Disaster Risk Reduction and Management and Earthquake Preparedness - Davao

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Disaster Risk Reduction and Management and Earthquake Preparedness - Davao

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management and Earthquake Preparedness - Davao

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  • We have allocated a large part of the city for agriculture and forestland. We intent to preserve the food security of our city as well as its ecological balance
  • Slide # 1 Disaster Risk Management System - The Region 12 Experience Ladies and Gentlemen, Notwithstanding the human-induced complex emergency brought about by armed confrontation between government forces and secessionist groups which caused the displacement of civilians, the communities and their leaders have to deal with the high level of risk posted by natural calamities such as landslides, flashfloods, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and droughts cannot be overemphasized. In every difficult situations, the vulnerable sector of society, especially the poor, children, elderly and women, are the most affected. Oftentimes, the condition is aggravated when destructions exceed beyond the capacity and readiness of the community to cope and deal with the emergency situation especially in conflict-vulnerable areas.

Transcript

  • 1. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management and Earthquake Preparedness for Brokenshire College of Toril September 20, 2013 Davao City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office CENTRAL 911 Compound, Sandawa, Matina, Davao City
  • 2. After Pacific countries Tonga and Vanuatu, the Philippines ranks as the third most disaster-prone country in the world. High exposure to natural calamities Geographical locations of the country
  • 3. • the systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster. (Republic Act 10121, May 27, 2010) Disaster Risk Reduction and Management . . . . .Disaster Risk Reduction and Management . . . . . Training and Education in DRR Integration of DRR Education in School Curricula at the secondary and Tertiary Levels, NSTP, Sangguniang Kabataan. Mandatory Training on DRR for Public Sector Employees including formal and non-formal vocational, indigenous learning and out-of-school youth courses and programs (sec. 13)
  • 4. A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. DISASTER
  • 5. Kinds of Disasters
  • 6. Man-made disasters is a disaster resulting from human intent, negligence, or error. The results are usually wide scale destruction, and high cost.
  • 7. (e.g. flood, earthquake, volcanic eruption,(e.g. flood, earthquake, volcanic eruption, strong winds, typhoon, drought, tsunami)strong winds, typhoon, drought, tsunami) A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard.
  • 8. Four Theories of Disaster 1. Disaster as an Act of God - were viewed as divine retribution for human misdeeds and failings. Thus, the old biblical idea of disasters as Acts of God include the notion of a God acting in response to human failings(for example, in explanations of the epidemic of HIV, is just punishment for behavior they see as immoral.” “catastrophic” earthquake, as God’s way of controlling the relentless rise of population.”
  • 9. 2. Disaster as an Act of Nature “Natural disasters have come to be seen as random, morally inert phenomena -- chance events that lie beyond the control of human beings. “stuff that happens” – get used to it.
  • 10. 3. Disaster as intersection of society and nature disasters are the result of human activities, not of natural or super natural forces. Disasters are simply the collapse of cultural protections; thus, they are principally man-made. Mankind is responsible for the consequences of his actions as well as of his omissions.” •Humans putting themselves in the way of hazards are to blame.
  • 11. •Inequalities in risk (and opportunity) are largely a function of the principal systems of power operating in all societies, which are normally analyzed in terms of class, gender, and ethnicity.” 4. Disaster as Avoidable Human Creation It is the weaker groups in society that suffer worst from disasters: the poor (especially), the very young and the very old, women, the disabled, and those who are marginalized.
  • 12. Cascading Effects of Disaster Breakdown in Community Assets Spread of Diseases Business disruption, economic loss, livelihood, loss of jobs Societal Disorder
  • 13. Regardless of what theories or type of disaster will emerged it is still our responsibility as stakeholders to institute different strategies. Safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Davao City communities towards a sustainable development . . . . . What we Aim for?
  • 14.  Disasters happen. Some can never be prevented. But their effects to lives and properties can be mitigated.
  • 15. refers to the likelihood over specified time period of severe alterations in the normal functioning of a community or a society due to hazardous physical event interacting with vulnerable social conditions, leading to widespread adverse human, material, economic or environmental effects that requires immediate emergency response to satisfy critical human needs and that may require external support for recovery. Disaster Risk
  • 16. What causes disaster risk? Disaster Risk Hazards Exposure Vulnerability
  • 17. Hazard - A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life , injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage.
