Absolute Monarchs Of Europe


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Philip II, King Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the Great

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Absolute Monarchs Of Europe

  1. 1. Ch. 21 Absolute Monarchs of Europe
  2. 2. Philip II <ul><li>Absolute Monarchs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Philip II <ul><li>Son of Charles V </li></ul><ul><li>Took power after Charles V divided his empire into 5 parts and retired to a monastery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philip was considered shy, serious, and deeply religious. </li></ul><ul><li>Philip’s guarded personality left many people suspicious of him, and he was equally suspicious of other people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His court historian wrote, “His smile and his dagger were very close.” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Philip’s Empire <ul><li>Thanks to the American Colonies, Spain was becoming very rich. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1550 and 1650, Spain had imported 339,000 pounds of gold and 16,000 tons of silver from the Americas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free money, thanks to mercantilism!!! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How much money? <ul><li>Time for some math: get your calculator’s out. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on today’s prices, let’s see how much gold and silver was stolen from the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>This gold and silver was mined by the Native Americans, who were never paid for their work or minerals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, gold is selling at $1100/ ounce and silver at $16.40/ ounce </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Do the Math <ul><li>Gold @ $1,100/ounce </li></ul><ul><li>Silver @ $16.40/ounce </li></ul><ul><li>339,000 lb of gold </li></ul><ul><li>Convert lbs to oz: 339,000 X 16 </li></ul><ul><li>5,424,000 oz X $1,100 </li></ul><ul><li>$5,966,400,000 </li></ul><ul><li>16,000 tons of silver </li></ul><ul><li>Convert tons to oz: 16,000 X 2,000 X 16 </li></ul><ul><li>512,000,000 oz X $16.40 </li></ul><ul><li>$8,396,800,000 </li></ul>Total: $14,363,200,000
  7. 7. Philip’s Cut <ul><ul><li>The king himself kept between ¼ to 1/5 of every shipload for his royal share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$14,363,200,000 X .25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, King Philip II kept about $3,590,800,000 worth of gold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since money = power, it was pretty easy to see how Philip continued to gain more power until he was ultimately considered Spain’s absolute monarch. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Escorial, Philip II’s Palace El Escorial
  9. 9. Defender of Catholicism <ul><li>Philip II took the throne while Europe was experiencing many religious wars. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1571, Philip sent the Spanish Armada to fight against the Ottoman Empire’s Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle at Lepanto was one of the world most decisive battles, with the Spanish Armada completely destroying the Ottoman Empire’s Navy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later, he battled against Protestant England. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t fare as well. His fleet was defeated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These many religious battles, along with rising inflation from all of that free money from the American Colonies, would eventually cause the Spanish state to declare bankruptcy! </li></ul><ul><li>Que Lastima!!! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Louis XIV <ul><li>Absolute Monarchs </li></ul>
  11. 11. King Louis XIV <ul><li>His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longest documented reign of any European monarch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became ruler when he was only 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When he first became king, the true ruler of France was Cardinal Mazarin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many nobles hated Mazarin because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During many of the riots, Louis’ young life was threatened by the upset nobles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Louis remembered this and determined to become so powerful that he could never be threatened again. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His hatred of the nobles would later affect France’s balance of power. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, the 23 year-old Louis took control of the government. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Almost immediately, Louis weakened the power of the nobles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He excluded them from his councils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast, he increased the power of government officials called intendants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intendants worked for Louis , collecting taxes and administering justice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert assisted in achieving these goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colbert passed many laws that benefited French business while discouraging imported goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French business was booming, until Colbert’s death. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis inadvertently hurt the French economy by cancelling the Edict of Nantes , which protected the religious freedom of the Huguenots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, many of the Huguenot businessmen and artists fled the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This robbed the country of many skilled workers. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Fancy Pants Louis <ul><li>Louis spent a fortune to surround himself with luxury. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every meal was a feast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One observer reported that once devoured four plates of soup, a whole pheasant, a partridge in garlic sauce, two slices of ham, a salad, a plate of pastries, fruit, and hard-boiled eggs in a single sitting! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly 500 cooks, waiters, and other servants worked to satisfy his needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While walking around his palace, he enjoyed looking at the fountains. However, there was not enough water pressure to run them all at once. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So, a servant would run ahead of Louis, turn on the fountain just before Louis would see it, then turn it off after he had walked past. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Is my shirt tail hanging out? Don’t be tryin’ to look up my skirt. I got my tights on…. Seriously, what the heck am I wearing?
  15. 15. The Palace at Versailles Cost: estimated $2 billion Main building: 500 yards long 2,000 rooms Labor force: 36,000 laborers 6,000 horses 15,000 acres of gardens 1,400 fountains
