became king, the true ruler of France was Cardinal Mazarin.
      • Many nobles hated Mazarin because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government.
      • During many of the riots, Louis’ young life was threatened by the upset nobles.
        • Louis remembered this and determined to become so powerful that he could never be threatened again.
        • His hatred of the nobles would later affect France’s balance of power.
    • When Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, the 23 year-old Louis took control of the government.
  • 12.
    • Almost immediately, Louis weakened the power of the nobles.
      • He excluded them from his councils
      • In contrast, he increased the power of government officials called intendants.
        • Intendants worked for Louis , collecting taxes and administering justice.
    • Louis devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance.
      • His minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert assisted in achieving these goals.
      • Colbert passed many laws that benefited French business while discouraging imported goods.
    • French business was booming, until Colbert’s death.
      • Louis inadvertently hurt the French economy by cancelling the Edict of Nantes , which protected the religious freedom of the Huguenots.
      • As a result, many of the Huguenot businessmen and artists fled the country.
      • This robbed the country of many skilled workers.
  • 13. Fancy Pants Louis
    • Louis spent a fortune to surround himself with luxury.
      • Every meal was a feast
        • One observer reported that once devoured four plates of soup, a whole pheasant, a partridge in garlic sauce, two slices of ham, a salad, a plate of pastries, fruit, and hard-boiled eggs in a single sitting!
      • Nearly 500 cooks, waiters, and other servants worked to satisfy his needs.
      • While walking around his palace, he enjoyed looking at the fountains. However, there was not enough water pressure to run them all at once.
        • So, a servant would run ahead of Louis, turn on the fountain just before Louis would see it, then turn it off after he had walked past.
  • 14. Is my shirt tail hanging out? Don’t be tryin’ to look up my skirt. I got my tights on…. Seriously, what the heck am I wearing?
  • 15. The Palace at Versailles Cost: estimated $2 billion Main building: 500 yards long 2,000 rooms Labor force: 36,000 laborers 6,000 horses 15,000 acres of gardens 1,400 fountains
  • 16. The Daily Routine
    • Every Morning, the chief valet woke Louis at 7:30
    • Outside the curtains of his canopy bed stood at least 100 of the most privileged nobles in France, waiting to help the king dress.
      • Only 4 were given the honor of handing him his slippers or holding his sleeves for him
    • Once he was dressed, the lesser nobles waited outside his bedroom, hoping Louis would notice them.
      • A kingly nod, a glance of approval, a kind word, – these signs of royal attention determined whether a noble would succeed or fail.
  • 17. A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T
    • He looked to the right and to the left, not only upon rising but upon going to bed, at his meals, in passing through his apartments, or his gardens. . . . He marked well all absentees from the Court, found out the reason of their absence, and never lost an opportunity of acting toward them as the occasion might seem to justify. . . . When their names were in any way mentioned, “I do not know them,” the King would reply haughtily.
        • DUKE OF SAINT-SIMON, Memoirs of Louis XIV and the Regency
  • 18. Why all the attention?
    • It obviously appealed to Louis’ arrogance.
    • However, there was an alternative reason that Louis required his nobles wait on him daily.
      • During the feudal times, nobles were very powerful because they had tremendous freedom to govern as they wished.
      • By making the nobles stay within the grounds of Versailles, they no longer had free time to govern.
        • With no time to govern, they lost control of their subjects and, thus, lost their power.
        • That power over the citizens now belonged to King Louis.
    • In this sly way, Louis did limit the powers of the nobles, all without a fight!!!
  • 19. Louis: Smart guy, bad decisions
    • War
    • Result
      • 1667- invaded Spanish Netherlands
      • 1672-invaded Dutch Netherlands
      • 1680’s- many other minor wars with small European countries
      • 1689- Many European countries joined together to defeat France. Now, even the small countries had the protection of the powerful nations.
    • Frequent wars, massive taxation, and a series of poor harvests brought great suffering to the French people.
    • The people were tired of the King Louis.
