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  • 1. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION  Bridging the GAP and Raising the  BAR Through  Balanced Multiliteracy Education  Presented by John Medina  
  • 2. The Whats, Whys and Hows of Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)
  • 3. THE WHATS
  • 4. THE WHAT’S? Mother Tongue Second Language Bridging Multilingual Education Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education Mother Tongue Instruction
  • 5. WHAT IS MOTHER TONGUE? Mother tongue. The language(s) that one has learned first; referred to as first language (L1), home language or heritage language. Language of the child’s home – his thoughts are encoded in this language.
  • 6. WHAT IS SECOND LANGUAGE? Second Language (L2). A second language learned after L1. A second language learned at school for formal educational purposes.
  • 7. WHAT IS REGIONAL LANGUAGE? Regional Language refers to the lingua franca or the commonly spoken language of a region
  • 8. WHAT IS BRIDGING? Bridging is the process of transitioning from learning one language to another. It also refers to the use of L1 as the initial medium of instruction, gradually introducing increasing amounts of instruction in L2, until either L1 is phased out entirely, or both L1 and L2 are used as media of instruction.
  • 9.  Early-exit transition. The mother tongue or L1 is the medium of instruction (MO1 for 2-3 years, then switch to L2 and/or L3 as MO1  Late-exit transition. The mother tongue or L1 is the medium of instruction for 5-6 years or more, then switch to L2 and/or L3 asanMO1.
  • 10. WHAT IS MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION?  It is term adapted by UNESCO in 1999 to refer to the use of at least three languages, the mother tongue, a regional or national language and an international language in education.  It is education, formal or informal in which the learner’s mother tongue and additional language are used in the classroom.
  • 11. Mother tongue-based multilingual education is education, formal or non - formal, in which the learner’s mother tongue and additional languages are used in the classroom. Learners begin their education in the language they understand best - their mother tongue - and develop a strong foundation in their mother language before adding additional languages. WHAT IS MOTHER TONGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION?
  • 12. WHAT IS MOTHER-TONGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (MTB-MLE)? MTBMLE is a learner-centered, active basic education which starts in the mother tongue and gradually introduces one or more other languages in a structural manner, linked to children’s understanding in their first language or mother tongue.
  • 13. WHAT IS MOTHER-TONGUE INSTRUCTION?  generally refers to the use of the learner’s mother tongue as medium of instruction for teaching and learning.  covers both the teaching of and the through teaching the language.  considered as foundation of quality and relevant education.
  • 14. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION  is a structured program of language learning and cognitive development providing  a strong educational foundation in the first language  successful bridging to one or more additional languages  enabling the use of both/all languages for life-long learning
  • 15. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION is based in the child’s own known environment and bridges to the wider world. “Known to Unknown”
  • 16. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION Meaning based education enables students to learn well because they understand what the teacher is saying.
  • 17. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION Using the culture the child knows enables immediate comprehension from which new concepts can be built – going from the known to the unknown.
  • 18. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION Reading in the mother tongue enables immediate comprehension
  • 19. THE WHYS
  • 20. THE WHYS? Language Acquisition Language Learning Benefits of MTBMLE Legal Foundations of MTBMLE
  • 21. STATEMENT FROM PRES. NOYNOY AQUINO… “My view on this is larger than just the classroom. We should become tri-lingual as a country;  Learn English well and connect to the world.  Learn Filipino well and connect to our country.  Retain your mother tongue and connect to your heritage."
  • 22. MOTHER TONGUE AS MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION AND AS A SUBJECT Mother Tongue shall be used as a medium of instruction and as a subject from Grades 1 to 3. English or Filipino shall be used from Grades 4 to 10. DepEd Order 31, s. 2012 
  • 23. Why should the early graders be taught (in all subjects) in their MotherTongue first?
  • 24. MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION The purpose of a multilingual education program is to develop appropriate cognitive and reasoning skills enabling children to operate equally in different languages - starting in the mother tongue with transition to Filipino and English.
  • 25. DEFINE THE GOALS/PURPOSES OF EDUCATION AS YOU SEE THEM prepares students to be responsible, mature, and productive citizens who will uphold the pride of the nation and their parents
  • 26. WHAT DO PARENTS SAY ABOUT THE PURPOSE OF SCHOOLING? “I send my child to school to learn English.”
  • 27. HOW DO TEACHERS GENERALLY TEACH ENGLISH? Through teaching reading of
  • 29. Together read this paragraph  Melek  aksara  adalah  kemampuan  untuk  mengidentifikasi,  mengerti,  menerjemahkan,  membuat, mengkomunikasikan dan mengolah  isi  dari  rangkaian  teks  yang  terdapat  pada  bahan‐bahan cetak dan tulisan yang berkaitan  dengan berbagai situasi.  
