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Brian Daley EC-001

Brian Daley EC-001

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  • 1. Let us first thank you for choosing to expand you knowledge of Amateur Radio Emergency Communications; our professionalism and the effectiveness of our public service efforts will be greatly improved if we all share a common base of knowledge, skills, and procedures.
  • Wind storms, volcanoes, earthquakes, underground cables dug up, accident, floods Fires in telco buildings, hospital or E911 systems fail, congestion on the network (telephone, cellular, internet) The Pacific Northwest is not subject to hurricanes like the East Coast, but it can sometimes receive violent windstorms that reach hurricane strength. Typically, loss of electrical services during a windstorm results from trees being blown onto power lines rather than from fallen power poles or lines. Photo shows Alki during a 1993 storm. 10/12/1962 'Columbus Day Storm'. It had 85 miles per hour sustained winds (equal to hurricane speed). Higher wind speeds (150 mph) on the coast demonstrated the protection that the Olympic Mountains give the region. Nevertheless, the damage was widespread. 46 people died throughout the region, 53,000 houses were damaged, and the power went out in many areas of Washington. It is not clear how much of this damage was in Seattle. 2/13/1979. The Hood Canal Bridge breaks apart in a violent storm. 11/24/1983. 'Thanksgiving Day Storm.' This storm surprised even the National Weather Service, revealing that long warning periods cannot always be counted upon. Downed trees were a leading cause of outages that left 75,000 without power in King County. The wind also damaged roofs and broke boats loose from their moorings.
  • Others: Hospital’s telephone system fails – handle the mechanics of communicating so doctors and nurses can concentrate on patients Forest fire or search and rescue – set up personal phone patches for firefighters to their families, or logistical communication (food, etc.) National Weather Service Skywarn
  • No matter which agency you serve – emcomm volunteers are like unpaid employees. Maintain the attitude that you are an employee of the agency you are serving. You are there to help solve their communication problems. Do whatever you can within reason to accomplish that goal and avoid becoming part of the problem.
  • You job is not to show off fancy equipment, impress anyone with your knowledge of radio and electronics. It is communication – period!
  • Why? Fire departments have a long history of competitiveness between volunteer and professional firefighters, so this may carry over to other volunteers. Police agencies are often distrustful of outsiders (maybe for security concerns). Don’t be offended if this attitude is obvious – it can’t be changed overnight. It takes time to prove yourselves. If your offer for assistance is rejected, do not press the issue. The served agency’s authority should never be challenged – they are in charge, and you are not.
  • Some emcomm groups may still enforce a “communication only” policy, and in some agencies the old model may still apply. Discuss with your EC.
  • Different people have different ideas and management styles, agencies in one area can have different needs from others, and these can affect the working relationship between the agency and its emcomm volunteers.
  • Here are some examples of relationships: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) : In June 2003, ARRL and DHS signed a Statement of Affiliation, making ARES an affiliate member of DHS's Citizen's Corp community readiness program. The agreement provides for training and a accreditation of ARES members, raising public awareness of Amateur Radio's role in emergency communications, and coordination of shared activities. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) : In most cases Amateur Radio emcomm operators will have little direct contact with FEMA and other federal agencies, except within the Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS) and at the national level with ARRL. American Red Cross chapters may have their own communication teams that include Amateurs, or they may have a SOU with a local ARES group or radio club. Typical assignments include linking shelters and chapter houses, performing damage assessment, handling supply and personnel logistics, and handling health and welfare messages. The Salvation Army maintains its own internal Amateur Radio communication support group, known as the Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network (SATERN). In some areas, ARES or other groups provide local communication support. Assignments are similar to the Red Cross. State and Local Emergency Management: Some state and local emergency management agencies include Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) teams as part of their own emergency communication plan. Others use "outside" groups such as the ARES. In a growing trend around the country, all ARES members are also RACES registered operators and vice versa. Communication assignments may be similar to the Red Cross and Salvation Army, but may also include government command and control, and inter-agency communications. SKYWARN is a self-contained program sponsored by the National Weather Service, and not all members are Amateur Radio operators. Many use other radio systems or telephone, fax or email to send in weather observations. SKYWARN volunteers collect on the spot weather observations that will allow forecasters to create forecasts that are more accurate, and issue timely warnings.
