1. Let us first thank you for choosing to expand you knowledge of Amateur Radio Emergency Communications; our professionalism and the effectiveness of our public service efforts will be greatly improved if we all share a common base of knowledge, skills, and procedures.
Wind storms, volcanoes, earthquakes, underground cables dug up, accident, floods Fires in telco buildings, hospital or E911 systems fail, congestion on the network (telephone, cellular, internet) The Pacific Northwest is not subject to hurricanes like the East Coast, but it can sometimes receive violent windstorms that reach hurricane strength. Typically, loss of electrical services during a windstorm results from trees being blown onto power lines rather than from fallen power poles or lines. Photo shows Alki during a 1993 storm. 10/12/1962 'Columbus Day Storm'. It had 85 miles per hour sustained winds (equal to hurricane speed). Higher wind speeds (150 mph) on the coast demonstrated the protection that the Olympic Mountains give the region. Nevertheless, the damage was widespread. 46 people died throughout the region, 53,000 houses were damaged, and the power went out in many areas of Washington. It is not clear how much of this damage was in Seattle. 2/13/1979. The Hood Canal Bridge breaks apart in a violent storm. 11/24/1983. 'Thanksgiving Day Storm.' This storm surprised even the National Weather Service, revealing that long warning periods cannot always be counted upon. Downed trees were a leading cause of outages that left 75,000 without power in King County. The wind also damaged roofs and broke boats loose from their moorings.
Others: Hospital’s telephone system fails – handle the mechanics of communicating so doctors and nurses can concentrate on patients Forest fire or search and rescue – set up personal phone patches for firefighters to their families, or logistical communication (food, etc.) National Weather Service Skywarn
No matter which agency you serve – emcomm volunteers are like unpaid employees. Maintain the attitude that you are an employee of the agency you are serving. You are there to help solve their communication problems. Do whatever you can within reason to accomplish that goal and avoid becoming part of the problem.
You job is not to show off fancy equipment, impress anyone with your knowledge of radio and electronics. It is communication – period!
Why? Fire departments have a long history of competitiveness between volunteer and professional firefighters, so this may carry over to other volunteers. Police agencies are often distrustful of outsiders (maybe for security concerns). Don’t be offended if this attitude is obvious – it can’t be changed overnight. It takes time to prove yourselves. If your offer for assistance is rejected, do not press the issue. The served agency’s authority should never be challenged – they are in charge, and you are not.
Some emcomm groups may still enforce a “communication only” policy, and in some agencies the old model may still apply. Discuss with your EC.
Different people have different ideas and management styles, agencies in one area can have different needs from others, and these can affect the working relationship between the agency and its emcomm volunteers.
Here are some examples of relationships: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) : In June 2003, ARRL and DHS signed a Statement of Affiliation, making ARES an affiliate member of DHS's Citizen's Corp community readiness program. The agreement provides for training and a accreditation of ARES members, raising public awareness of Amateur Radio's role in emergency communications, and coordination of shared activities. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) : In most cases Amateur Radio emcomm operators will have little direct contact with FEMA and other federal agencies, except within the Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS) and at the national level with ARRL. American Red Cross chapters may have their own communication teams that include Amateurs, or they may have a SOU with a local ARES group or radio club. Typical assignments include linking shelters and chapter houses, performing damage assessment, handling supply and personnel logistics, and handling health and welfare messages. The Salvation Army maintains its own internal Amateur Radio communication support group, known as the Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network (SATERN). In some areas, ARES or other groups provide local communication support. Assignments are similar to the Red Cross. State and Local Emergency Management: Some state and local emergency management agencies include Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) teams as part of their own emergency communication plan. Others use &quot;outside&quot; groups such as the ARES. In a growing trend around the country, all ARES members are also RACES registered operators and vice versa. Communication assignments may be similar to the Red Cross and Salvation Army, but may also include government command and control, and inter-agency communications. SKYWARN is a self-contained program sponsored by the National Weather Service, and not all members are Amateur Radio operators. Many use other radio systems or telephone, fax or email to send in weather observations. SKYWARN volunteers collect on the spot weather observations that will allow forecasters to create forecasts that are more accurate, and issue timely warnings.
In any event, the best time to offer your services to an emcomm group is well before any emergency occurs. This will allow you to obtain the proper training and credentials, and to become known to the group's managers. When the time comes to serve, you will be ready for your job, and a job will be ready for you.
