According to Woolfolk (1991, p. 311), constructivism is based on these principles: Individuals construct their own knowledge. Social interactionsinfluence how individuals learn. What is constructivism? Joshua Hester
Joshua Hester Cognitive constructivism Emphasizes how the individual learns (Atherton, 2010) Popular theorists
Joshua Hester Why constructivism? Focuses on the student’s role Active agents of knowledge Not “passive recorders” of knowledge (Noll, 2011) Incorporates current scientific research Relationship of learning tools to child development Relationship of learning styles to subject matter Relationship of learning methods to student types
Emphasizes self-regulated learning By promoting “metacognitive learning strategies” in students (Cunliffe, 1995) By allowing students to make choices about their own education (Martin, 2004) Provides tools for cross-cultural teaching (Hutchison, 2006) Benefits of constructivism Joshua Hester
Joshua Hester What is objectivism? According to Rand (1963), objectivism is based on these principles: Reality is an absolute and immutable certainty. Reason is the only means of understanding this reality. Individuals pursue their own self-interest.
Focuses on core subject matters and methods An established set of knowledge A simple pedagogy of teaching Utilizes the existing educational structure Current teacher education system Current classroom paradigm No teacher, curricular or societal readiness is required (Noll, 2011) Why objectivism? Joshua Hester
The constructivist emphasis on students as agents of learning attempts to adapt education to expanding student diversity and methodologies. Rather than ignore the contributions of cultural diversity and instructional technology, constructivism actively leverages these aspects in both the traditional and virtual classrooms. (Yang,Yeh, & Wong, 2010) Objectivism focuses too heavily on how instructors teach and neglects how students learn. My position Joshua Hester
In biology, university students gained a deeper understanding in a constructivist classroom than a traditional one. (Christianson & Fisher, 1999) Eighth-grade students spent more time, reported a higher degree of learning and interactivity using a Web site developed through constructivist principles, than a Web site using traditional instruction. (Sherman, 1999) Supporting research Joshua Hester
Conclusion Joshua Hester Although objectivism can provide guiding principles for core subject areas and common measures for standardized evaluation, constructivism is the only tenable approach for the modern teacher. Only constructivism provides a growing repertoire of tools and methods in education. Whether the objectivist claim of one immutable reality is true or not, any philosophy of education must put students at the focus of learning and push teachers to reach them.
Atherton, J. (2010). Learning and Teaching; Constructivism in learning. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/constructivism.htm Accessed: 22 July 2010 Christianson, R., & Fisher, K. (1999). Comparison of Student Learning about Diffusion and Osmosis in Constructivist and Traditional Classrooms. International Journal of Science Education, 21(6), 687-98. Retrieved from ERIC database. Cunliffe, A. (1995). How Do My Students Believe They Learn? Retrieved from ERIC database. Hutchison, C. (2006). Cultural Constructivism: The Confluence of Cognition, Knowledge Creation, Multiculturalism, and Teaching. Intercultural Education, 17(3), 301-310. Retrieved from ERIC database. Martin, J. (2004). Self-Regulated Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, and Agency. Educational Psychologist, 39(2), 135-145. Retrieved from ERIC database. References Joshua Hester
Noll, J. W. (2011). Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues (16th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Rand, A. (1962) Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved from the Ayn Rand Education Web site: http://aynrandeducation.com/ayn-rand-ideas/introducing-objectivism.html Accessed: 22 July 2010 Woolfolk, A. (2010). Educational Psychology (11th Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Yang, Y., Yeh, H., & Wong, W. (2010). The Influence of Social Interaction on Meaning Construction in a Virtual Community. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), 287-306. Retrieved from ERIC database. References (cont’d) Joshua Hester