  16. 16. The Daily Routine <ul><li>Every Morning, the chief valet woke Louis at 7:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the curtains of his canopy bed stood at least 100 of the most privileged nobles in France, waiting to help the king dress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 4 were given the honor of handing him his slippers or holding his sleeves for him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once he was dressed, the lesser nobles waited outside his bedroom, hoping Louis would notice them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A kingly nod, a glance of approval, a kind word, – these signs of royal attention determined whether a noble would succeed or fail. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T <ul><li>He looked to the right and to the left, not only upon rising but upon going to bed, at his meals, in passing through his apartments, or his gardens. . . . He marked well all absentees from the Court, found out the reason of their absence, and never lost an opportunity of acting toward them as the occasion might seem to justify. . . . When their names were in any way mentioned, “I do not know them,” the King would reply haughtily. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DUKE OF SAINT-SIMON, Memoirs of Louis XIV and the Regency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Why all the attention? <ul><li>It obviously appealed to Louis’ arrogance. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there was an alternative reason that Louis required his nobles wait on him daily. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the feudal times, nobles were very powerful because they had tremendous freedom to govern as they wished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By making the nobles stay within the grounds of Versailles, they no longer had free time to govern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With no time to govern, they lost control of their subjects and, thus, lost their power. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That power over the citizens now belonged to King Louis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In this sly way, Louis did limit the powers of the nobles, all without a fight!!! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Louis: Smart guy, bad decisions <ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1667- invaded Spanish Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1672-invaded Dutch Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1680’s- many other minor wars with small European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1689- Many European countries joined together to defeat France. Now, even the small countries had the protection of the powerful nations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequent wars, massive taxation, and a series of poor harvests brought great suffering to the French people. </li></ul><ul><li>The people were tired of the King Louis. </li></ul><ul><li>When he died in 1715, the people of France rejoiced. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Ivan the Terrible <ul><li>Absolute Rulers </li></ul>
  21. 22. Ivan <ul><li>Became ruler when he was only 3. </li></ul><ul><li>The boyars , or nobles, tried to control Ivan when he was young. </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 16, he claimed the throne and crowned himself czar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Czar is an absolute ruler, taken from the Roman “Caesar” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Married the beautiful Anastasia </li></ul><ul><li>From 1547 to 1560 were known as Ivan’s good period. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Won great war victories, passed many good laws, and ruled justly </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Now, the Terror <ul><li>In 1560, Anastasia died. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He accused the boyars of poisoning Anastasia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He turned against the nobles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized a police force whose job was to hunt down and murder people he considered traitors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This secret police force dressed in black and rode black horses. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ivan had thousands of people murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>At the height of “crazy”, he killed his oldest son, who was the heir to his throne. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Ivan died 3 years later, he was forced to leave his kingdom to his weak second son. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Rise of the Romanovs <ul><li>Ivan’s son was both physically and mentally incapable of ruling over Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After he died without an heir, Russia went through the “Time of Troubles” in which many boyars were fighting for the throne. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventually, representatives met and chose Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Anastasia, as the next leader. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Peter the Great <ul><li>Absolute Monarchs </li></ul>
  25. 26. Peter the Great <ul><li>A descendant of Michael Romanov, Peter at first had to share the throne with his feeble- minded half brother. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, Peter became the sole ruler of Russia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Came to be known as Peter the Great because he was one of Russia’s greatest leaders and reformers. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a big man, over 6’6” tall!!! </li></ul>
  26. 27. Russia’s differences from Europe <ul><li>During the beginning of Peter’s reign, Russia was still stuck in the Middle Ages while the rest of Europe was evolving. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles ruled over serfs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their land was physically cut off from interaction with Western Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious differences (remember the Great Schism) had separated the Eastern Christianity in Russia from the Western Christianity in Western Europe. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Peter visits the West <ul><li>1 year after becoming czar, he embarked on the “Grand Embassy”, a long visit to Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His goal was to learn more about Western Europe’s customs and industrial techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On his journey, he insisted on keeping his identity secret. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was hard to conceal, considering he traveled with 200 servants and 55 boyars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still, he dressed in plain clothes and would rebuke anyone who addressed him as “Sire” or “Your Majesty.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He visited England and Austria before returning home. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Peter’s Reforms <ul><li>Peter was determined to Westernize Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wanted to remake Russia using Western ideas and technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He knew that many people would refuse, so he increased his power as an absolute ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>He: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought the Russian Orthodox Church under state control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished the office of patriarch, which was head of the church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced the power of the wealthy landowners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to gain loyalty, he took power away from the wealthy and gave that power to lower-ranking families that promised loyalty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These men and women pledged their lives to Peter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired European military offices to drill his soldiers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Westernizing Russia <ul><li>In order to make Russia more like Western Europe, he: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced potatoes, which would later become the staple food of Russia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started Russia’s 1 st newspaper (edited the 1 st edition himself) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised women’s status by having them attend social gatherings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western European fashions. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. A New Capital <ul><li>Peter believed Russia’s future depended on having a warm-water seaport. </li></ul><ul><li>To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West. </li></ul><ul><li>He began building the new capital on the swampy, unhealthy lands close to the Baltic Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 25,000 to 100,000 died from disease and poor working conditions while building St. Petersburg , which is named after Peter’s patron saint. </li></ul><ul><li>When it was finished, he ordered many of the Russian nobles to leave the comforts of Moscow and relocate to St. Petersburg. </li></ul>