The best pathway is that which can transfer the information with the most efficiency, tying up the communication resources the least amount of time, and getting the information transferred most accurately and dependably. Hams are often invited to participate in emergency services planning, providing communications expertise. By incorporating some fundamental concepts about network theory into the planning of emergency communication systems, we can take advance steps to be sure that efficient and appropriate communication modes are available when the emergency strikes, thus providing a more valuable service to the public.
And some messages addressed to one destination can be useful and informative to &quot;incidental&quot; listeners, like the National Weather Service. A specific instruction to a particular shelter manager is a completely different kind of communication than an announcement to all shelters. Yet, it is common to hear these messages on the same communications channel.
Also, a message might need to be passed at a time when the receiving station is tied up with other business, and by the time the receiving station is free the sending station is then occupied. In these cases, provision can be made for &quot;time shifting:&quot; — the message can be left at a drop point for pickup when the receiving station becomes free. Timeliness also relates to the establishment of a communications link. Some modes, such as telephones, require dialing and ringing to establish a connection. An operator of a base station radio may need to track down a key official at the site to deliver a message. What matters is the total elapsed time from the time the message originates to the time it is delivered to its final party.
Since this mode utilizes the human voice, transferring a large amount of high-precision data (such as spelling a long list of names or numbers) can become tedious and time consuming. But, the one-to-one relationship between sender and receiver makes it ideal for messages containing sensitive or confidential information, such as casualty lists. The exclusive nature of most telephone circuits makes it difficult or impossible to break-in on a conversation to deliver a higher-priority message. The need for break-in usually precludes leaving the channel open continuously between two points, resulting in the need to dial and answer each time a message needs to be sent. The major drawback to telephones during emergency situations is that the sending and receiving stations are not self-contained. The system requires wires and cables that can be damaged or destroyed during severe weather. When the central switching center goes down or becomes overloaded, all communications on this mode come to a halt, regardless of priority or criticality.
It is becoming more and more likely that a fax machine will be found at the school, church, hospital, government center, or other institution involved in emergency or disaster-relief efforts. Most of today's computers (even laptops!) are equipped with modems that can send and receive fax information.
Most units can operate on multiple frequencies, making it a simple matter to increase the number of available communication circuits as the need arises. The most common example of inefficient use of communication resources is a lengthy exchange between two stations on a channel being shared by a large number of users.
Users are assigned a &quot;group id&quot; and field radios are programmed to only pick-up transmissions for that group. A computer, called the &quot;site controller&quot;, automatically assigns a frequency for users belonging to the same group to communicate with each other. This is done over a data channel called the &quot;control channel&quot;, which carries data that tells field radios what frequency they are on. Trunk radio systems may have one or more control channels and may rotate them every 24-hours. Since communications on a trunked system never stay on one frequency, monitoring these communications with a conventional scanner is virtually impossible, especially in large metro areas where a trunked system can have dozens and dozens of users. Although, theoretically, in a small town system with just a couple of users like police and fire and little radio traffic, you could get by using a conventional scanner by programming all system frequencies and locking out the data channels. Although you will have to guess at who is who when you hear something.
In other words, more stations could share fewer frequencies, with each frequency being utilized at a higher rate. Under everyday circumstances, this results in more efficient spectrum use.
The packet mode has another advantage when dealing with information that is in electronic form: there is no need for a conversion step before transmission. This is especially valuable when the information being sent is generated by machine (such as automated weather sensors, GPS receivers, or shelter management computers).
Space limitations prohibit more discussion, but by now you get the idea of how communications channels relate to different types of messages.
It is not too far fetched. Just ask anyone who has been around emcomm for a while -- they have seen it! This course is intended to help solve that problem, but without emcomm organizations, this course would be worthless.
Some of the organizations discussed here do not directly involve Amateur Radio operators, but knowing about them and how they might assist in an emergency may be helpful. Your served agency may utilize or interact with one or more of these systems or organizations.
In this case, each District is guided by a District Emergency Coordinator (DEC), working directly under the SEC. The next subdivision within ARES is the &quot;county&quot; or similar region assigned to an Emergency Coordinator (EC). Most ECs will have one or more Assistant Emergency Coordinators (AEC), who may have responsibility for specific tasks or cities. A large city with complex needs may have its own EC, but most towns and smaller cities will have an AEC.