  • Katrina Example
  • In any event, the best time to offer your services to an emcomm group is well before any emergency occurs. This will allow you to obtain the proper training and credentials, and to become known to the group's managers. When the time comes to serve, you will be ready for your job, and a job will be ready for you.
  • The best pathway is that which can transfer the information with the most efficiency, tying up the communication resources the least amount of time, and getting the information transferred most accurately and dependably. Hams are often invited to participate in emergency services planning, providing communications expertise. By incorporating some fundamental concepts about network theory into the planning of emergency communication systems, we can take advance steps to be sure that efficient and appropriate communication modes are available when the emergency strikes, thus providing a more valuable service to the public.
  • And some messages addressed to one destination can be useful and informative to "incidental" listeners, like the National Weather Service. A specific instruction to a particular shelter manager is a completely different kind of communication than an announcement to all shelters. Yet, it is common to hear these messages on the same communications channel.
  • Also, a message might need to be passed at a time when the receiving station is tied up with other business, and by the time the receiving station is free the sending station is then occupied. In these cases, provision can be made for "time shifting:" — the message can be left at a drop point for pickup when the receiving station becomes free. Timeliness also relates to the establishment of a communications link. Some modes, such as telephones, require dialing and ringing to establish a connection. An operator of a base station radio may need to track down a key official at the site to deliver a message. What matters is the total elapsed time from the time the message originates to the time it is delivered to its final party.
  • Since this mode utilizes the human voice, transferring a large amount of high-precision data (such as spelling a long list of names or numbers) can become tedious and time consuming. But, the one-to-one relationship between sender and receiver makes it ideal for messages containing sensitive or confidential information, such as casualty lists. The exclusive nature of most telephone circuits makes it difficult or impossible to break-in on a conversation to deliver a higher-priority message. The need for break-in usually precludes leaving the channel open continuously between two points, resulting in the need to dial and answer each time a message needs to be sent. The major drawback to telephones during emergency situations is that the sending and receiving stations are not self-contained. The system requires wires and cables that can be damaged or destroyed during severe weather. When the central switching center goes down or becomes overloaded, all communications on this mode come to a halt, regardless of priority or criticality.
  • It is becoming more and more likely that a fax machine will be found at the school, church, hospital, government center, or other institution involved in emergency or disaster-relief efforts. Most of today's computers (even laptops!) are equipped with modems that can send and receive fax information.
  • Most units can operate on multiple frequencies, making it a simple matter to increase the number of available communication circuits as the need arises. The most common example of inefficient use of communication resources is a lengthy exchange between two stations on a channel being shared by a large number of users.
  • Users are assigned a "group id" and field radios are programmed to only pick-up transmissions for that group. A computer, called the "site controller", automatically assigns a frequency for users belonging to the same group to communicate with each other. This is done over a data channel called the "control channel", which carries data that tells field radios what frequency they are on. Trunk radio systems may have one or more control channels and may rotate them every 24-hours.  Since communications on a trunked system never stay on one frequency, monitoring these communications with a conventional scanner is virtually impossible, especially in large metro areas where a trunked system can have dozens and dozens of users. Although, theoretically, in a small town system with just a couple of users like police and fire and little radio traffic, you could get by using a conventional scanner by programming all system frequencies and locking out the data channels. Although you will have to guess at who is who when you hear something. 
  • In other words, more stations could share fewer frequencies, with each frequency being utilized at a higher rate. Under everyday circumstances, this results in more efficient spectrum use.
