In a fast moving situation with poor simplex coverage and no repeater, it can be helpful to place a mobile station on a hilltop or office building where they can communicate with, and relay for, any station in the net. A mobile relay station can also allow communications to follow a moving event, such a wildfire or flash flood. That station becomes, in effect, a &quot;human repeater&quot;. Although an expedient &quot;work-around&quot;, this is a slow and cumbersome process that can reduce net efficiency by more than half. A modern aid to this kind of operation is the &quot;simplex repeater&quot;. This device automatically records a transmission, and immediately re-transmits it on the same frequency. Remember that FCC rules do not allow unattended operation of simplex repeaters, and that you must manually identify it
Even when vehicles are not included, internal combustion engines are still the number one cause of carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States. Propane powered engines produce as much or more CO as gasoline or diesel engines.
Tents should be rated for high winds, and should be designed to be waterproof in heavy weather. Most inexpensive family camping tents will not survive difficult conditions. Dome tents will shed wind well, but look for published &quot;wind survival&quot; ratings since not all dome designs are equal. Your tent should have a full-coverage rain fly rather than a single waterproof fabric. The tent's bottom should be waterproof, extending up the sidewalls at least six inches in a &quot;bath-tub&quot; design, but bring an extra sheet of plastic to line the inside just in case. (Placing a plastic ground cloth under a tent will allow rain to quickly run under and through a leaky tent floor.) Bring extra nylon cord and long ground stakes to help secure the tent in windy conditions. If you are not an experienced foul weather camper, consider consulting a reputable local outfitter or camping club for advice on selecting and using a tent.
The symptoms of snow blindness are a sensation of grit in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes that increases with eyeball movement, red and teary eyes, and a headache that intensifies with continued exposure to light. Prolonged exposure to these rays can result in permanent eye damage. To treat snow blindness, bandage your eyes until the symptoms disappear
In one case, the judge ruled that by modifying his radio in advance, the Amateur had committed &quot;pre-meditated&quot; interference, a serious charge. If you are in a position to save someone's life or property, be sure you are ready to defend your actions -- and possibly lose -- before pressing the mic button.
If you plan to use other radio frequencies discussed in this unit, it is better to purchase the proper radio. However, if the need arises and your ham radio is all you have, the FCC will probably not prosecute you for using it - if the use falls within their strict rules for emergencies
In many remote areas with little or no telephone service, families rely on CB radios for basic day-to-day communications. Many rural police and sheriff's organizations still monitor CB traffic. In a number of states, highway patrol officers install CB units in their patrol cars with the blessing of their agencies. However, may departments that used to monitor channel 9 have given up the practice. REACT groups in the area may still be monitoring.
Unfortunately, the general public has not paid much attention to this &quot;standard&quot; and channel 1 is just as full of chatter as the others. It is important to note that the channel numbers on each radio are not always interchangeable between older radios with fewer than 14 channels. The chart below shows the frequency relationships for many 2 and 14 channel radios. Single channel radios are usually on channel 1, which corresponds to channel 1 in the 14-channel units.
Operating a GMRS station will require a low-cost system license from the FCC. You can apply using FCC Form 574, or apply online. FCC online licensing information can be obtained at www.fcc.gov . System licenses are currently granted only to individuals. A system includes any and all radios operated by family members, and may include fixed, mobile, and repeater equipment. Use under the license is restricted to members of the licensee’s immediate family. Licenses to entities other than individuals are no longer issued, but non-individual entities licensed before July 31st, 1987 may continue to renew their licenses, and may not increase or modify their use.
Calls can often be received from out-of-town but not made across town.
You may recognize some of the more common ones, such as 1993, which covers a multitude of chemicals including road tar, cosmetics, diesel fuel, and home heating oil. You may have also seen placards with the number 1203 (gasoline) on tankers filling the underground tanks at the local gas station.
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has devised a marking system to alert firefighters to the characteristics of hazardous materials stored in stationary tanks and facilities. This system, known as NFPA 704M, can also assist citizens visiting a site in identifying the hazard presented by the stored substance. Use of the system is voluntary, unless specified by local codes. OXY means this material is an oxidizer. It can easily release oxygen to create or worsen a fire or explosion hazard. The symbol W indicates a material that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or hazardous to health. If the material is radioactive, the usual tri-blade propeller symbol for radioactivity will appear.