  • 18. Exposure - The degree to which the elements at risk are likely to experience hazards events of different magnitude.
  • 19. Exposure is the total value of elements at-risk. It is expressed as the number of human lives, and value of the properties, that can potentially be affected by hazards. Exposure is a function of the geographic location of the elements
  • 20. Disaster Exposure Hazard To reduce disaster risk, it is important to reduce Vulnerability and to keep exposure away.
  • 21. Davao City, its Hazards and Threats Total Land Area :244,000 has. or 2,440 sq kms. No. of Barangays : 182 (92 Rural and 90 Urban) Let’s study our disaster situation Davao City (Dakbayan sa Dabaw) is a City in Mindanao. It is the regional center for Davao Region. As of 2011 it had an estimated population of 1,530,365, making it the fourth-most-populous city in the Philippines.
  • 22. 2010 HOUSEHOLD2010 HOUSEHOLD POPULATIONPOPULATION : 1,443,890: 1,443,890 MALEMALE 721,345721,345 FEMALEFEMALE 722,545722,545 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,0000 FEMALE Age MALE 7 101 – over 9 3 100 0 83 99 70 11 98 12 22 97 8 23 96 16 27 95 13 35 94 16 27 93 19 78 92 30 84 91 56 103 90 78 91 89 86 153 88 122 211 87 149 274 86 152 274 85 205 247 84 227 281 83 247 395 82 304 386 81 295 660 80 549 643 79 538 616 78 553 660 77 534 723 76 641 915 75 795 910 74 854 997 73 881 1,685 72 1,095 1,120 71 1,059 1,552 70 1,430 1,499 69 1,382 1,394 68 1,295 1,712 67 1,598 1,607 66 1,486 2,076 65 1,971 2,049 64 2,034 2,145 63 2,297 2,327 62 2,398 2,369 61 2,261 3,123 60 3,183 2,593 59 2,825 2,908 58 3,061 3,024 57 3,021 2,843 56 2,979 3,052 55 3,330 3,303 54 3,500 3,643 53 3,910 4,176 52 4,363 4,617 51 4,645 5,698 50 6,006 5,135 49 5,564 5,128 48 5,461 5,725 47 5,996 5,938 46 6,186 6,970 45 7,288 6,171 44 6,420 6,747 43 6,972 7,190 42 7,486 7,289 41 7,281 8,631 40 8,720 7,889 39 7,943 7,618 38 7,701 7,945 37 8,122 8,484 36 8,496 9,377 35 9,754 8,765 34 8,803 8,647 33 8,651 9,687 32 9,815 9,741 31 9,807 11,683 30 11,677 10,583 29 10,941 10,792 28 11,056 11,184 27 11,209 11,071 26 10,527 12,163 25 11,938 12,463 24 11,961 12,499 23 11,841 13,059 22 12,485 13,814 21 13,072 15,576 20 14,139 15,103 19 13,710 15,227 18 13,452 15,285 17 13,599 14,965 16 13,421 13,836 15 13,406 13,440 14 13,440 14,248 13 14,141 14,801 12 14,940 13,911 11 14,312 14,830 10 15,165 14,804 9 15,444 14,236 8 15,029 14,620 7 15,373 14,399 6 14,896 14,569 5 15,800 15,550 4 16,020 15,358 3 16,079 15,387 2 16,154 14,856 1 15,122 14,981 Under 1 15,538 Young (0-17) : 542,834 37.60% Working Age Pop’n (18-64) : 848,064 58.73% Child-bearing age (15-49) : 400,216 27.50% 65-above : 52.992 3.67% Working Age: 426,746 Working Age : 421,318 Young : 276,520Young : 266,314 65-above : 23,507 65-above : 29,845 POPULATIONPOPULATION MATRIXMATRIX
  • 23. Major Watersheds of Davao City Watershed Total Area (Has) Area in Davao City (Has) No. of Brgys Tuganay Watershed 74,747 18,120 2 Lasang River 45,390 29,132 8 Bunawan River 25,213 18,328 21 Davao River Watershed 175,776 121,385 91 Matina River 7,879 7,879 10 Talomo Watershed 21,578 21,578 26 Lipadas Watershed 16,796 16,796 19 Sibulan River 28,213 10,782 5 TOTAL 395,592 244,000 182 * No. of barangays based on dominant land area within the watershed