  • The packet mode has another advantage when dealing with information that is in electronic form: there is no need for a conversion step before transmission. This is especially valuable when the information being sent is generated by machine (such as automated weather sensors, GPS receivers, or shelter management computers).
  • Space limitations prohibit more discussion, but by now you get the idea of how communications channels relate to different types of messages.
  • It is not too far fetched. Just ask anyone who has been around emcomm for a while -- they have seen it! This course is intended to help solve that problem, but without emcomm organizations, this course would be worthless.
  • Some of the organizations discussed here do not directly involve Amateur Radio operators, but knowing about them and how they might assist in an emergency may be helpful. Your served agency may utilize or interact with one or more of these systems or organizations.
  • In this case, each District is guided by a District Emergency Coordinator (DEC), working directly under the SEC. The next subdivision within ARES is the "county" or similar region assigned to an Emergency Coordinator (EC). Most ECs will have one or more Assistant Emergency Coordinators (AEC), who may have responsibility for specific tasks or cities. A large city with complex needs may have its own EC, but most towns and smaller cities will have an AEC.
  • MARS' most visible mission, providing phone patches to family members for US military personnel overseas, has diminished with the advent of new satellites that provide email and phone service almost anywhere.
  • You may have heard the required weekly EAS tests performed by radio and TV stations and their distinctive digital "squawk" sound.
  • Newer "weather alert" radios are available from a variety of manufacturers with the digital Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) alert mechanism. SAME equipped radios will remain silent until an alert is received for a specific geographic area. The user programs one or more five-digit FIPS codes for the areas they wish to monitor. When the NWS broadcasts the alert with the SAME code matching that programmed into the receiver, the receiver will activate and allow you to hear the audio message concerning the alert. Some receivers also provide a textual display of the alert information. The NWS tests the SAME network at least once weekly, and the radio will indicate that it has heard the test alert within the past week.
  • ALL STATIONS
  • In an emergency situation, these shared channel systems can quickly become overloaded. A common practice is to end all non-essential communications or perhaps move them to an Amateur system instead.
  • Some departments may use familiar ITU Phonetics, some will use military systems, and still others will make them up as they go along. In addition, a few departments still use a "10 code" or something similar, but most are moving away from special codes in favor of plain language. Casual conversations are prohibited by FCC rules and are usually not permitted by the agency. All transmissions must be directly related to the agency's mission. Unfortunately, many departments are not aware of its intended use and treat it as their own private "car to car" channel. Many will not know they have a common channel since they use "channel designators" rather than frequencies. In addition, CTCSS was not supposed to be used on this channel to ensure inter-agency compatibility, but many departments use it anyway. This may become important if different police agencies must intercommunicate with each other in an emergency. If one or more use CTCSS, they will need to disable it by placing their radios in the "monitor" mode, if possible.
  • The UHF channels are known as "Med 1" to "Med 10." In some cases, the hospital's radio is located on a nearby mountain or tall tower in order to achieve the required coverage, and connected to the emergency department by a radio or telephone link.
  • Motorola Type II SmartZone Analog Voice
  • Transcript

    • 1. A mateur R adio E mergency C ommunications C ourse Level 1 Version 4 – February 2009
    • 2. Acknowledgements
      • The presenters would like to thank the American Radio Relay League for permission to use copyrighted ARECC Level 1 course material that is included in this classroom presentation material
      • In addition, supplemental material has been obtained through various sources including the Citizen Corps CERT website, Seattle Emergency Management, King County Emergency Management, Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, Washington State ARES/RACES, King County ARES/RACES, Seattle ACS, Western Washington Medical Services Team
      • Slides for this presentation were developed by Brian Daly, WB7OML, EC - King County (WA) District M - Western Washington Medical Services Team and leadership team of the Seattle ACS. Permission is granted to any amateur radio team to use provided credit is given to the developer.
