1
Objectives
 Describe the use of a risk-based response
 Identify the method that can be used to characterize

an unidenti...
Introduction
 Tactical use of air monitors is not easy.
 There are a number of factors to consider







Occupancy...
Introduction
 One of the best ways to learning how to effectively use

air monitors is to use them on every call.

 It i...
Risk-Based Response
 RBR for responder safety, quick assessment,
identification, and mitigation
 Improved air monitoring...
Risk-Based Response
 Air monitors are dumb devices
 Humans need to be smart and interpret results

 Responders must tru...
Risk-Based Response
 Responder can

characterize hazard.
 Monitors help

responder classify
materials into four basic
ca...
Risk-Based Response
 Risk category, chemical and physical properties and

the task determine the best level of PPE.
 PPE...
Risk-Based Response
 There are specific

situations where a Level
A ensemble is
appropriate
 Choose appropriate

protect...
Risk-Based Response
 Need a minimum of four different technologies:
 pH paper – corrosives

 LEL sensor – flammables
 ...
Basic Characterization
 Hazmat teams should

identify top ten
chemicals they deal with
and determine.
 Appropriate monit...
Meter Response
 Understand how chemicals may affect the range of air

monitors needed to classify an unidentified materia...
Meter Response
 If paper changes above or away from the spill you have

a high vapor pressure material.
 Most common aci...
Meter Response
 Fire Risk
 LEL sensor is used to

determine if there is
anything flammable
present.
 If a sensor reads ...
Risk Based Response
 What happens when a truckload of chemicals

overturns and mix together?
 Not a major concern unless...
Risk Based Response
 Proper air monitoring takes all of the GRAY out of

HAZMAT response
 Makes it black and white
 If ...
Risk Based Response
 Using RBR it really does

not matter what the
mixture is, when
chemical mix they still
present the f...
Role of Monitors in Isolation
and Evacuations.
 Most references and
 Monitors allow for the

Incident Commander to
make ...
Detection of Unidentified
materials and sampling
 Flow charts are providing in

text to guide you through the
process of ...
Summary
 Risk-Based response benefits responders and the

community.
 Using RBR allows for a safe and quick response to ...
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Module 8 tactical use of air monitors, american fork fire rescue

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Module 8 tactical use of air monitors, american fork fire rescue

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Objectives  Describe the use of a risk-based response  Identify the method that can be used to characterize an unidentified material.  Describe how detection devices respond to common materials.  Identify the role of detection devices in isolation and evacuation  Identify sampling strategies for a variety of chemical hazards 2
  3. 3. Introduction  Tactical use of air monitors is not easy.  There are a number of factors to consider      Occupancy and Location Type of material and state of matter Spill location Weather Task to complete 3
  4. 4. Introduction  One of the best ways to learning how to effectively use air monitors is to use them on every call.  It is good habit to carry monitors on calls that do not involve hazardous materials, so you can learn what they do or do not react to. 4
  5. 5. Risk-Based Response  RBR for responder safety, quick assessment, identification, and mitigation  Improved air monitoring skills will sharpen decisions about:  Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)  Isolation and evacuation distances  Severity of the event 5
  6. 6. Risk-Based Response  Air monitors are dumb devices  Humans need to be smart and interpret results  Responders must trust instruments  Instruments must be calibrated  Responder must interpret readings  Properly calibrated instrument does not lie 6
  7. 7. Risk-Based Response  Responder can characterize hazard.  Monitors help responder classify materials into four basic categories:     Flammable (fire) Corrosive Toxic Radioactive  Once a chemical has been identified, responders can protect themselves  HAZMAT teams should avoid term “unknown” as it doesn’t apply  Invariably, something is always known about a chemical  Using the state of matter can reveal some risk factors 7
  8. 8. Risk-Based Response  Risk category, chemical and physical properties and the task determine the best level of PPE.  PPE can present risk to responders  Level A ensemble does not offer the best or highest level of protection  No one chemical suit is appropriate for all chemical situations  Level A ensemble presents safety concerns related to heat stress, limited visibility, mobility, and communication 8
  9. 9. Risk-Based Response  There are specific situations where a Level A ensemble is appropriate  Choose appropriate protective clothing based on the risk  As determined by the detection devices 9
  10. 10. Risk-Based Response  Need a minimum of four different technologies:  pH paper – corrosives  LEL sensor – flammables  Photoionization detector – toxics  Radiation monitor – radiation 10
  11. 11. Basic Characterization  Hazmat teams should identify top ten chemicals they deal with and determine.  Appropriate monitors $499  Appropriate PPE  Basic Strategies  Action plan for quick action $595  Top Ten  Ammonia  Sulfur Dioxide  Chlorine  Hydrochloric Acid  Propane  Sodium Hydroxide  Sulfuric Acid  Gasoline  Flammable Liquids  Combustible Liquids 11
  12. 12. Meter Response  Understand how chemicals may affect the range of air monitors needed to classify an unidentified material. It must by classify into one of the four risk categories.  Corrosive Risk  Easiest to determine  Determine pH Multi range ph paper  Red=Acid/  Blue=Base  12
  13. 13. Meter Response  If paper changes above or away from the spill you have a high vapor pressure material.  Most common acids,  Hydrochloric Acid  Hydrofluoric Acid  Acidic Acid  Oleum  Many acids have low vapor pressure and the paper needs to be dipped into the liquid. 13
  14. 14. Meter Response  Fire Risk  LEL sensor is used to determine if there is anything flammable present.  If a sensor reads 1 than the material is a flammable gas emitting flammable vapors  Toxic Risk  A Photoionization detector identifies potentially toxic materials.  The higher the reading the more likely the material is also flammable  Most flammables are toxic before they become flammable. 14
  15. 15. Risk Based Response  What happens when a truckload of chemicals overturns and mix together?  Not a major concern unless there is a reaction.  This usually occurs prior to the arrival to responders. 15
  16. 16. Risk Based Response  Proper air monitoring takes all of the GRAY out of HAZMAT response  Makes it black and white  If the book says evacuate 7 miles  If the air monitor says 7 feet  Which is more accurate 16
  17. 17. Risk Based Response  Using RBR it really does not matter what the mixture is, when chemical mix they still present the four basic risks.  Fire, Corrosive, Toxic, Radiation.  Choose the proper PPE for the risk  Determine isolation and evacuation distances  Determine the severity of the incident.  Use of RBR does not rely on knowing the exact makeup of the material.  Only the significant hazards. 17
  18. 18. Role of Monitors in Isolation and Evacuations.  Most references and  Monitors allow for the Incident Commander to make immediate decisions regarding isolation and evacuations.  Method provides for real time, accurate, and scientifically backed decision. computer models are very conservative.  May require that large area be isolated.  Detection devices can determine the exact area that is hazardous and what is safe. 18
  19. 19. Detection of Unidentified materials and sampling  Flow charts are providing in text to guide you through the process of characterizing an unidentified material.  It is impossible to 100 percent identify a material in the field.  RBR and sampling strategies.  Can help place a material into a category  Place material into a chemical family.  Examples of Flow charts  Unidentified Solid  Unidentified Liquid  Suspecting hydrocarbon  Unidentified Liquid with Corrosive characteristics  Unidentified Gas with Corrosive characteristics  Unidentified Fire and/or Toxic material that is a Liquid or Gas. 19
  20. 20. Summary  Risk-Based response benefits responders and the community.  Using RBR allows for a safe and quick response to a chemical emergency.  Concept of risk assessment is an important one for all emergency responders. 20

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