  • 30. Read and discuss this paragraph.  La  République  des  Philippines  est  un  pays  constituée  d'un  archipel  de  7  107  îles  dont  onze d'entre elles totalisent plus de 90 % des  terres et un peu plus de 2 000 seulement sont  habitées,  alors  qu'environ  2  400  îles  n'ont  même  pas  reçu  de  nom.    On  distingue  trois zones géographiques : Luçon, les Visayas  et Mindanao. Luçon est l'île la plus vaste et la  plus septentrionale, et qui abrite sa capitale,  Manille,  et  la  plus  grande  ville  du  pays,  Quezon City.  
  • 31. Learning Language One does not learn in a language that he does not understand. When a beginning learner thinks, he uses the language that he grew up with.
  • 32. May 9 na gamgam sa sanga kan bayawas. Naglupad si 6 na gamgam. Pirang gamgam an natada sa sanga kan bayawas? There are 9 birds on the branch of a guava tree. 6 birds flew away. How many birds were left on the branch of the guava tree? Let’s read this: 
  • 33. Good Morning Children! I am Miss Arce I am your English teacher FIRST DAY IN GRADE 1 CLASS What is my teacher saying?
  • 34. THE LANGUAGE QUESTION Pupils do not understand what their teacher is saying, and therefore they cannot follow the lesson. Why? Because the language in school is one that they can hardly understand. The school language is NOT their language.
  • 35. All children CAN learn to read to read with understanding within the first few years of schooling . . . in a language that they use . . . in a language that they understand.
  • 36. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING How does one acquire a language? How does one learn other languages?
  • 37. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING Language Acquisition • natural way of acquiring a language • does not necessitate a formal study • happens naturally at home and in the child’s immediate environment • good models would help a child acquire a language well.
  • 38. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING Language Learning • the process of acquiring another language in a more formal way. • usually this happens in school • various approaches are employed in order for the learner to learn another language.
  • 39. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING In school . . . there should be a smooth transition from a child’s home language to learning a second language . . .and learning using the second language as a medium.
  • 40. Beginning Literacy in L1 “Naglalaro kami ni kuya ng bola.” experience oral language printed symbols May bola sina Bong at Lani. Naglalaro sila ng bola. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING Kami rin!
  • 41. 41 THEREFORE….. Experience Oral Symbols in L1 Printed Symbols in L1 Oral Symbols Printed SymbolsIn L2
  • 42. Learners whose mother tongue is the language of instruction and the language of literacy. Minority language learners who do not speak the language used when they enter school or an education program
  • 43. StrongandEffectiveEducation KNOWN UNKNOWN Child’s World View Child’s First Language Child’s Knowledge Structures Greg Dekker 
  • 44. BENEFITS OF MTBMLE There is ample research showing that students are quicker to learn to read and write and acquire academic skills when first taught in their mother tongue or L1. They learn second language more quickly than those initially taught to read in an unfamiliar language.
  • 45. Language Development Socio-Cultural Development Four Aspects of Development Cognitive Development
  • 46. 1. Language development:  Students will establish a strong educational foundation in the language they know best;
  • 47.  they will build a good “bridge” to the school language(s), and  they will be prepared to use both / all of their languages for success in school and for life-long learning.
  • 48. 2. Cognitive Development Cognitive development begins at home at birth. School activities will engage learners to move well beyond the basic questions of who, what, when and where to cover all higher order thinking skills in the learners L1, their language of thought.
  • 49. These higher order thinking skills will: - transfer to the other languages once enough Filipino or English has been acquired to use these skills in thinking and articulating thought, and - be used in the process of acquiring English and Filipino more effectively
  • 50. 3. ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT:  Students will achieve academic competencies in each subject area and, at the end of the program;  they will be prepared to enter and achieve well in the mainstream education system.
  • 51. 4. SOCIAL-CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT:  Students will be proud of their heritage language and culture, and respect the languages and cultures of others;  they will be prepared to contribute productively to their own community and to the larger society.
  • 52. THE END RESULT: CHILDREN WHO ARE … Multilingual Multi-literate Multi-cultural
  • 53. Competencies to be achieved by the end of Grade 3 Same competencies but different paths Mainstream children who speak the school language L1 (school language) Mainstream children who do NOT speak the school language
  • 54. WILL MLE EMPOWER THE LEARNERS? Yes. They can immediately use their L1 to construct and explain their world and articulate their thoughts without fear of making mistakes. They can now understand what is being discussed and what is being asked of them, and therefore they can now actively participate in class.
  • 55. WILL MLE EMPOWER THE TEACHERS? Yes, particularly when they are more fluent and adept in their L1 than in their L2 Because the students can now express themselves, their teachers can more accurately assess what has been learned and identify the learning areas where students need help.
  • 56. WILL MLE EMPOWER THE PARENTS AND THE COMMUNITY? Yes. The parents can now take an active part in the education of their children because the school language is also their language. MLE makes it possible for the community to produce its own culturally relevant materials, together with the local writers, illustrators, artists and cultural groups.