      • Presenters:
        • Brian Daly WB7OML
        • DeWayne Sennett KE7DXW
        • Alan Jones KD7KUS
    • 3. Logistics
      • Activity Sheet
      • Course Evaluation Sheet
      • 3 lessons, followed by a short break
    • 4. Overview
      • Welcome! And Thank You!!
      • We are here to improve professionalism and effectiveness of our public service efforts
        • Share a common base of knowledge, skills and procedures
        • Learn new skills, new ways of thinking about existing skills
      • Make note of any ideas you may have, and submit on the course evaluation sheet
      • Share stories of how this applies to your local teams
    • 5. Introduction
      • Objectives of the course
        • To provide a baseline level of knowledge and skill in Amateur Radio Emergency Communications for anyone wishing to assist their local emergency communications organizations
    • 6. First, let’s start out with a scenario ….
    • 7. Scenario
      • 1,660 dead
      • 24,200 injured
      • 9,700 buildings destroyed
      • 29,000 buildings severely damages and unsafe
      • 154,000 buildings moderately damaged with use restricted
      • 130 fires burn
      • All major highways experience partial closures lasting months
      • Utilities cut in areas with poor soils
      • Port facilities badly damaged
      • Businesses disrupted due to collapsed supply houses, transportation closures, communication outages
      • Property Damage $33B
    • 8. Scenario – Where?
      • Katrina?
      • Tsunami?
    • 9. Scenario
      • Scenario for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake on the Seattle Fault
        • Seattle Fault M6.7
        • Shallow Quake
        • Fault Rupture at surface in Bellevue
      • Losses similar to the M6.7 Northridge earthquake
        • U.S. most costly to date
    • 10. Lesson 1: Introduction to Emergency Communications
    • 11. What is a Communication Emergency?
      • A Communication Emergency exists when:
        • A critical communication failure puts the public at risk
      • Variety of circumstances leads to a communication emergency
        • Overload or damage to critical day-to-day systems
      What are some potential causes of a Communications Emergency locally?
    • 12. Western Washington Communications Emergency
    • 13. Arizona Communication Emergencies
    • 14. Other Communication Emergencies PSAP Failure Terrorism Grid Failure Hospital/EMS Comm Failure
    • 15. Which of these may result in a communication emergency?
      • Pacific Northwest windstorm
      • Western Washington snowfall of December 2008
      • Nisqually earthquake
      • 9-1-1 center telephone outage
      • Widespread power outage
      • Cascadia subduction zone earthquake
      • Internal hospital PBX outage
      • Cable television system outage
      • Avalanche at Snoqualmie Pass
      • Western Washington floods of 2007 or 2009
    • 16.  
    • 17. Disaster
      • Disaster  “ill-starred”
        • “ dis” – Latin for “away”
        • “ astrum” – Latin for “stars”
      • Conversations about disaster 
        • Typically surrounded by fear and superstition
      “ Why don’t we tell people what to do when the nation is on Orange Alert against a terrorist attack – instead of just telling them to be afraid?” - Amanda Ripley, “The Unthinkable”
    • 18. Exercise
      • Rank order the following disaster risks for Seattle/King County from highest risk to lowest risk
      • Consider both:
        • Frequency &
        • Effects of the disaster
      • Tornadoes
      • Floods
      • Landslides
      • Terrorism
      • Hazmat Incidents
      • Volcanic Eruptions
      • Conflagrations
      • Earthquake
      • Windstorm
      • Tsunami/Seiches
      • Air Crashes
      • Civil Disorders
      • Snowstorm
      • Droughts/Water Shortages
    • 19. Seattle Risks
    • 20. Useful Reading http://www.seattle.gov/emergency/
    • 21. King County Disasters
      • King County is at risk for a wide-range of natural, technological, and human-caused disasters
      • Between 1964 and 2005, King County has had 20 presidential declared disasters
        • most of which were severe weather events
      • Have the potential for:
        • severe weather events
          • floods, ice, wind, and snowstorms
        • landslide risks
        • transportation and fixed-site hazardous material issues
        • could be vulnerable to terrorist activities
    • 22. Earthquakes
    • 23. Pacific Northwest Earthquakes Source: earthquake.usgs.gov
    • 24. Pacific Northwest Earthquakes Source: http://www.pnsn.org