MARS' most visible mission, providing phone patches to family members for US military personnel overseas, has diminished with the advent of new satellites that provide email and phone service almost anywhere.
You may have heard the required weekly EAS tests performed by radio and TV stations and their distinctive digital &quot;squawk&quot; sound.
Newer &quot;weather alert&quot; radios are available from a variety of manufacturers with the digital Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) alert mechanism. SAME equipped radios will remain silent until an alert is received for a specific geographic area. The user programs one or more five-digit FIPS codes for the areas they wish to monitor. When the NWS broadcasts the alert with the SAME code matching that programmed into the receiver, the receiver will activate and allow you to hear the audio message concerning the alert. Some receivers also provide a textual display of the alert information. The NWS tests the SAME network at least once weekly, and the radio will indicate that it has heard the test alert within the past week.
In an emergency situation, these shared channel systems can quickly become overloaded. A common practice is to end all non-essential communications or perhaps move them to an Amateur system instead.
Some departments may use familiar ITU Phonetics, some will use military systems, and still others will make them up as they go along. In addition, a few departments still use a &quot;10 code&quot; or something similar, but most are moving away from special codes in favor of plain language. Casual conversations are prohibited by FCC rules and are usually not permitted by the agency. All transmissions must be directly related to the agency's mission. Unfortunately, many departments are not aware of its intended use and treat it as their own private &quot;car to car&quot; channel. Many will not know they have a common channel since they use &quot;channel designators&quot; rather than frequencies. In addition, CTCSS was not supposed to be used on this channel to ensure inter-agency compatibility, but many departments use it anyway. This may become important if different police agencies must intercommunicate with each other in an emergency. If one or more use CTCSS, they will need to disable it by placing their radios in the &quot;monitor&quot; mode, if possible.
The UHF channels are known as &quot;Med 1&quot; to &quot;Med 10.&quot; In some cases, the hospital's radio is located on a nearby mountain or tall tower in order to achieve the required coverage, and connected to the emergency department by a radio or telephone link.
Motorola Type II SmartZone Analog Voice
A mateur R adio E mergency C ommunications C ourse Level 1 Version 4 – February 2009
The presenters would like to thank the American Radio Relay League for permission to use copyrighted ARECC Level 1 course material that is included in this classroom presentation material
In addition, supplemental material has been obtained through various sources including the Citizen Corps CERT website, Seattle Emergency Management, King County Emergency Management, Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, Washington State ARES/RACES, King County ARES/RACES, Seattle ACS, Western Washington Medical Services Team
Slides for this presentation were developed by Brian Daly, WB7OML, EC - King County (WA) District M - Western Washington Medical Services Team and leadership team of the Seattle ACS. Permission is granted to any amateur radio team to use provided credit is given to the developer.
The population density, complex system of governance, and significant risks we face (for both natural and technological disasters) created the need to plan for a coordinated response among public, private, tribal and nonprofit entities in King County
An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way communications except as specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity related to program production or news gathering for broadcasting purposes , except that communications directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination to the public where no other means of communication is reasonably available before or at the time of the event.
There has been a major disaster. You are located at a field location where patients have just been transported to your Hospital. A TV reporter at your location asks you to ask the Hospital how many patients have admitted to the Hospital so that he can report it on the next newscast.
Emergencies, disasters, and related incidents that are determined by appropriate state or local authorities to require the use of emergency workers and that are authorized by the issuance of an emergency management division mission number.
Search and rescue missions, including urban search and rescue and evidence search missions, that are conducted under the authority of local law enforcement officers and that are authorized by issuance of an emergency management division mission number.
Training events authorized by issuance of an emergency management division training event number.
Emergency workers shall register in their jurisdiction of residence or in the jurisdiction where their volunteer organization is headquartered by completing and filing an emergency worker registration card, Form EMD-024 or equivalent, with the local emergency management agency
The information provided during registration may be used by local authorized officials to conduct criminal history and driving record background checks
Failure to truthfully respond to statements set forth on the registration form may result in the denial of registration, revocation of registration as an emergency worker, or denial of compensation for claims or damage.
Each emergency worker shall be assigned to an emergency worker class as listed in WAC 118-04-100 in accordance with their skills, abilities, licenses, and qualifications.
Communications includes, but is not limited to, any emergency communications activities carried out in accordance with approved state or local emergency operations and communications plans.
