Political Development of the Philippine Government
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Political Development of the Philippine Government

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Political Development of the Philippine Government.

Political Development of the Philippine Government.
Transition of Government as different conquerors take place.

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Political Development of the Philippine Government Political Development of the Philippine Government Presentation Transcript

  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES  Prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, the Philippines was composed of settlements or villages, each called barangay, named after balangay, a Malayan word meaning “boat”.
  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES  Every barangay was virtually a state, for it possessed the four basic elements of statehood. At times, however, some barangays joined together as “confederations” mainly for the purpose of mutual protection against common enemies.
  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES  Each barangay was ruled by a chief called datu in some places, and rajah, sultan or hadji in others. He was its chief executive, law giver, chief judge, and military head. In the performance of his duties, however, he was assisted usually by a council of elders (maginoos) which served as his advertisers. In form, the barangay was monarchy with the wealth, or physical prowess.
  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES  The people of the barangay were divided into four classes, namely: the nobility (maharlika), to which the datu belonged, the freemen (timawa), the serfs (aliping namamhay), and the slaves (aliping sagigilid). SOCIAL CLASSES IN THE BARANGAY
  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES  The early Filipinos had both written and unwritten laws. The written laws were promulgated by the datus. The two known written codes in the pre- Spanish era are the “Maragtas Code” which was said to have been written about 1250 A.D by Datu Sumakwel of Panay, and the Kalantiaw Code written in 1433 A.D by Datu Kalantiaw, also of Panay. EARLY LAWS
  • THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES  It can be said that the laws of the barangay were generally fair. The system of government, although defective was not so bad considering the conditions in other lands in the age during which it flourished. COMPARISON WITH OTHER ANCIENT GOVERNMENTS
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  It was based on the discovery made by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, consummated by its conquest by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi 45 years later and long possession for almost four centuries, until it was terminated in 1898, when by the Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the United States. SPAIN’S TITLE TO THE PHILIPPINES
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was indirectly governed by the King of Spain through Mexico. From 1821 when Mexico obtained her independence from Spain, to 1898, the Philippines was ruled directly from Spain. SPANISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  From 1863, the military of Ultramar (colonies) exercised general powers of supervision over Philippine affairs. Three times during the Spanish period (1810-1813, 1820-1823, and 1836-1837), the Philippines was given representation in the Spanish cortes, the legislative body of Spain. SPANISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  The government which Spain established in the Philippines was centralized in structure and national in scope. The barangays were consolidated into towns each headed by a GOBERNADORCILLO, popularly called capitan, and the towns into provinces, each headed by a governor who represented the Governor General in the province. GOVERNMENT IN THE PHILIPPINE UNITARY
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  The power of the government were actually exercised by the Governor-General who resided in Manila. He was “Governor-General” “Captain-General”, and “vice-royal patron.” As Governor-General, he had executive, administrative, legislative and judicial powers. THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  As Captain-General, he was Commander-in-Chief of all the Armed Forces in the Philippines. As the vice- royal patron, he exercised certain religious powers. Because of these broad powers, it has been said that the Governor General enjoyed more powers than the King of Spain himself. This was justified, however, because of the distance of the Philippines from Spain. THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL
  • PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH PERIOD  In the administration of the Philippines, the Governor-General was assisted by many boards and officers, particularly the Board of Authorities and the Council of Administration. THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The Katipunan was secret society that precipitated our glorious revolution on August 26, 1896. It was organized by Andres Bonifacio. The central government of the Katipunan was vested in a Supreme Council (Kataastaasang Sanggunian). In each province there was a Provincial Council (Sangguniang Balangay) and in each town, a Popular Council (Sanggunian Bayan). THE KATIPUNAN GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The Judicial Power was exercised by a Judicial Council (Sangguniang Hukuman). The Katipunan was replaced by another government whose officials headed by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo as President, were elected in the Tejeros Convention held on March 22, 1897. THE KATIPUNAN GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  On November 1, 1897, a republic was established by Gen. Aguinaldo in Biak-na-Bato (now San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan). It had a constitution which was to take effect for two years only. THE BIAK NA BATO REPUBLIC