  • 24. Population By Watershed Watershed Total Area (Has) Area in Davao City (Has) No. of Brgys Pop’n (2010) HHs (2010) Women (18-64) Children (0-17) Tuganay Watershed 74,747 18,120 2 8,278 1,670 1,456 3,582 Lasang River 45,390 29,132 8 17,032 3,539 3,037 6,911 Bunawan River 25,213 18,328 21 369,336 84,437 85,904 120,215 Davao River Watershed 175,776 121,385 91 528,501 124,258 124,516 192,402 Matina River 7,879 7,879 10 124,268 28,568 27,313 36,210 Talomo Watershed 21,578 21,578 26 275,110 62,870 52,896 84,767 Lipadas Watershed 16,796 16,796 19 112,570 25,909 23,539 39,129 Sibulan River 28,213 10,782 5 14,201 3,222 2,778 5,622 TOTAL 395,592 244,000 182 1,449,296 334,473 321,439 488,838 * No. of barangays, population, household, women and children based on dominant land area within the watershed
  • 25. GeneralGeneral Land Use MapLand Use Map ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ULA SASA WAAN MA-A BATO EDEN BUDA AGDAO TORIL ILANG WINES SIRIB DUMOY MULIG SALOY TAPAK BANTOL BUCANA TUGBOK TALOMO BAGUIO BALIOK WANGAN LACSON LASANG ACACIA MANDUG LANGUB MINTAL KILATE LIZADA FATIMA SUAWAN CARMEN MAPULA LUMIAD MALAMBA MALAMBA SUMIMAO DOMINGA GUMITAN MALAMBA BUNAWAN MABUHAY CATIGAN CALINAN MALAGOS CAWAYAN ANGALAN SUBASTA LAMANAN DACUDAO CALLAWA MAHAYAG MUDIANG PANACAN TIGATTO PANGYAN MAGTUOD TACUNAN CAMANSI LUBOGAN TAGLUNO ALAMBRE BAYABAS SIRAWAN BINUGAO TIBULOY TAMUGAN SIBULAN MARILOG COLOSAS PAÑALUM MALABOG DALAGDAG BUHANGIN GATUNGAN COMMUNAL GUMALANG TAGAKPAN TIBUNGCO INDANGAN PAMPANGA TAGURANO ATAN-AWE TAMAYONG CADALIAN SALAYSAY POBLACION INAYANGAN LAMPIANAO CABANTIAN TALANDANG RIVERSIDE TUNGKALAN MARAPANGI BARACATAN PAQUIBATO BAGANIHAN TAMBOBONG MAGSAYSAY SALAPAWAN PANDAITAN MANAMBULAN BALENGAENG SAN ISIDRO LOS AMIGOS NEW CARMEN MEGKAWAYAN DALAG LUMOT BAGO OSHIRO MATINA BIAO BAGO APLAYA NEW DALIAON TAWAN-TAWAN BAGO GALLERA TALOMO RIVER NEW VALENCIA BIAO GUIANGA BIAO ESCUELA MATINA PANGI DATU SALUMAY MANUEL GUINGA MATINA APLAYA PARADISE EMBAC CROSSING BAYABAS CATALUNAN GRANDE CATALUNAN PEQUEÑO AGRICULTURAL AND PASTURE LAND (AG) CONSERVATION ZONE (CZ) FOREST ZONE (FZ) c. PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT (PUD) d. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ZONE (TDZ) b. URBAN AREA a. RURAL SETTLEMENT AREA! BUILT-UP AREA Classification AREA (Has.) % of Total Built-up / Settlement Area 36,916.74 15.13 Agricultural 163,936.26 67.19 Forest ( Rehabilitation / 27,626.00 11.32 Agro-Forestry ) Conservation 15,521.00 6.36 TOTAL 244,000.00 100.00
  • 26. Hazard Areas Total Area Within Built-up areas (Has) Hydro-meteorological hazards : High Susceptibility - Floods 7,546 1,377 High & Very High Susceptibility – Landslide 151,289 788 Very High Susceptibility – Erosion 103,245 571 Geologic Hazards : Liquefaction Prone 216,867 6,163 • A total of 1,377 hectares of the 13,000 hectares built-up areas of Davao are within areas that are considered to be highly susceptible to flooding. • There are 788 hectares of built-up areas that are within areas that are considered highly and very highly susceptible to landslides. • A total of 1,377 hectares of the 13,000 hectares built-up areas of Davao are within areas that are considered to be highly susceptible to flooding. • There are 788 hectares of built-up areas that are within areas that are considered highly and very highly susceptible to landslides.