Emergency workers are considered to be on duty when they are performing their duties during a mission, evidence search mission, or training event authorized by the emergency management division and they are under the direction and control of an authorized official.
Upon notification by an authorized official to report to duty at a specific time and place, emergency workers are entitled to the benefits and provisions under chapter 38.52 RCW when acting in compliance with such notification and these rules.
Eligibility for compensation shall be limited to the time and distance necessary to travel to the duty station, performance of services, and reasonable time and reasonable time to return to the point of origin.
All emergency workers driving vehicles to or from a mission must possess a valid driver's license and required insurance.
Use of private vehicles, vessels, boats, or aircraft by emergency workers in any mission, training event, or other authorized activity without liability insurance required by chapter 46.29 RCW is prohibited
Washington 25/50/10 for autos
Unless specifically directed otherwise by an authorized official in accordance with RCW 38.52.180
Must adhere to all applicable traffic regulations during any mission, training event, or other authorized activity
The injured person shall have been a registered emergency worker, activated by an authorized official for an authorized activity under the provisions of chapter 38.52 RCW, and shall have reported to or been in the process of reporting to the authorized on-scene official.
In the event of injury to an emergency worker, the responsible agency's on-scene authorized official shall be notified as soon as possible.
Documentation shall include any reports, mission logs, ambulance and hospital bills, receipts, medical reports, or other information helpful in describing the extent of the injury, the circumstances under which the injury occurred, and the costs that were incurred as a result of the injury.
The injury, disability, or death shall not have been caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, or bad faith of the claimant.
Only property that is deemed necessary and reasonable for the mission activity shall be considered for compensation, if lost or damaged.
Compensation for the loss or theft of property left unsecured or for damage which could have been prevented through reasonable care may be denied.
RCW 4.24.300 Immunity from liability for certain types of medical care
Any person, including but not limited to a volunteer provider of emergency or medical services , who without compensation or the expectation of compensation renders emergency care at the scene of an emergency or who participates in transporting, not for compensation, therefrom an injured person or persons for emergency medical treatment shall not be liable for civil damages resulting from any act or omission in the rendering of such emergency care or in transporting such persons, other than acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct
Any person rendering emergency care during the course of regular employment and receiving compensation or expecting to receive compensation for rendering such care is excluded
Locate the ARRL website. Conduct a search for the Statement of Understanding (SOU) between The American Red Cross and ARRL. List three forms of assistance the Red Cross may request of ARRL ARES and NTS. (Hint: when searching the ARRL website, search on the term MOU rather than SOU).
If you were asked to develop a Statement of Understanding (SOU) between your local emcomm group and a local served agency, what general topics would you include?
Sending a list of names or numbers requires precision at the "character" level
A report that "the lost hiker has been found" does not require precision at the character level
Over low-precision communications channels (such as voice modes) even letters of the alphabet can be misinterpreted
Unless a phonetic system, feedback, or error-correcting mechanism is used
Typing out a low precision message that "the delivery van containing the coffee has arrived at this location" on a high-precision packet link = more time consuming (and inefficient) than a simple voice report
Trunked systems rely on a complex central signaling system to dynamically handle the mobile frequency assignments
If the central control unit goes down, the entire system — base and mobile units — must revert to a pre-determined simplex or repeater-based arrangement
Risky in emergency situations because of the small number of frequencies available to the system
Trunked Radio System Message on Channel 1 same frequency Reply on Channel 1 same frequency Conventional System Message on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 1 Reply on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 6 Next message on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 3 Next reply on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 8 The frequencies are entirely random within the system and dependent upon which frequencies are available at that exact moment Trunked System If the system uses a repeater, then Tx and Rx are different frequencies but do not change
Make a list of the kinds of messages that might need to be handled during a communication emergency likely in your area. Match the kind of message (tactical messages, served agency manpower requests, welfare inquiries, medical information, casualty lists, requests for supplies, shelter resident lists, etc) with the appropriate communication mode(s) (packet or other digital modes, FM phone, CW, HF SSB, etc.)
For more information on this topic, see "Network Theory and the Design of Emergency Communication Systems" Part 1, October 1997 QST , Public Service column. Part 2 appears in November 1997 QST, Public Service. See also a discussion of communications theory in The ARRL Emergency Coordinator's Manual .