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  . It declared that the aim of the revolutions was the “separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and their formation into an independence state.” The Biak-na-Bato Republic lasted up to December 15, 1897, with conclusion of the “Pact of Biak-na-Bato.” THE BIAK NA BATO REPUBLIC
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  Following the outbreak of the Spanish-American war on April 25, 1898, Gen. Aguinaldo in view of the chaotic conditions in the country, established the Dictatorial Government on May 24, 1898. THE DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The most important achievements of the Dictatorial Government were the Proclamation of the Philippine Independence at Kawit on June 12, 1898 and the reorganization of local governments. THE DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  In the administration of the Philippines, the Governor-General was assisted by many boards and officers, particularly the Board of Authorities and the Council of Administration. THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  On June 23, 1898, Gen. Aguinaldo established the Revolutionary Government replacing the Dictatorial Government. THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The decree-making such change stated that the aims of the new government were “struggle for the independence of the Philippines, until all nations including Spain will expressly recognize it,” and “to prepare the country for the establishment of a real Republic.” THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The American military rule in the Philippines began on April 4, 1898, the day after the capture of Manila. The existence of was gave the President of the United States the power to establish a Military Government in the Philippines, as Commander-in-Chief of all Armed Forces of the United States. THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  His authority was delegated to the military governor who exercised as long as the war lasted, all powers of government – executive, legislative and judicial. The first American Military Governor was General Wesley Merritt, the second was General Elwell E. Otis, and the third and last was Major General Arthur MacArthur. THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  Pursuant to the so-called Spooner Amendment (on the army appropriation act passed in the US Congress on March 3, 1901) which ended the military regime in the Philippines, the Civil Government was inaugurated in Manila on July 4, 1901. THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The Civil Governor whose positions was created on October 29, 1901. The Civil Governor, also exercised legislative powers. He remained as President of the Philippine Comission, the sole law-making body of the government from 1901 to 1907. THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  From 1907 to 1916, the Philippine Commission acted as the upper house of the legislative branch with the Philippine Assembly serving as the lower house. With the passage of the Spooner Law in 1916, these two bodies gave way to the Philippine Legislature. The Philippines was represented in the United States by two Resident Commissioners who were elected the Philippine Legislature. THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The next stage in the political development of the Filipinos was the establishment of the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines pursuant to an act of the United States Congress on March 24, 1934, commonly known was the Tydings- McDuffie Law. COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  Among other things, the law provided for a transition period of ten years during which the Philippines Commonwealth would operate and at the expiration of said period on July 4, 1896, the independence of the Philippines would be proclaimed and established. COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period  The new government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, deemed successor to the Government of the Philippine Islands, was inaugurated on November 15, 1935, following the first national election under the 1935 Constitution held on September 12, 1935, with Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña, as President and Vice-President, respectively. COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • Governments of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines
  • Governments of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines  It was established in Manila on January 3, 1942, one day after its occupation. Under a proclamation issued by the Japanese High Command, the sovereignty of United States over the Philippines was declared terminated. THE JAPANESE MILITARY ADMINISTRATION
  • Governments of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines  A Civil government known as the Philippine Executive Commission composed of Filipinos with Jorge B. Vargas as Chairman, was organized by the military forces of occupation. The commission exercised both the executive and legislative powers. THE PHILIPPINE EXECUTIVE COMMISSION
  • Governments of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines  The laws enacted were, however, subject to the approval of the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Forces. The Judiciary continued in the same form as it was under the Commonwealth. However, it functioned without the independence which it had traditionally enjoyed. THE PHILIPPINE EXECUTIVE COMMISSION
  • Governments of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines  On October 14, 1943, the so-called Japanese- sponsored Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated with Jose P. Laurel as President. It was the same character as the Philippine Executive Commission. JAPANESE-SPONSORED REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • Governments of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines  Like the latter, the ultimate source of its authority was the Japanese military authority and government, on August 17, 1945. President Laurel proclaimed the dissolution of the Republic. JAPANESE-SPONSORED REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • REFERENCES:  WEBSITE  http://aboutfilipino.com/government-of-the-philippines- during-the-spanish-era
  • JReyes/JBernadino