  • 27. A 60-km. coast line with 26 thickly populated barangays 40% of Davao City’s population is within this areas
  • 28. A sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action
  • 29. Typhoon 1910 – Unmaned 1970 – Bagyong Titang 2012 – Bagyong Pablo 2013 – Bagyong Crising
  • 30. Floodings/Flashfloods Flooding occurs most commonly from heavy rainfall when natural watercourses do not have the capacity to convey excess water. However, floods are not always caused by heavy rainfall. They can result from other phenomenon, particularly in coastal areas where inundation can be caused by a storm surge .
  • 31. January 4, 2002 No. of Affected:No. of Affected: 20,807 families 85,488 dependents No. of Casualties:No. of Casualties: 7 dead 18 injured 1 missing No. of Houses Damaged:No. of Houses Damaged: 157 totally 482 partially Hydro-Meteorological Hazards • Dead – 30 • Missing – 1 • Direct Cost – PhP Ms • Indirect Cost – 50.5M June 28, 2011 January 19, 2013 7,438 Families 29,808 Dependents
  • 32. Landslides Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes from a stable to an unstable condition. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors, acting together or alone. Natural causes of landslides include: groundwater (porewater) pressure acting to destabilize the slope
  • 33. Ground Rupture The movement of the ground along one side of a Fault relative to the other side, caused by an earthquake.
  • 34. Monsoon/Sea Swell A wind system that influences large climatic regions and reverses direction seasonally.
  • 35. A warming of the surface water of the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, occurring every 4 to 12 years and causing unusual global weather patterns. El Niño/La Niña–Southern Oscillation, is a band of anomalously warm ocean water temperatures that occasionally develops off the western coast of South America and can cause climatic changes across the Pacific Ocean. The 'Southern Oscillation' refers to variations in the temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean
  • 36. Strong Winds Volcanic Eruptions
  • 37. TSM What causes lightning? Lightning is produced in thunderstorms when liquid and ice particles above the freezing level collide, and build up large electrical fields in the clouds. Once these electric fields become large enough, a giant "spark" occurs between them (or between them and the ground) like static electricity, reducing the charge separation. The lightning spark can occur between clouds, between the cloud and air, or between the cloud and ground.
  • 38. Fire Others
  • 39. Garbage
  • 40. Health Hazards
  • 41. Source: NSC Terrorism
  • 42. The frequency, intensity and variability of natural and human-induced hazards and other vulnerabilities have heightened the compelling need for everybody to adopt Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) The frequency, intensity and variability of natural and human-induced hazards and other vulnerabilities have heightened the compelling need for everybody to adopt Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)
  • 43. PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITYPERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY:: We can make a differenceWe can make a difference…… changing attitudes….changing attitudes…. knowing hazards…knowing hazards… doing something to minimizedoing something to minimize the hazardsthe hazards
  • 44.  Does your institution has an existing Disaster Action Team/Safety Committee?  If yes, is it functional?  Do we have a Preparedness Plan in the event of any disaster?  Do we have an Emergency Response Plans?  Are there personnel/employees trained in first aid, fire fighting or rescue?  Does the institution have any rescue equipment and other emergency paraphernalia?  Do we have an institutionalized warning system?  Do we conduct disaster/emergency drills regularly?  Are there identified evacuation areas within the premises of the institution?