For more information on any of the elements presented, please consult the following links: http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/index.html
For additional general information, please see The ARRL Operating Manual , chapter on emergency communications. See also the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual . For local information, or to learn more about ARES and NTS net operation in your area, contact your Section Manager (SM) (http://www.arrl.org/field/org/smlist.html.), your Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC) or District Emergency Coordinator (DEC). See also The ARRL Net Directory for a list of ARES and NTS nets operating in your area.
Recall, the FCC or President can suspend amateur radio operations due to a national emergency
But in the event that the President invokes his War Emergency Powers, amateurs involved with RACES might be limited to certain specific frequencies (while all other amateur operation could be silenced)
RACES, administered by local, county and state emergency management agencies, and supported by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the United States government, is a part of the Amateur Radio Service that provides radio communications for civil-preparedness purposes only, during periods of local, regional or national civil emergencies
Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)
Federal government created RACES after WWII
Need for Amateur Radio operators as an integral part of a state, county, or local Civil Defense (CD) agency in time of national emergency or war
RACES authorization provides the means to continue to serve the public even if the President or the FCC suspends regular Amateur operations
RACES rules provide for use of almost all regular Amateur frequencies, but place strict limits on the types of communications made, and with whom
Certified RACES operators carry State Emergency Worker cards with them while participating in RACES functions
Issued and controlled by local Emergency Management Departments
Other special qualifications may also required such as First Aid and CPR training, basic SAR techniques and map reading along with special training in operation of amateur radio equipment and message handling
Although RACES and ARES are separate entities, the ARRL advocates dual membership and cooperative efforts between both groups whenever possible for an ARES group whose members are all enrolled in and certified by RACES to operate in an emergency with great flexibility
Using the same operators and the same frequencies, an ARES group also enrolled as RACES can "switch hats" from ARES to RACES and RACES to ARES to meet the requirements of the situation as it develops
For example, during a "non-declared emergency," ARES can operate under ARES, but when an emergency or disaster is officially declared by a state or federal authority, the operation can become RACES with no change in personnel or frequencies
Q. During an emergency, when is ARES activated? How about RACES?
A. ARES is activated before, during and after an emergency. Generally, ARES handles all emergency messages, including those between government emergency management officials. RACES, on the other hand, almost never starts before an emergency and is active only during the emergency and during the immediate aftermath if government emergency management offices need communications support. RACES is normally shut down shortly after the emergency has cleared.
Q. How long may RACES drills and tests be held? What about ARES?
A. RACES drills and tests can’t exceed a total time of one hour per week. With proper authorization, such drills and tests may be conducted for a period not to exceed 72 hours and such drills can occur no more than twice in a calendar year [97.407(e)].
There are no specific limits on ARES drills and tests.
A. RACES and ARES are both vital organizations and need your participation to make them effective. To register for RACES, contact your local civil defense office or Emergency Operations Center.
To register with ARES, complete an ARRL Form FSD-98 and send it to your local EC. You can obtain this ARRL form and others from ARRL HQ and, if you have access to the World Wide Web, from: http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/forms/ - fsd-98.
Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force
Volunteer, non-profit, benevolent organization made up of aviation-minded adult and cadet members committed to serving the nation
The system operates in support of all CAP missions, including Emergency Services, Aerospace Education and the CAP Cadet Program.
The focus of the CAP system is tactical communications, including air to ground, ground team to ground team, and communication with mission base
Using volunteer operators trained to professional standards, the CAP communications network is a ready force for homeland security and the protection of life and property
The nation-wide CAP communication system has 840 high-frequency radio stations, 5,000 fixed-land radio stations and 10,000 mobile radios, deployed in CAP units in every state, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico
Federally coordinated system that augments the Nation's medical response capability
Purpose of the NDMS is to supplement an integrated National medical response capability for assisting State and local authorities in dealing with the medical impacts of major peacetime disasters
Provide support to the military and the Department of Veterans Affairs medical systems in caring for casualties evacuated back to the U.S. from overseas armed conventional conflicts
National Response Framework utilizes the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), as part of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Response, under Emergency Support Function #8
National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) Response Teams
Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT)
Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams (DMORT)
DMAT is a group of professional and para-professional medical personnel (supported by a cadre of logistical and administrative staff) designed to provide medical care during a disaster or other event
Responsibilities may include triaging patients, providing high-quality medical care despite the adverse and austere environment often found at a disaster site, patient reception at staging facilities and preparing patients for evacuation
NDMS/DMAT personnel are required to maintain appropriate certifications and licensure within their discipline
When personnel are activated as Federal employees, licensure and certification is recognized by all States
Washington-1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (WA-1 DMAT) is located in Seattle
These requirements are codified in Washington Administrative Code 118.04
The exact content, length, and refresher cycle has been interpreted through an agreement of King County Sheriff's Office, and the unit leaders of King County Search and Rescue Association; last reviewed on February 20, 2007
King County Sheriff’s Office requires the Introduction to Emergency Worker course for all SAR members who joined after January 1st, 2004, and WAC118.04 requires:
To provide Department of Defense sponsored emergency communications on a local, national, and international basis as an adjunct to normal communications.
