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Ctel Module1 Domain 1 Fall07
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Ctel Module1 Domain 1 Fall07


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  • 1. California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) Module One Language and Language Development jeffery heil
  • 2. CTEL Information
    • This is the link to the NES site where you can register, get some sample test questions and study guides:
  • 3. Sample Constructed-Response Question
    • A variety of sociopolitical factors can affect English Learners' English language development.
    • In a written response:
    • describe one sociopolitical factor affecting second-language development (e.g., school program organization,differential status of the primary language or dialect and the target language, language planning and policies,community influences);
    • describe one strategy for addressing English Learners' needs with respect to the sociopolitical factor you described; and explain how this strategy would be effective in promoting English Learners' English language development.
  • 4. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs)
    • See pages 3 – 7
    • Notice that each domain is cross-referenced to a page number in the participant guide
    • Page 8 gives the test structure of the first three subtests
    • Page 9: Rationale for Module 1
  • 5. Domain 1: Language Structure and Use
    • 001–Phonology & Morphology
    • 002–Syntax & Semantics
    • 003–Language Functions & Variation
    • 004–Discourse
    • 005–Pragmatics
  • 6. Domain 2: First- And Second-Language Development
    • (And their relationship to Academic Achievement)
    • 006–Theories, Processes & Stages of Language Acquisition
    • 007–Theories, Models, and Processes of Second-Language Acquisition
    • 008–Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors Affecting Language Development
    • 009–Affective Factors Affecting Language Development
    • 010–Sociocultural and Political Factors Affecting Language Development
  • 7. Rate Your Knowledge
    • Complete page 10: Rate your prior knowledge of the linguistic terminology we will encounter
    • Look at page 11 and predict what the three major subheadings of the nature of language.
  • 8. Page 11 Communicative Competence
  • 9. Structure
    • Four Linguistic subsystems that are necessary to understand how language is formed:
      • Phonology
      • Semantics
      • Morphology
      • Syntax
  • 10. Function
    • Two Major subheadings:
      • Discourse
        • Speaking and writing only
      • Pragmatics
        • Verbal and non-verbal communication (everything non-discourse and non-structure)
  • 11. Variation
    • This is the different styles/registers we use to communicate depending on the context of a communicative act in terms of subject matter, audience, and occasion
      • Purpose
        • Formal & Informal
  • 12. Subsystems of Language Structure
    • Phonology (page 12)
      • CLAD Ch2 pp 34-37/ CTEL Ch1 13-20
    • Morphology (page 13)
      • CLAD Ch2 pp 37-39/ CTEL Ch1 20-23
    • Syntax (page 14)
      • CLAD Ch2 pp 39-40/ CTEL 23-25
    • Semantics (page 15)
      • CLAD Ch4 pp 41-42/ CTEL 26-30
    • Pragmatics (17 - 27)
      • CLAD Ch2 pp 42-48/ CTEL 39-43
  • 13. Subsystems of Language Structure
    • In small groups, read about the subsystems of language, summarize on chart paper (key terms & ideas), and present (time permitting).
  • 14. Phonology
    • Phonology - It is the study of the sound system of a language; the way in which speech sounds form patterns.
    • A phoneme is the sound that makes up a langue, the smallest unit of sound.
    • EX: cat, /c/ /a/ /t/ has three phonemes.
    • Intonation Patterns are variations in the pronunciation of phrases or sentences that follow certain patterns, changes in the pitch of the voice, length, and speech rhythm
  • 15. Phonology
    • Stress – stress, pitch/tone, and intonation are characteristics of language sounds beyond phonemes.
      • Stress can occur at the word or sentence level.
      • Word level
        • Ex : desert noun, “dry region”
        • Ex : dessert noun, “sweet foods”
      • Sentence level
        • Kimberly walked home.
        • Kimberly walked home.
        • Kimberly walked home .
  • 16. Phonology
    • Pitch serves to distinguish meaning within a sentence. It can have a high or low pitch depending on what the speaker is trying to convey. You are going to school! Vs. You are going to school?
    • Prosody – the underlying rhythm of the language (interaction of pitch and word stress) CTEL, pg17
    • Modulation is the process that words, phrases, and sentences go through to change the tonal center from one place to another. The purpose is to help give language structure, direction, and variety. (going down for authority, up for engagement/interest)
  • 17. Phonology
    • How Can Phonology Inhibit Communication ?
      • When a student’s primary language sound system differs from the English Sound system:
        • It’s difficult to transfer what is not in the system
        • When speaking and making different sounds to a word, meaning could change (short i, b/v, l/r, etc.)
  • 18. Morphology
    • Morphology –the study of meaning units (words) in a language.
    • A morpheme is the smallest unit (in the word) in the building blocks of meaning.
