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The partition of India• When India gains its independence from the British in 1948, India winds up getting partitioned into two countries, according to religion: Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. • Pakistan was at first divided into West and East Pakistan. • This was a problem. East Pakistan gains its independence from West Pakistan in 1971 and becomes Bangladesh.
• There are political problems here and there with both.• Pakistan has suffered several military coups. The current president, Pervez Musharaf, got to be president by overthrowing the previous guy in a bloodless coup in 1999, after which he suspended the constitution and declared martial law.• Corruption and Islamic extremism can also be problems.
Economies• They’re both primarily based on agriculture, but have large populations with small per capita incomes. • The per capita income is only $2,200 in Pakistan and $2,000 in Bangladesh.• Many farmers work small plots and engage in subsistence farming: growing just enough food for themselves, but not much, if any, to sell.• Industry is small, but growing.• Microcredit has helped. • Very small loans, perhaps just $20, to people who otherwise would have trouble getting loans. • The purpose is to help build businesses.
Culture• They’re Muslim societies, but Pakistan tends to be stricter in applying Muslim law. • It’s also a center for Madrassas: Islamic schools that are often rural and extremist.• Language and ethnicities • Pakistan has several ethnicities and speaks Urdu. • Bangladesh is mainly ethnic Bengalis and speak a derivation of Sanskrit.• They’re family-centered with small dwelling.• Poetry is sometimes popular as well as a form of music called qawwali.
• Nepal and Bhutan are fairly isolated due to the Himalayan Mountains.• Both countries are kingdoms called constitutional monarchies. • This means they have kings, but the kings’ power is limited by constitutions. Nepal even has a parliament. Nepals King Gyanedra is the King Khesar of Bhutan worlds last Hindu monarch
• Economies • Due to the terrain, the economies are limited and are heavily based on farming, including terraced farming. • There’s also foresting and mountain tourism is a burgeoning sector.
• Both countries have several ethnic groups • Nepal also has the Sherpa people, who are a Buddhist Tibetan people who have gained renown as mountain guides.
Religion• Most of Nepal is Hindu, but there are strong Buddhist influences because it used to be Buddhist until Indian rulers brought in Hinduism.• Bhutan’s official religion and language is Buddhism. • The Bhutan Buddhists also make mandalas, highly ornate geometric designs to aid in meditation.
• Political problems • Nepal has had some problems in recent years. • While Nepal is a monarchy, there’s a significant number of Maoist Communist rebels in the country who seek to overthrow the government and institute communism. • It didn’t help that in 2001, the crown prince went on a killing spree, murdering his parents, brother, and sister because he was apparently unhappy at being denied his choice of bride. • He was shot in the chest during the incident, laid comatose for three days (during which he was officially king), and then died.
• The new king has had problems with the Maoists and, from 2005 to 2006, he dissolved parliament and ruled with absolute power. • When parliament was reinstituted in 2006, it promptly went about stripping the monarchy of most its power.
Ch. 25, sections 2-3 questions (pgs. 573-583)1. What/when was the partition of India?2. What area are Pakistan and India still fighting over?3. What is microcredit?4. What is the primary religion in Pakistan?5. What is a constitutional monarchy?6. What are sherpas?7. Why does Buddhism have roots in Nepal?