To provide auxiliary communications for military, civil, and/or disaster officials during periods of emergency.
To assist in effecting normal communications under emergency conditions
Headquartered at Fort Huachuca, Arizona
Assigned to the Headquarters, United States Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal Command (Army) (NETCOM/9th SC(A)), which directly reports to the Department of the Army's Chief Information Officer/G-6
NCS consists of 23 government organizations tasked with ensuring that the Federal Government has the necessary communication capabilities under all conditions from day-to-day use to national emergencies and international crises; includes:
Federal Emergency Management Agency,
ATF, and others who have a variety of communication assets.
The Manager of the NCS is also the Director of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), usually an Air Force general.
Facilities linked with high-speed terrestrial circuits that provide integrated voice, data, and video network service
Routers connect FEMA facilities and provide access to the internet
Private Branch Exchange (PBX) systems provide voice capability through FEMA’s Integrated Network, Public Network, and Federal Telephone System (FTS)
Disaster Field Offices are quickly added to architecture to provide a robust field operating environment
FEMA INTEGRATED NETWORK Jessup, MD Frankfort,KY Emmitsburg, MD Chicago, IL Bothell, WA Kansas City, MO Maynard, MA Thomasville , GA Presidio Denver , CO Boston, MA Lanham, MD Philadelphia, PA New York, NY Atlanta, Ga Albany, NY Hyattsville NPSC Region 6 (+NTC) Mt. Weather Headquarters Elkridge, MD Olney, MD FIA Altern- ate
We will provide public service communications to individuals, organizations, and government agencies to save lives, prevent injuries, and give assistance wherever and whenever needed. We will strive to establish a monitoring network of trained volunteer citizen-based communicators using any and all available means to deliver the message.
State of Washington Emergency Alert System EAS Plan
Innovations in Washington State Plan:
Broadcasters are not expected to originate messages, they just relay them. Government agencies originate all EAS messages at the both the State and Local levels. LP1 & LP2 stations may not be manned, but their equipment will still relay the proper alerts automatically.
EAS messages pass through the network in the background and stay in the background as much as possible. What is called a daisy chain of broadcast stations is avoided except for backup.
NOAA/NWS is fully integrated into the system, so events that were not originated by NWS are still routed through their transmitters.