  • 45. DISASTER RESPONSE The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. Focused on immediate and short- term needs, and it is sometimes called DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A systematic effort to analyze and manage the causes of disasters by reducing vulnerabilities and enhancing capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and probability of disaster. Before Now
  • 46.  Under the old law (PD 1566), Disaster Management centered only around the hazard and the impacts of a disaster. It is assumed that disasters cannot be avoided. Most of the plans were on the provision of relief goods and rehabilitation of damaged infrastructures. The government’s response to disaster was focused on disaster response. Both the national and local governments were REACTIVE to disasters.  Development will remain backwards if this continued. The new law (RA 10121) comes at a time when the Philippine grapples for answers to the ever increasing risk of The Rationale for a NEW LAW
  • 47. Preparedness Response Rehabilitation & Recovery Prevention & Mitigation Safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Filipino communities toward sustainable development ’80’s DP PD 1566 ’90’s – 2003 DM RA 1760 2004 – 2010 DRM HFA 2010 – now DRR RA 10121 Prevention & Mitigation Response Rehabilitation & Recovery Preparedness War Mode DR Disaster Risk Reduction Framework
  • 48. Preparedness Response Rehabilitation & Recovery Prevention & Mitigation Safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Filipino communities toward sustainable development Risk Factors Hazards Exposures Vulnerabilities Capacities Mainstreaming DRR and CCA in planning and implementation ’80’s DP PD 1566 ’90’s – 2003 DM RA 1760 2004 – 2010 DRM HFA 2010 – now DRR RA 10121 Prevention & Mitigation Response Rehabilitation & Recovery Preparedness War Mode DR Disaster Risk Reduction Framework
  • 49. Mitigation Objective: Reduce the vulnerability of elements at risk DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK HAZARD: Natural & Man-made EXPOSURE: • Unsafe condition • CLUP • Zoning • Mapping Mitigation – structural and non- structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation, and technological hazards and to ensure the ability of at-risk communities to address vulnerabilities aimed at minimizing the impact of disasters.
  • 50. Mitigating strategies • Nonstructural mitigation Strategies that involve other risk reduction and risk transfer activities. • Structural mitigation Strategies that involve the use of engineered safety features to provide protection from disaster impacts. ASPECT OF MITIGATIONASPECT OF MITIGATION::
  • 51. Structural Mitigation Non-Structural LOG BAN Policy study & Advocacy
  • 52. • Watershed Code of Davao City (2007) • Ordinance Maximizing the Use of Rainwater in Davao City (2009) ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
  • 53. An Ordinance providing for an Ecological Solid Waste Management, Prohibiting certain Acts and providing Penalties for violations, and for Other purposes. (2010) Shrine Hills – Declared as Protected Area June 24, 2013
  • 54. WHAT ELSE HAS TO BE DONE On Prevention and Mitigation • Retreat (relocate away from hazard) • Defend (live with hazard) 1. Structural o De-silt portion of Rivers o Putting up dikes and other structural measures o Re-channel outlet of Rivers.
  • 55. Mitigation Objective: Reduce the vulnerability of elements at risk DISASTER RISK REDUCTION HAZARD: Natural & Man-made VULNERABILITY: • People - Poverty - Economic system - Limited access to resources • Institution EXPOSURE: • Unsafe condition • CLUP • Zoning • Mapping Objective: reduce losses that may result from future disasters by constructing scenarios to deal with given disaster. Preparedness
  • 56. Preparedness – pre-disaster actions and measures being undertaken within the context of disaster risk reduction and management and are based on sound risk analysis as well as pre-disaster activities to avert or minimize loss of life and property. ….. It includes organizing, training, planning, equipping, stockpiling, hazard mapping, insuring of assets and public information and education initiatives.
  • 57. DISASTER ACTION TEAM • a disaster team organized in schools, offices, establishments and institutions that is tasked to implement activities in line with the disaster risk reduction and management framework of the government to lessened or minimize the impact of disaster/emergency.