  • 57. INITIATIVES IN MLE A. Experiments: a. First Iloilo Experiment (1948-1954) : Hiligaynon as MOI in Grades 1 & II b. Second Iloilo Language Experiment (1961- 1964) Hiligaynon is used in first two grades
  • 58. c. Rizal Experiment (1960 – 1966) - Tagalog as MOI in Grade I d. First Language Component-Bridging Program (FLC-BP) on “transitional” education (1986 – 1993) – Children’s L1 in Grades 1 & 2 and transition to Filipino and English
  • 59. B. THE LINGUA FRANCA EDUCATION (LFE) PILOT STUDY – 1999-2002  Define and implement national bridging program from mother tongue to Filipino and English to develop initial literacy
  • 60.  Use 4 of largest lingua francas as MOI in grades 1 and 2:Tagalog, Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Ilocano  Attempt to bridge learned concept from MT to Filipino and English
  • 61. C. LUBUAGAN KALINGA MLE PROGRAM  Implemented by Summer Institute of Linguistics for 10 years  3 experimental classes implementing MTB-MLE approach
  • 62.  3 control classes using traditional method of immersion in English and Filipino  Schools are of same SES (Social Economic Status)
  • 63. GRADE1  GRADE2  GRADE3  CONTROL  EXPER.  CONTROL  EXPER.  CONTROL  EXPER.  Reading  52.8  75.5  54.9  78.3  53.4  79.2  Math  48.9  82.1  61.9  80.3  49.5  76.2  Filipino  57.1  68.4  51.9  81.4  62.9  70.6  Makabayan  57.9  81.4  60.9  80.8  50  74.7  English  52.8  72.4  54.9  62.1  53.4  77.1  Overall  53.5  75.9  56.9  77.8  53.9  75.1 
  • 64. RESULTS OF DIFFERENT INITIATIVES  Children who began school in first language with bridging to two second languages  were significantly more competent in all areas of study than their counterparts  outperformed English-taught students in reading, math and social studies  learn to read more quickly and learn better in Math and Science  were observed to be actively participating in different classroom activities o Drop-out and repetition rates decreased
  • 65. HE HOWS
  • 66. THE HOWS? MTBMLE in K to 12 DepEd’s MTBMLE Framework Bridging, Transitioning and Teaching
  • 67.    MTBMLE in the K to 12  Basic Education  Curriculum  Three years ago,  a bold step  pertaining to the language issue  was made at the DepEd. 
  • 68.  
  • 70. LISTENING  SPEAKING AND  VIEWING  READING  VIEWING AND  RESPONDING  WRITING AND  REPRESENTING  THINKING  MAKING MEANING  THROUGH LANGUAGE  •for different  purposes  • on a range of  topics  • on a variety of  audiences  THINKING  THINKING  MAKING MEANING  THROUGH LANGUAGE  • for different  purposes  •on a range of topics  •on a variety of  audiences  
  • 71. DepEd Order No. 74 s. 2009  “Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education”
  • 72. vision:   MTB MLE For Relevant And              Quality Education For All Children Desired Impact:         Learners are enjoying relevant and  quality education which supports their  home languages and cultures; learning  outcomes are improved countrywide; and  the Philippine is succeeding in its goal for  Education for All.
  • 73.   Six  Focused   Areas  Social Preparation and Advocacy In-Service Training (INSET) of Teachers and School Managers Materials Development Pre- Service Teacher Education Policy Development and Resource Mobilization Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation COMPONENTS OF MTB-MLE STRATEGIC PLAN
  • 74. •  Nation‐wide initiated Write‐shops on       Materials Development – Graded       Reading Big Books for 15 Languages      (8 + Yakan, Chavacano,      Maguindanaon, Manobo,      Sambal, Maranao, Tiboli   •  Adapted Curriculum   •  Lessons Exemplars   •  Primer lesson for 15 languages   
  • 75. HS  Language  Arts  Math  Science  Makabayan  Filipino  English and  Other Foreign  Languages  Grade VI  Language  Arts  Math  Science  Makabayan  Filipino  English  Grade V  Language  Arts  Math  Science  Makabayan  Filipino  English  Grade IV  Language  Arts (M.T.)  Math    Math  Science    Science  Makabayan    Makabayan  Filipino    Filipino  English    English  Grade III  Mother Tongue Language, Reading, Writing, Math    Sibika, Science  English  LSRW  Filipino    Filipino  LSRW  Grade II          Grade I  Mother Tongue Language, Reading, Writing, Math    Sibika, Science      Mother Tongue Language, Reading, Writing, Math    Sibika, Science  Filipino  LSRW      Oral  Filipino  Oral English          Oral English  Kindergarten  Mother Tongue all subjects 
  • 76. Maraming Salamat Po! Balbaleg Ya Salamat Ed Sikayon Amin!   Daghang Salamat Sa Inyong Tanan! Dios Mabalos! Agyamanak Unay Kadakayo Amin! Madamo Gid Nga Salamat Sa Inyo Nga Tanan! Muchas Gracias! Sukran! Thank You Very Much!