      • Ex: dog=1 morpheme dogs (dog + s)=2
    • Two lexical morphemes are also called compound words. The word is made from two free morphemes (basket + ball = basketball)
  • 19. Morphology
    • Inflectional Endings- all are suffixes (eight total): -s,-es, -s, -ing, -ed, -en, -er, -est
    • Cognates are words in related languages that developed from the same ancestral root such as English “father” and Latin “pater”.
    • How can morphology inhibit communication?
      • When a plural is irregular, such as mouse (singular) and mice (plural), an EL will over generalize and say mouses, since s/he learned that houses is house in the plural form.
  • 20. Syntax
    • Syntax is the study of the structure of sentences and the rules that govern the correctness of a sentence.
    • Classes:
      • Noun -names person, place, or thing
      • Preposition -links pronouns and nouns to the rest of the sentence
  • 21. Syntax
    • Syntactic rules are pattern relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together
    • Sentence patterns are various ways of expressing a complete thought from simple sentences (S & V) to compound, complex sentences
  • 22. Syntax
    • Implication:
      • Students need to be exposed to different sentence patterns from simple to complex in oral and written form in order to acquire the patterns. They can be taught after the acquisition process in order for students to monitor their language development.
  • 23. Semantics
    • Semantics is the study of meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases or sentences.
    • Difficulties w/Semantics:
      • Multiple Meanings-words can have multiple meanings and connotations (tire, tire)
  • 24. Semantics
    • Difficulties w/Semantics:
      • False Cognates- there can be false cognates (library, librer ía, embarrassed/embarazada)
      • Idioms -are a group of words that have a single meaning and is not to be interpreted literally (It’s raining cats & dogs)
      • Language Ambiguities -are when words, phrases, or sentences have multiple meanings
  • 25. Semantics
    • Implications : What are some of ELs’ difficulties related to semantics?
      • Transfer issues
      • Cultural reflection in primary language (concepts of time US: time is an object: time=$, speed=intelligence, don’t waste it, buy time, find time, spend time, etc. . .some cultures, time=objective experience)
      • Understanding that there are universals in all languages
      • Know that 70% of the vocabulary/terms used in science and math are derived from Greek or Latin
  • 26. Lexicon
    • Lexicon is the sum total of the meanings that an individual holds. It is knowledge of how to use the words correctly and how words are formed to create new meanings. It entails different semantic properties such as synonyms, antonyms, homonymns, and idioms
  • 27. Relationship Among Language Structures
    • See page 16
    • How does primary language affect acquisition of second language in each area of the chart?
    • Importance of Contrastive Analysis!!!!
  • 28. Contrastive Analysis
    • Phonology
      • No short vowel sounds in Spanish
    • Morphology
      • Los libros de Juan éstan pesados. There are no apostrophes to show possessives in Spanish.
    • Syntax
      • El gato negro. The adjective follows the noun in Spanish
    • Semantics
      • Cognates: profesor, professor
      • False Cognates: librer ía, library
    • Read the poem: The English Language
  • 29. Social Functions of Language CTEL pg, 31
    • Importance of PURPOSE : we talk, listen, read and write when we have a purpose for doing it!
    • To amuse : tell a joke, etc.
    • To inform : read report
    • To control : command “sit down now”
    • To persuade : telemarketer telling you how to vote
  • 30. Academic Functions of Language – CTEL , pg 30-31
    • Academic language has a place in all content areas. There are many purposes in using language in subject matter.
    • Are there any other examples of language function(s) across content areas you can think of?
      • Science : predictions
      • Math : explain
    • What are some of the differences between academic and social functions of language??
  • 31. Types of Language Variation CTEL – 43-48
    • Take five or 10 minutes to brainstorm your ideas in the types of language variation.
      • IN CLAD page 19 (Sociocultural Factors). Pay attention to the Adapted Instruction boxes for strategies!!
      • Why do you think language variation evolves . . .
  • 32. Types of Language Variation
    • Dialect :
      • A distinct form of a language that differs from other forms of that language in specific linguistic features
  • 33. Types of Language Variation
    • Historical Variation :
      • Historical records go back thousands of years and indicate that language changes across time and context
    • Social Language
      • Language varies in the social context with the purpose to communicate.
  • 34. Types of Language Variation
    • Academic Language :
      • Language can be content-specific (academic areas, military, law, etc)
    • Why does language variation evolve ?
      • Time
      • Travel
      • Economics/war
  • 35. Factors that influence a speaker ’ s or writer ’ s choice of language (pg20)
    • Imagine you are trying to persuade (orally, in person) an elderly woman to participate in a community center. She came w/her son from a village in M éxico. She has been a housewife and has taken care of her son’s child. More Social or Academic Variation?
    • Now, what would a written brochure look like that is attempting to persuade her? How would it differ? More Social or Academic change?
  • 36. Factors that influence a speaker ’ s or writer ’ s choice of language (pg20)
    • Now, select a purpose and setting, oral or written, to accomplish a mode of communication.