  • 58. Team Leader Info & Warning Evac & Trans Scty & Traffic Fire Fighting Rescue & FA Damage Control/ Salvage ATL Disaster Action Team/Safety Committee Organization ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR EMERGENCYORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSERESPONSE
  • 59. A. Information & Warning • Activates warning system & calls for assistance; • Ensures everybody understands warning signals; etc. B. Rescue / First Aid • Conducts rescue operations and administers first aid; etc. C. Evacuation & Transportation • Ensures safe and orderly conduct of evacuation; • Designates evacuation routes to assembly area; • Facilitates transport of victims to medical facilities; etc. FUNCTIONS OF DAT ACTION GROUPSFUNCTIONS OF DAT ACTION GROUPS::
  • 60. D. Security & Traffic • Secures all entrances & exits from undesirable elements; • Ensures safety of assets; • Maintains smooth flow of traffic; etc. E. Damage Control / Salvage • Evacuates/Salvages equipment & other assets; etc. •.Clearing of scene of disaster after the events F. Fire Fighting • Suppresses fire; etc. FUNCTIONS OF DAT ACTION GROUPSFUNCTIONS OF DAT ACTION GROUPS::
  • 61. Mitigation Rehabilitation Objective: Reduce the vulnerability of elements at risk Objective: ensure survival of a maximum number of people affected and stabilize the situation as rapidly as possible to re-establish essential services. Objective: get the population back to normal life. DISASTER RISK REDUCTION “Be Better; Build Better” HAZARD: Natural & Man-made EXPOSURE: • Unsafe condition • CLUP • Zoning • Mapping Objective: reduce losses that may result from future disasters by constructing scenarios to deal with given disaster. Response Preparedness
  • 62. Response – any concerted effort by two(2) or more agencies, public or private, to provide assistance or intervention during or immediately after a disaster to meet the life preservation and basic subsistence needs of those people affected and in the restoration of essential public activities and facilities.
  • 63. W hat about YOU?
  • 64. PREPARING FOR EARTHQUAKE
  • 65. A sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action
  • 66. • Produced by sudden movement along faults and plate boundaries • Produced by movement of magma beneath volcanoes Volcanic Tectonic Common Types of Earthquake
  • 67. RP’s Geographical Location The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 81%of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes.
  • 68. perceived strength of an earthquake based on relative effect to people and structures; generally higher near the epicenter based on instrumentally derived information and correlates strength with the amount of total energy released at the earthquake’s point of origin Two ways of describing the strength of anTwo ways of describing the strength of an earthquakeearthquake 1. Intensity 2. Magnitude
  • 69. Destructive Earthquakes in the Philippines 1.) 1976 Moro Gulf Earthquake and Tsunami – up to 8,000 deaths Date: August 16, 1976 Magnitude: 8.0 moment magnitude scale Epicenter: Celebes Sea Damages: Not accounted Affected areas: Mindanao and Borneo 2. 1990 Luzon Earthquake – 1,621 deaths Date: July 16, 1990, at 4:26 PM Magnitude: 7.8 Epicenter: 15° 42' N and 121° 7' E near Rizal, Nueva Ecija Damages: Scores of buildings collapsed and damaged Affected areas: Central Luzon and Cordillera region 3. 1968 Casiguran Earthquake –268 deaths 4. 2012 Visayas Earthquake – 81 deaths 5. 1994 Mindoro Earthquake – casualties -78 6. 2002 Mindanao Earthquake – 15 deaths Date: March 5, 2002 Magnitude: 7.5 Epicenter: Cotabato Trench Damages: About 800 buildings were damaged 7. 1990 Bohol Earthquake – deaths-6 Date: February 08, 1990 Magnitude: 6.8 Epicenter: Bohol Damages: 46,000 people were displaced and at least 7,000 became homeless Affected areas: Bohol
  • 70. Seismic HazardsSeismic Hazards • Ground Shaking • Ground Rupture • Ground Failure Liquefaction Landslides • Tsunami • Fire
  • 71. Ground Shaking-the disruptive up and down and sideways motion experienced during an earthquake.