In an emergency, however, the FCC rules are suspended, and you may use whatever means of communication are necessary to protect life and property.
Once you have the information, advise all persons on board to don life jackets, and contact either 911 dispatch or the closest Coast Guard facility by phone. In some cases, a local fire or police boat may be able to respond more quickly than the Coast Guard, who may be some distance away. Identify yourself as an Amateur Radio operator relaying an emergency message. Pass on all the information that you have gathered and assist as requested. Provide your name and phone number or other means of contact so that responding local public safety agencies or the Coast Guard may reach you if needed. It is possible that you are the only station that can communicate with the distressed vessel.
Each type of message should be sent using the most appropriate mode, taking into consideration the message's contents, and its destination(s).
Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (1) Receive the repeater output directly on your hand-held and the cross-band unit operates in simplex mode
Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (2) Receive the repeater output directly on your hand-held and the cross-band unit operates in duplex mode. Your cross-band unit listens away from the repeater input frequency which can, in some cases, reduce interference to your unit.
Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (3) Receive the repeater back through your cross-band system. The downside of this method is that until the repeater's carrier drops, your cross-band unit will continue to transmit, which does not allow you to transmit.
Actual practice our choices are limited to the available operators and their equipment
Net managers may occasionally need to "shift" resources to meet changing needs
Early stages of an emergency => tactical nets may require more operators
Later stages => health and welfare traffic might increase
Message Relays Move the stations involved off the main net frequency to avoid tying up the channel for an extended period Unable to communicate directly Third station "relay" the messages
In a recent exercise debriefing, an Amateur Radio Operator said that in the event of an earthquake if he was assigned second shift at the EOC, he would not stand idle waiting for his shift. He would assist in other ways in the community and then proceed to work his 12 hour EOC shift.
What is good about this?
What are the problems with this?
How would you do awaiting the start of your EOC shift?
The purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit is to interrupt power in case of overload.
If you install a 20-ampere fuse in your transceiver in the place of a 5-ampere fuse excessive current could cause a fire. (Note: If it didn’t cause a fire, it still could result in damage to the equipment.)
Ground is connected to the green wire in a three-wire electrical plug.
SPOT sends your exact GPS coordinates and selected messages over commercial satellites to tell others of your location and status
SPOT will acquire its exact coordinates from the GPS network, and send that location along with a distress message to a GEOS International Emergency Response Center every five minutes until cancelled
The Emergency Response Center notifies the appropriate emergency responders based on your location and personal information – which may include local police, highway patrol, the Coast Guard, our country’s embassy or consulate, or other emergency response or search and rescue teams – as well as notifying your emergency contact person(s) about the receipt of a distress signal
Send and save your location and allow contacts to track your progress using Google Maps™.
Citizen Corps asks you to embrace the personal responsibility to be prepared; to get training in first aid and emergency skills; and to volunteer to support local emergency responders, disaster relief, and community safety
National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD)
Coalition of 49 major national nonprofit and faith-based organizations with committed missions to domestic disaster-related services
Mission is to foster more effective service to people affected by disasters
Formed after Hurricane Camille
In the aftermath of this disaster, the voluntary organizations who wanted to help victims realized they didn't know very much about each other, and certainly weren't very well coordinated
NO -- you cannot modify your radio and call for help on the local police frequency the next time you see a car crash on the highway
Law enforcement agencies are not bound by the FCC’s rules.
Hams who have called for "help" on police frequencies have been convicted of "interfering with a police agency" under state and local laws, even though the FCC had taken no enforcement action.
If you operate a radio under the rules that apply to GMRS, you must have a GMRS license.
GMRS radios generally transmit at higher power levels (1 to 5 watts is typical) and may have detachable antennas.
The current fee for a new GMRS license is $80.
The manual that comes with the radio, or the label placed on it by the manufacturer, should indicate the service the unit is certified for. http://wireless.fcc.gov/services/index.htm?job=service_home&id=general_mobile
You are driving on an Interstate highway in a rural area and you come upon an accident with a severely injured driver. You have a cell phone and a modified Amateur Radio which covers the local Fire Department frequencies.
When is it legal to summon for help on the Fire Department frequency?