Western Washington EAS Matrix AREA NAME COUNTIES LP STA SRN SITE NOAA SITE & FREQ LRN FREQ EAN SOURCE CENTRAL PUGET SOUND ISLAND SNOHOMISH KITSAP KING PIERCE E.JEFFERSON 1- KIRO-710 GOLD 155.475 COUGAR 162.55 MILLER 162.425 W. Tiger Mtn. 450.0875 KIRO -710 or SRN 155.475 2-KPLU-88.5 CLALLAM EAST PORTION CLALLAM 1 -KONP -1450 GALBRAITH 155.475 MILLER 162.425 . 45.86 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2- NWS 162.425 CLALLAM (WEST) WEST PORTION CLALLAM 1-KVAC-1490 ELLIS 155.475 OCTOPUS 162.425 Neah Bay 162.550 . KIRO-TV via NWS RADIO 2-KLLM-103.9 COASTAL W. JEFF G. HARBOR PACIFIC 1-KXRO-1320 BAW FAW or NASELLE 155.475 OCTOPUS 162.425 NASELLE 162.400 TBD KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KDUX-104.7 COWLITZ WAHKIAKUM COWLITZ WAHKIAKUM 1-KZOE-90.3 BAW FAW 155.475 BAW FAW 162.475 or NASELLE 162.40 450.100 LRN to monitor SRN @ 155.475 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KLOG-1490 LEWIS LEWIS 1-KELA -1470 BAW FAW 155.475 BAW FAW 162.475 155.100 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KMNT-102.9 MASON- THURSTON MASON THURSTON 1-KGY-1240 GOLD 155.475 COUGAR 162.55 or BAW FAW 162.475 155.145 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KGY-96.9 NORTHERN PUGET SOUND WHATCOM S. JUAN SKAGIT 1-KGMI-790 GALBRAITH 155.475 MILLER PK 162.425 Mt. Const. 450.0625 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KISM-92.9 PORTLAND/ VANCOUVER CLARK 1-KXL-750 CLARK CO. COMM CENTER 155.475 GOAT MT 162.550 166.250 NPR via SR-OPB 2-KGON-92.3
NWR in Washington Call Sign Site Name Site Location Frequency Power KEC91 Astoria Naselle Ridge 162.400 300 WXM62 Capitol Peak Capitol Peak 162.475 330 WXN21 Cle Elum Sky Meadows 162.400 300 WNG604 Davis Peak Cowlitz County 162.525 100 KZZ73 Dayton Patit 162.525 300 WNG566 Goldendale Goodnoe Hills 162.525 100 KAD93 H Street - Blaine Area H Street - Blaine Area 162.525 100 KIH36 Neah Bay Bohokus Peak 162.550 100 WWF49 Okanogan Tunk Mtn. 162.525 50 KXI27 Olympic Nat'l. Park Mt. Octopus 162.425 330 WWH27 Plymouth Sillusi Butte 162.425 100 WWG24 Puget Sound Marine Miller Peak 162.425 90 WWF56 Richland Richland 162.450 300 KHB60 Seattle Couger Mtn. 162.550 100 WXL86 Spokane Spokane Mtn. 162.400 100 WXM34 The Dalles Columbia Gorge 162.400 300 WXM48 Wenatchee Eagle Rock 162.475 100 KIG75 Yakima Ahtanum Ridge 162.550 300
NWR in Washington NOAA Weather Radio in Washington Additional Sites (not shown) Astoria, OR 162.400 MHz Pendleton, OR 162.400 MHz Abbotsford, BC 162.550 MHz Blaine 162.525 MHz Puget Sound Marine 162.425 MHz Bonners Ferry, ID 162.500 MHz Cle Elum 162.400 MHz Richland 162.450 MHz Lewiston, ID 162.550 MHz Dayton 162.525 MHz Seattle 162.550 MHz Portland, OR 162.550 MHz Forks/Mt Octopus 162.425 MHz Spokane 162.400 MHz Vancouver, BC 162.400 MHz Goldendale 162.525 MHz The Dalles, OR 162.400 MHz Victoria, BC 162.400 MHz Heppner, OR 2 162.425 MHz Umatilla, OR 162.500 MHz Neah Bay 162.550 MHz Upper Cowlitz Basin 162.425 MHz Neahkahnie, OR 162.425 MHz Wenatchee 162.475 MHz Okanogan 162.525 MHz Woodland 162.525 MHz Olympia 162.475 MHz Yakima 162.550 MHz
NWR Coverage in Washington White: Signal level of greater than 18dBuV: Reliable coverage Green: 0dBuV to 18dBuV: picking up a signal is possible but unreliable Red: Less than 0dBuV: Unlikely to receive a signal
NWR Seattle Coverage King County SAME: 053033
“ Hardened" and secure national wireline phone network connecting the warning points in each state (usually the state police HQ or state EOC) to the Federal Government
The National Warning System (NAWAS), a major component of the Civil Defense Warning System (CDWS), was established with the primary purpose of providing a capability to warn the nation of a threat of a nuclear attack
NAWAS can be used for emergencies related to peacetime nuclear accidents, railroad disasters, downed aircraft, and warning of potential natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes, floods, tsunami's, and tornadoes).