  • 72. Ground rupture and fissuringGround rupture and fissuring  creation of new or the renewed movements of old fractures, oftentimes with the two blocks on both sides moving in opposite directions Ground rupture SeismicSeismic HazardsHazards
  • 73. Ground Rupture
  • 74. LiquefactionLiquefaction -- a process that transforms the behavior of a body of sediment from that of a solid to that of a liquid Seismic HazardsSeismic Hazards
  • 75. Landslides and Rock falls Fire could be a resultant effects of Earthquake
  • 76. • Be familiar with the dangerous spots inside offices/rooms. • Be careful with things which may harm people during earthquake. It is better to fix as early as possible the faulty electrical wiring, leaky gas connection, and fasten shelves. • Identify safe places indoors and outdoors. Before an Earthquake
  • 77. • Educate everyone about emergency contacts. • Prepare a stock of emergency supplies. A stock of food, water, medicines, flashlights, and batteries can help you to survive the tremor. • Make an evacuation and reunion plan. It is possible that everyone may be separated from each other during an earthquake so it is advisable to have a reuniting plan like meeting in a certain place after the disaster. 911
  • 78. • During quakes, duck or drop to the ground. • Take cover. You may hide under a sturdy table or piece of furniture for protection from falling debris. • Hold that position and stay wherever you are until the shaking stops and you cannot feel anymore ground movement. • Do not immediately proceed to the door, some doors will swing which can even cause injury.
  • 79. • If outdoors, move away from building and streetlights. • Immediately proceed to open area. • Once in the open, stay there and do not go near buildings and tall infrastructures to avoid falling debris. • If in a moving vehicle, stop as quickly as safety permits. • Avoid stopping near buildings, overpasses, bridges or ramps which may have been damaged by the earthquake
  • 80. If you're on a SIDEWALK NEAR BUILDINGS, duck into a doorway to protect yourself from falling bricks, glass, plaster, and other debris. If you're in a CROWDED STORE OR OTHER PUBLIC PLACE, do not rush for exits. Move away from display shelves containing objects that could fall.
  • 81. • If trapped under debris, cover your mouth with handkerchief. • Create noises by tapping pipes or walls for rescuers to locate you. Do not shout. It is just a last option because it may cause you to inhale dangerous amount of dust.
  • 82. After the Tremor • Once the earthquake is over, listen to battery-operated radio or television for updates of aftershock. • Stay away from damaged area. • Stay away from the beach if living in a coastal area. • Be aware of possible tsunamis. • Landslides are also possible for mountainous areas as well as the ground rapture for areas along active fault lines which causes the ground to break.
  • 83. TsunamiTsunami Giant sea waves due to large-scale displacement of the sea floor. • Large magnitude off-shore earthquakes • Coastal and underwater landslides • Coastal and underwater volcanic eruptions • Meteor impacts
  • 84. • First waves reported within 2-5 minutes of the main shock • Series of waves (~3- 7 waves reported), 1-5 minutes apart (M7.9, < 33 km) August 1976 Moro Gulf Earthquake & Tsunami
  • 85. August 1976 Moro Gulf Earthquake and Tsunami Tsunami Heights Observed
  • 86. Hydro-Meteorological Hazards A magnitude 8 earthquake can generate a tsunami that can reach Davao City in 30 minutes.
  • 87. December 26, 2004 Tsunami
  • 88. Earthquake Drill Orientation for Institutions WHY CONDUCT EARTHQUAKE DRILL?
  • 89. RP’s Geographical Location
  • 90. Pre-requisites of an Earthquake Drill: • DAT Organization/Safety Committee • Evacuation Plan of the Institutions • Drill Scenario and Mechanics
  • 91. Earthquake Planning ProcessEarthquake Planning Process • This is a group process; • Everyone has responsibilities based on his/her job at the work place; • Training is an important part of the planning process;
  • 92. Why do we still need to prepare an Earthquake Evacuation Plan ? Fire: Concentrated in one area of the building. Immediate response is to evacuate people and put out fire. Immediate outside help will arrive definitely at the soonest time. Building occupants can be evacuated in any place outside the building away from fire. No aftershock to deal with. Earthquake: Affects the whole building and nearby areas. Immediate response is to Duck, Cover and Hold during an earthquake, and to evacuate if necessary. Immediate outside help is not a guarantee. Area for evacuation after the event is limited only to an open area which is safe from falling debris and other earthquake related hazard. Aftershocks will be another concern.