You are the on duty NCS Operator and you have been given an ICS-213 form with a page long handwritten message that needs to be sent to a local shelter. Operational in the EOC are Amateur Radio equipment, landline phones, facsimile machines, and PCs with email connectivity.
Develop a list of at least three potential uses for non-ham radios in public service or emergency communication efforts in your area. You may base this on past or potential events. Specify which alternate radio system(s) best meets the need of each situation on your list and explain why.
High-volume traffic circuits with no supply of message forms
Using the only printed forms available that were designed for a different, unrelated agency or function
Attempting to decipher scribbling from untrained message writers; using scribes who cannot understand radio parlance or read through QRM
Becoming inundated with traffic volume so heavy it results in confusion over which messages are to be sent, which were sent, which have been received for delivery, and which have been received to be filed for ready reference.
Make a list of the natural disasters most likely to occur in your home area, and order them from most to least likely. For the most likely disaster on your list, discuss the preparations made by local emergency communication groups to deal with a related communication emergency.
ARRL Public Service Communications Manual http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/index.html
For more information on the FCC Rules, please see The ARRL's FCC Rule Book , chapter 5 on providing emergency communications.
For additional general information, please see The ARRL Operating Manual , chapter on emergency communications. See also the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual .
For local information, or to learn more about ARES and NTS net operation in your area, contact your Section Manager (SM) (http://www.arrl.org/field/org/smlist.html.), your Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC) or District Emergency Coordinator (DEC). See also The ARRL Net Directory for a list of ARES and NTS nets operating in your area.
When reporting a HazMat incident, include the following information:
Give your current location and the location of the incident, i.e. street address or cross streets, road and mile marker, distance from nearest town, etc.
Briefly describe what you see (from a distance), i.e. liquid spill, gaseous cloud, etc, and any placard numbers or other information you can safely see.
If a gaseous cloud or liquid spill exists, give the direction the contaminant is flowing or moving. Give any pertinent weather or other information you can observe from a safe distance that might help the experts in responding to the incident. Be concise.
Describe how you would handle the following situation:
You are traveling through a rural area right behind a tornado, reporting damage and casualties to the local fire and police agencies as you go. Cresting a hill, you see a tank trailer overturned on the road ahead. No one else is around. A variable wind is blowing the leaking fumes in several directions unpredictably. You cannot see the placards on the truck from where you are.
Details of the placards and emergency response procedures can be found in the comprehensive DOT Emergency Response Guidebook, copies of which may be available for your review at your local Emergency Management, police, sheriff or fire department. A copy is also available online at: http://hazmat.dot.gov/gydebook.htm
You may also consult your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) concerning what role Amateur Radio might have in your local plan. For more information about hazardous materials in general, contact FEMA, Technological Hazards Division, Federal Center Plaza, 500 C St., SW, Washington, DC, 20472 (202) 646-2861.
To enhance navigation, vessel safety and security, marine environmental protection, and promote safe and secure vessel movements by reducing the potential for recreational and commercial marine accidents/casualties and loss of life. This includes the safe, secure, and efficient flow of commerce via the Marine Transportation System.
A small wireless Internet service provider in Idaho and a wireless equipment start-up claim to have set a new record for transmitting data across a wireless link (August 2005)
Microserv Computer Technologies, based in Idaho Falls, and Trango Broadband Wireless, a fixed-wireless broadband equipment maker, announced that they wirelessly transmitted data over unlicensed spectrum 137.2 miles.
Consider your own personal radio resources. Of the modes mentioned within this lesson, which would you consider acquiring for your own use? Why? Which would you not consider acquiring? Why not?
Select three of the digital modes. Identify the positive and negative aspects of using each of the three in an emcomm situation.
Based on the considerations you have identified above, develop a simple communication equipment plan for a small emcomm unit based in a small community. Within your plan, be sure to identify the equipment and modes you would employ.
How would the plan you developed above be different if your emcomm group were quite large and located in a large community?
During an emergency, you are using voice transmissions to pass messages. Which of the following "guidelines" should govern your action if you were asked to transmit the names and addresses of victims?
Transmit the information exactly as presented to you.
Use a pre-established code to transmit the information.
If absolute privacy is required, do not transmit the information by Amateur Radio.
Switch to a digital mode and be assured of complete privacy.