Center of NAWAS operations is the National Warning Center at NORAD's Cheyenne Mountain command and control complex in Colorado
Provide notification in case of enemy attack, and to inform and coordinate alert and warning information among states in a given region
NAWAS State/Local WP Lines ANWC THOMASVILLE, GA ALASKA HAWAII Warning Centers FEMA Regional Centers State Warning Points Main Lines - WC’s /Regions Region to State WP Lines
Primary State Warning Point located in the state EOC
Alternate State Warning Point located in the Washington State Patrol (WSP) communications center, Yakima
Twenty-nine (29) local primary warning points
NAWAS is a voice only network that allows simultaneous signaling and broadcasting to one or more warning points
Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
Should an incident involving the storage and eventual incineration of chemical munitions at Umatilla Depot Activity pose a life threatening situation for communities within Benton County and surrounding areas, alert notification and information exchange between state and local authorities must occur automatically or within minutes after the event occurs
Washington State All-Hazard Alert Broadcasting (AHAB) Network
La Push (Makah Tribe)
Lummi Nation (2)
Ocean Park (4)
Ocean Shores (4)
Taholah (Quinault Nation)
Tokeland (Shoalwater Bay Tribe)
National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)
U.S. Geological Survey operates the National Earthquake Information Center, located in Golden, Colorado
Issues rapid reports for those earthquakes that register at least 4.5 on the Richter Scale in the United States, or 6.5 on the Richter Scale (or are known to have caused damage) anywhere else in the world
Public warning reports are disseminated in the affected areas via the NWR and EAS systems
A Very High Frequency (VHF) radio system that is the primary back-up system for communicating with all county and city EOCs or Command Posts. It is used day-to-day by local government and some state agencies.
State Emergency Communications Using Radio Effectively (SECURE)
A High Frequency (HF) radio system used for point-to-point communications. It operates on eight assigned frequencies between 2-8 MHz. Use is limited to agencies having this capability.
Emergency Management Radio Systems State Agency Emergency Net - 800 MHz
Primarily designed to provide a capability for state agencies within the Capitol Campus, Tumwater, Lacey and surrounding areas to communicate with the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) during emergency situations or disasters
Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)
Backup communication system that provides emergency communications to state and local government using Amateur Radio operators (HAMS) and their equipment
Description: The MRV is a 30-foot long communications van mounted on a Kenworth chassis with a total weight of 44,000 pounds. The rear section of the roof opens to reveal a 2.4 meter satellite antenna, while the rest of the roof contains antennas for use with its radio suite. The inside of the van houses the MRV's screen room that contains its communications equipment and a small office/work area in the front. The truck has two built-in 20 kW generators which provide self-contained power for the entire operation. There is also a Second Antenna System (SAS) that is mounted on another truck which can be connected to provide a second satellite link.
Capabilities: The MRV provides an interface to a variety of communications medium. It contains High Frequency (HF) Radios; Very High Frequency (VHF) Radios and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radios, all with telephone interface capability. It also contains a Ku band satellite system which can provide connectivity for telephones, Local and Wide Area Network (LAN/WAN), compressed video teleconferencing, and Broadcast Video. There are also computers with scanning, printing, copying and facsimile capabilities. The MRV also has a small telephone switch to provide limited telephone support.
Functions: The MRV provides a mobile communications platform that can quickly deploy to provide the initial means of communications for the disaster response team and/or the Disaster Field Office (DFO) until permanent communications mediums can be restored to the area.
Primarily used by public-safety agencies, "on-scene" at an event/incident, for command and coordination of activities between agencies. OSCCR can only be employed in the simplex mode via mobile and/or handheld equipment
Search & Rescue (SAR)
Primarily used by Search and Rescue organizations for coordinating operations between SAR units
Can only be employed in the simplex mode via mobile and/or handheld equipment
State Fire Control Channel (REDNET/FIRECOM)
Primarily used by fire departments and districts for coordinating operations between firefighting units
National Law Enforcement Emergency Channel (NLEEC)
Primarily used by law enforcement agencies for mutual operations. Also used by EMD for activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) relay network
The primary purpose of the system is to provide emergency radio communications services for all the police, fire, emergency medical services, public school districts and public hospitals within King County
The secondary purpose of the system is to provide, to the extent possible within the constraints of available funding and limited spectrum availability, sufficient capacity within the system to service other public agencies with emergency response duties
Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN
provide the emergency management community with access to a set of NWS warnings, watches, forecasts, and other products
EMWIN is a supplement to other NWS dissemination services, which include: NOAA Weather Radio (NWR), NOAA Weather Wire System (NWWS), Family of Services (FOS), NOAAPORT, and NEXRAD Information Dissemination Service (NIDS).