  • 93. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES A. GeneralA. General • To ensure the safety of employees/ occupantsTo ensure the safety of employees/ occupants during and after a damaging earthquake;during and after a damaging earthquake; • To help the Management and the Disaster ActionTo help the Management and the Disaster Action Team (DAT) of the institutions to design a specificTeam (DAT) of the institutions to design a specific response plan for earthquakes;response plan for earthquakes; • To train employees/occupants on how to practiceTo train employees/occupants on how to practice proper action and responses during earthquakes;proper action and responses during earthquakes; andand • To test various elements of the response planTo test various elements of the response plan designed by the Institutions Management anddesigned by the Institutions Management and Disaster Action Team (DAT).Disaster Action Team (DAT).
  • 94. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES B. SpecificB. Specific • To be able to execute the earthquake drill inTo be able to execute the earthquake drill in accordance with the plan/drill scenario and mechanics;accordance with the plan/drill scenario and mechanics; • To be able to depict the proper actions and responsesTo be able to depict the proper actions and responses required of drill participants such as:required of drill participants such as:  Seeking shelter and protecting selvesSeeking shelter and protecting selves  Doing theDoing the “duck, cover and hold”“duck, cover and hold” and theand the ““crouchcrouch and tuck head”and tuck head” techniquestechniques  Evacuating employingEvacuating employing “buddy-buddy system”“buddy-buddy system” andand walking faster than normalwalking faster than normal  Head counting and checking of bodies for sustainedHead counting and checking of bodies for sustained injuriesinjuries  Reporting to the DAT Team Leader by department/Reporting to the DAT Team Leader by department/ division/sectiondivision/section
  • 95. • A 30-secondA 30-second earthquake with aearthquake with a magnitude of 8.2 inmagnitude of 8.2 in the Richter Scalethe Richter Scale struck Davaostruck Davao Oriental. It is felt atOriental. It is felt at Intensity VII in DavaoIntensity VII in Davao City.City.
  • 96. In reaction to the earthquake occurrence, the office must effect its Earthquake Emergency Procedures and activate its Disaster Action Team (DAT) to ensure a safe and orderly evacuation in order to prevent loss of lives and injuries to its employees/ occupants.
  • 97. • 30-second alarm  Signals the occurrence of the “main quake” (start of the drill)  All employees/occupants to seek shelter and protect themselves wherever they are situated  Employees/occupants to perform “duck, cover and hold” under desks, tables and chairs and remain in such position until the “shaking” stops.
  • 98. • 20-second lull period  Evacuation of occupants from the buildings to the designated evacuation/assembly areas using pre- determined routes  Office DAT to effect a fast but safe and orderly evacuation :  Evacuation of occupants must be buddy-buddy system  occupants should not run, shout, push or walk casually  They should walk faster than normal  Occupants must utilize the shortest but safest route to the evacuation/assembly area
  • 99. • 15-second alarm  Signals the occurrence of an “aftershock”  Occupants still in the process of evacuating (in corridors or outside the building but not yet in open spaces), to “crouch and tuck heads”
  • 100. • The evacuation process must be completed. • Occupants must assemble at the designated evacuation areas by section/unit. • At the evacuation/assembly areas, all occupants must check themselves for any sustained injuries. • Section/Unit Heads must check and ensure that all occupants are accounted for and must report to the DAT Team Leader. Any knowledge of somebody missing must be immediately reported to the DAT.
  • 101. Assembly and AccountabilityAssembly and Accountability • Account for everyone • Report roll call results • Determine who is in most need of medical aid • Communicate first aid and rescue needs internal/external medical teams and rescue crews.
  • 102. (The giving of the “ALL CLEAR SIGNAL” by the DAT Team Leader signifies the termination of the Earthquake Drill) • Occupants shall return to the buildings only after the “All Clear Signal” is given by the DAT Team Leader
  • 103. An evaluation of the drill must be conducted to identify problems encountered during the drill and how these can be corrected in future earthquake drills.
  • 104. Thank you for listeningThank you for listening