    • When he died in 1715, the people of France rejoiced.
  • 20.  
  • 21. Ivan the Terrible
    • Absolute Rulers
  • 22. Ivan
    • Became ruler when he was only 3.
    • The boyars , or nobles, tried to control Ivan when he was young.
    • At the age of 16, he claimed the throne and crowned himself czar.
      • A Czar is an absolute ruler, taken from the Roman “Caesar”
    • Married the beautiful Anastasia
    • From 1547 to 1560 were known as Ivan’s good period.
      • Won great war victories, passed many good laws, and ruled justly
  • 23. Now, the Terror
    • In 1560, Anastasia died.
      • He accused the boyars of poisoning Anastasia.
    • He turned against the nobles
      • Organized a police force whose job was to hunt down and murder people he considered traitors.
          • This secret police force dressed in black and rode black horses.
    • Ivan had thousands of people murdered.
    • At the height of “crazy”, he killed his oldest son, who was the heir to his throne.
      • When Ivan died 3 years later, he was forced to leave his kingdom to his weak second son.
  • 24. Rise of the Romanovs
    • Ivan’s son was both physically and mentally incapable of ruling over Russia.
      • After he died without an heir, Russia went through the “Time of Troubles” in which many boyars were fighting for the throne.
    • Eventually, representatives met and chose Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Anastasia, as the next leader.
  • 25. Peter the Great
    • Absolute Monarchs
  • 26. Peter the Great
    • A descendant of Michael Romanov, Peter at first had to share the throne with his feeble- minded half brother.
      • Eventually, Peter became the sole ruler of Russia.
    • Came to be known as Peter the Great because he was one of Russia’s greatest leaders and reformers.
    • He was a big man, over 6’6” tall!!!
  • 27. Russia’s differences from Europe
    • During the beginning of Peter’s reign, Russia was still stuck in the Middle Ages while the rest of Europe was evolving.
      • Nobles ruled over serfs
      • Their land was physically cut off from interaction with Western Europe.
      • Religious differences (remember the Great Schism) had separated the Eastern Christianity in Russia from the Western Christianity in Western Europe.
  • 28. Peter visits the West
    • 1 year after becoming czar, he embarked on the “Grand Embassy”, a long visit to Western Europe.
      • His goal was to learn more about Western Europe’s customs and industrial techniques.
    • On his journey, he insisted on keeping his identity secret.
      • This was hard to conceal, considering he traveled with 200 servants and 55 boyars.
      • Still, he dressed in plain clothes and would rebuke anyone who addressed him as “Sire” or “Your Majesty.”
    • He visited England and Austria before returning home.
  • 29. Peter’s Reforms
    • Peter was determined to Westernize Russia.
      • He wanted to remake Russia using Western ideas and technology.
    • He knew that many people would refuse, so he increased his power as an absolute ruler.
    • He:
      • Brought the Russian Orthodox Church under state control
      • Abolished the office of patriarch, which was head of the church
      • Reduced the power of the wealthy landowners.
      • In order to gain loyalty, he took power away from the wealthy and gave that power to lower-ranking families that promised loyalty.
        • These men and women pledged their lives to Peter.
      • Hired European military offices to drill his soldiers
  • 30. Westernizing Russia
    • In order to make Russia more like Western Europe, he:
      • Introduced potatoes, which would later become the staple food of Russia.
      • Started Russia’s 1 st newspaper (edited the 1 st edition himself)
      • Raised women’s status by having them attend social gatherings
      • Ordered nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western European fashions.
  • 31. A New Capital
    • Peter believed Russia’s future depended on having a warm-water seaport.
    • To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West.
    • He began building the new capital on the swampy, unhealthy lands close to the Baltic Sea.
    • An estimated 25,000 to 100,000 died from disease and poor working conditions while building St. Petersburg , which is named after Peter’s patron saint.
    • When it was finished, he ordered many of the Russian nobles to leave the comforts of Moscow and relocate to St. Petersburg.
  • 32.