    • How do the factors change?
    • What does this say about our ability to use language?
  • 37. Analyzing Oral and Written Discourse
    • Two volunteer read script please.
    • Now, read the written discourse “Explanation of a math workshop”
    • What are the differences and similarities between these samples of oral and written discourse?
      • Conversations are fluid, text is fixed
    • Do our students tend to write like they talk? If so, what are the implications for us?
    • We need to overtly teach appropriate discourse forms in writing!!!
  • 38. Promoting Communicative Competence in Social and Academic Settings
    • Using the top-half of the Venn diagram, identify similarities and differences between language structures used in spoken and in written English.
    • In the bottom-half, brainstorm strategies you can use to teach oral and written discourse in English (Imagine you are teaching non-native speakers of English; although, the strategies would apply to English-only too).
  • 39. Promoting Communicative Competence in Social and Academic Settings
    • Spoken :
      • Sentence frame
      • More informal
      • More idiomatic
    • Written
      • Rule: more linear
      • Fewer use of idioms
    Guided by the topic, theme, idea Top Half
  • 40. Promoting Communicative Competence in Social and Academic Settings
    • Spoken :
      • Ask for clarification
      • paraphrase
    • Written
      • Formal
      • syntax
      • “ hamburger”
    Formal or informal Transitional words Bottom Half
  • 41. The Hamburger & the Taco (to accompany pg 22)
    • Hamburger
    • Represents the organized composition, narrative or essay. Top bun is intro ; layers of food are the body/content ; and the bottom bun is the conclusion .
    • Five-paragraph composition
    • Taco
    • Has a cover, the tortilla semi-rolled with lettuce and meat, but no specific order.
    • Creative writing : ingredients with no specific order
  • 42. Analyzing Text Structure
    • At your tables, read the three examples aloud and analyze the text based on the matrix.
    • Examples are from 8th grade social-studies, secondary geometry text, and a 4th grade science text.
    • What stands out to you about this analysis?
  • 43. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language
    • Gestures :
      • “ OK” gesture obscene (Brazil/Turkey)
      • “ Come Here” (w/finger) is the way to call dog/prostitute in some cultures
      • We must explicitly teach our gestures & be careful about which gestures to use!
    • Facial Expressions :
      • Americans are often perceived by others as being superficial for so much smiling!!
  • 44. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language
    • Eye Contact :
      • Lack of eye contact = respect in some cultures
      • In North America, it is a sign of disrespect/defiance
    • Proxemics :
      • North America = arm’s length
      • Latin America = much closer
  • 45. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language
    • Touching :
      • Very personal & intimate in some cultures, while in others it is commonplace. Head patting is very taboo in many cultures.
    • Styles/Registers :
      • How you talk depends on your audience . .boss, store clerk, students, etc.
      • Students need to know how and when it is appropriate to switch registers
  • 46. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language
    • Dialect :
      • There is a variation among speakers of the same language. “I’m stuffed” (US=I’m full) vs. (Australia=I’m pregnant!”)
      • Speakers of certain dialects may be viewed differently (less intelligent, low SES, etc.)
    • Figures of Speech :
      • “ Y’all come back now” (said to Japanese businessmen caused them to get off a bus!)
      • Use fewer idioms with beginning level Els and ALWAYS explain them!
  • 47. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language
    • Silence :
      • Silence differs dramatically across cultures. In the U.S., it is interpreted as expressing embarrassment, regret or sorrow. In Asian cultures, it is a token of respect.
  • 48. Quickwrite (page 26)
    • Describe one discourse setting/context (classroom, social event, store, types of correspondence) and identify key features appropriate to the setting
    • Share some ideas with the class
  • 49. Factors that affect a speaker ’ s or writer ’ s choice of pragmatic features
    • Cultural Norms :
      • Student’s upbringing will influence how s/he responds and uses pragmatic features (touching, eye contact)
    • Social :
      • When engaged in communicating for social purposes, gestures, and facial expressions, will be more commonly used
  • 50. Factors that affect a speaker ’ s or writer ’ s choice of pragmatic features
    • Setting :
      • If the setting is in the classroom, the teacher/student register will be in place
    • Goals :
      • Direct vs. indirect communication
    • Purpose :
      • Communication (oral/written) is with intent
    • Subject Matter :
      • Language is content-specific
  • 51. What are some Difficulties ELs have with respect to Pragmatics? Audience Purpose Context Oral Example Administrator Students ask Principal to include after school programs School (informal) Written Example Administrator Parents write a letter to principal requesting sports after school Home (formal)
  • 52. Review of Linguistic Knowledge
    • Return to page 10 and re-rate your knowledge of the linguistic terminology from this section. Add any pertinent information on pages 28-30
    • Page 32 - Rubric to Evaluate ELD Program. Evaluate Yourself
      • Write evidence found in each item. Remember to consider: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
  • 53. End of Domain 1