    • 25. Seattle Earthquakes Source: earthquake.usgs.gov
    • 26. A Few Earthquake Resources
      • The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network
        • http://www.pnsn.org/
      • KING5 Earthquake
        • http://www.king5.com/quake/
      • Washington State Emergency Management
        • http://emd.wa.gov/hazards/haz_earthquakes.shtml
    • 27. Pacific Northwest Volcanoes
    • 28. Major King County River Systems http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/waterandland/flooding/documents/flood-hazard-management-plan.aspx
    • 29. King County Flooding
    • 30. 2006 Flooding
    • 31. Winter Weather
      • King County Snow & Ice Plan
        • http://www.govlink.org/storm/roads.asp
      • City of Seattle Snow & Ice Plan
        • http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/snowandice.htm
    • 32. Emergency Coordination Zones
      • Emergency Coordination Zone 1 - East King County
        • was created from former Fire Zones 1 and 2
      • Emergency Coordination Zone 3 – South King County
        • was created from a merger of Fire Zones 3 and 4 in July 2002
      • Emergency Coordination Zone 5 - the City of Seattle
    • 33. King County Disaster Plan
      • The population density, complex system of governance, and significant risks we face (for both natural and technological disasters) created the need to plan for a coordinated response among public, private, tribal and nonprofit entities in King County
      http://www.metrokc.gov/prepare/programs/regionalplan.aspx
    • 34. Arizona Earthquakes Source: http://www4.nau.edu/geology/aeic/aeic.html
    • 35. What Makes a Good Emcomm Volunteer?
      • Common Attributes:
        • Desire to help others without personal gain of any kind
        • Ability to work as a member of a team
        • Ability to take direction from others
        • Think and act quickly
          • Under stress and pressure of an emergency
    • 36. Where Do You Fit In?
      • Amateurs bring:
        • Equipment
        • Skills
        • Frequencies
      • Create expedient emergency communications network under poor conditions
        • Flexible, expandable
      • We are licensed & preauthorized for national and international communications
      However….
    • 37. Where Do You Fit In?
      • Radios, Frequencies and Basic Radio Skills are not enough!
      • Without specific emergency communication skills, you can easily become part of the problem
      • Technical and Operating Skills are critical…
        • And so is your ability to function as a team player within your organization as well as the organization you are serving
    • 38. What You Are Not
      • Important to know your limits of responsibility as an emergency communicator
      • Specifically:
        • You are not a first responder
        • You have no authority
          • Cannot make decisions for others
          • Cannot make demands on the served agency
        • You can & should make decisions affecting your own health & safety
    • 39. What You Are Not
      • You cannot “do it all”
        • If the served agency runs short of specialized help, it is not your job to fill it
          • especially if you are not trained for the job!
        • But you can fill in an urgent need or perform jobs where communication is an integral part, if you are qualified
      • You are not in charge!
      Leave your ego at the door!
    • 40. Day-to-Day vs. Emergency Communications
      • “ Day-to Day” Amateur Radio
        • No pressure to get a message through
        • Do things at your leisure
        • No one’s life depends on it
      • Public Service Events
        • Scheduled and Planned
      • Field Day
        • Plan for 2-day operation
    • 41. Day-to-Day vs. Emergency Communications
      • Emergency Communications
        • May involve both Amateurs and non-Amateurs
        • Happen in real-time
          • Unplanned, little or no warning
          • May go on for several days
        • May have several nets simultaneously
          • Pass critical messages in a limited timeframe
        • Portable stations, quickly set up and operational anywhere
    • 42. The Missions
      • Varies with specific agency served
        • Example: American Red Cross
          • Provide communications needed to maintain shelters and other relief efforts
        • Example: State/Local Emergency Management
          • Interagency communications
          • “ eyes and ears” of the emergency managers
      What are some of the missions you might see?
