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25.234 pakistan and the rest1

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  • 1. Pakistan and Bangladesh (25.2)
  • 2. The partition of India• When India gains its independence from the British in 1948, India winds up getting partitioned into two countries, according to religion: Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. • Pakistan was at first divided into West and East Pakistan. • This was a problem. East Pakistan gains its independence from West Pakistan in 1971 and becomes Bangladesh.
  • 3. • There are political problems here and there with both.• Pakistan has suffered several military coups. The current president, Pervez Musharaf, got to be president by overthrowing the previous guy in a bloodless coup in 1999, after which he suspended the constitution and declared martial law.• Corruption and Islamic extremism can also be problems.
  • 4. Economies• They’re both primarily based on agriculture, but have large populations with small per capita incomes. • The per capita income is only $2,200 in Pakistan and $2,000 in Bangladesh.• Many farmers work small plots and engage in subsistence farming: growing just enough food for themselves, but not much, if any, to sell.• Industry is small, but growing.• Microcredit has helped. • Very small loans, perhaps just $20, to people who otherwise would have trouble getting loans. • The purpose is to help build businesses.
  • 5. Culture• They’re Muslim societies, but Pakistan tends to be stricter in applying Muslim law. • It’s also a center for Madrassas: Islamic schools that are often rural and extremist.• Language and ethnicities • Pakistan has several ethnicities and speaks Urdu. • Bangladesh is mainly ethnic Bengalis and speak a derivation of Sanskrit.• They’re family-centered with small dwelling.• Poetry is sometimes popular as well as a form of music called qawwali.
  • 6. Nepal and Bhutan
  • 7. • Nepal and Bhutan are fairly isolated due to the Himalayan Mountains.• Both countries are kingdoms called constitutional monarchies. • This means they have kings, but the kings’ power is limited by constitutions. Nepal even has a parliament. Nepals King Gyanedra is the King Khesar of Bhutan worlds last Hindu monarch
  • 8. • Economies • Due to the terrain, the economies are limited and are heavily based on farming, including terraced farming. • There’s also foresting and mountain tourism is a burgeoning sector.
  • 9. • Both countries have several ethnic groups • Nepal also has the Sherpa people, who are a Buddhist Tibetan people who have gained renown as mountain guides.
  • 10. Religion• Most of Nepal is Hindu, but there are strong Buddhist influences because it used to be Buddhist until Indian rulers brought in Hinduism.• Bhutan’s official religion and language is Buddhism. • The Bhutan Buddhists also make mandalas, highly ornate geometric designs to aid in meditation.
  • 11. • Political problems • Nepal has had some problems in recent years. • While Nepal is a monarchy, there’s a significant number of Maoist Communist rebels in the country who seek to overthrow the government and institute communism. • It didn’t help that in 2001, the crown prince went on a killing spree, murdering his parents, brother, and sister because he was apparently unhappy at being denied his choice of bride. • He was shot in the chest during the incident, laid comatose for three days (during which he was officially king), and then died.
  • 12. • The new king has had problems with the Maoists and, from 2005 to 2006, he dissolved parliament and ruled with absolute power. • When parliament was reinstituted in 2006, it promptly went about stripping the monarchy of most its power.
  • 13. Sitar
  • 14. Ch. 25, sections 2-3 questions (pgs. 573-583)1. What/when was the partition of India?2. What area are Pakistan and India still fighting over?3. What is microcredit?4. What is the primary religion in Pakistan?5. What is a constitutional monarchy?6. What are sherpas?7. Why does Buddhism have roots in Nepal?