    • 43. Communicating – Job #1
      • Important to remember your job is:
        • “ communicating”
      • Communicating does not automatically imply amateur radios
        • Be prepared to use any means required
    • 44. Communicating – Job #1
      • Our job – GET THE MESSAGE THROUGH
        • Don’t think about how to use the ham radio to send the message ---
        • Just think about the best and fastest way to send it
          • If the best way is a FAX, cell phone, CB or FRS – use it
          • If an agency asks you to use their radio system, use it
      Your Operating Skills are just as important as your Ham Radio Resources
    • 45. Anatomy of a Communications Emergency
      • Early phase of a disaster
        • Severe storm “watch” or “warning” period
        • In many cases, no immediate need for emergency communications
          • Earthquake may be an exception
        • Monitor developments and prepare to deploy
        • Some nets may be activated
          • Hurricane, Skywarn
    • 46. Anatomy of a Communications Emergency
      • Once need for more communication resources is identified
        • Served agency puts out call to volunteers
          • Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
          • Field locations
      • “ Rapid Response Team” (RRT)
        • Minimal, quick response in a very short time
        • Backed up by a more robust response after 1-2 hours
    • 47. Anatomy of a Communications Emergency
      • “ Resource” or “Logistics” net may be established
        • Handle incoming emcomm volunteers
        • Direct resources where needed most
        • Unassigned volunteers check in and monitor
      Once Operations Begin…
    • 48. Anatomy of a Communications Emergency Message Volume Grows Quickly Confusion Relief Operators Replacement Operators Food and Water Sleeping Accommodations Batteries Fuel Radio Failures Antenna Failures
    • 49. Communication Assignments
      • Staffing a Shelter
        • Handle calls for information, supplies, personnel
      • “ Shadowing”
        • Communication link for an official
      • Gathering Weather Information
      • Collecting/Transmitting Damage Reports
      • Pass health/welfare inquires
      • Pass messages outside of the disaster area
      • Handle logistical needs for served agency
    • 50. Need for Flexibility
      • Nets will be set up, re-arranged, and dismantled as needs change
        • Remain flexible to meet needs of served agency
      • Over time, communication needs diminish
        • Nets closed
        • Operators released
      Not long after the operation has ended…
    • 51. After-Action Review
      • Review the effectiveness of response
        • Within the emergency communications group, and/or with the served agency
          • Format can be a formal net, email, or face-to-face meeting
        • Should occur as soon as possible
      Critiques done properly can greatly improve your organization’s – and your own - effectiveness
    • 52.  
    • 53. Lesson 1 Activities
      • 1a. List three ways in which Emergency Communications are similar to Non-emergency Communications.
      • 1b. List six ways in which Emergency Communications differ from Non-emergency Communications.
    • 54. Lesson 1 Questions
      • When does a communication emergency exist?
        • Whenever the public is at risk.
        • When there is an earthquake in your area and the public is inconvenienced.
        • When a critical communication system fails and the public is inconvenienced.
        • When a critical communication system fails and the public is put at risk.
    • 55. Lesson 1 Questions
      • Which of the following is it most important for an emcomm group to do at the end of an emergency communication operation?
        • Review the effectiveness of its response.
        • Take photos of the activity.
        • Call the local newspaper to schedule interviews.
        • Review the activities of the first responders.
    • 56. Lesson 1 Questions
      • Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of emergency communicators?
        • Making demands on the agency being served.
        • Having radios, frequencies and basic radio skills.
        • Being licensed and preauthorized for national and international communications.
        • Possessing emergency communication skills.
    • 57. Lesson 1 Questions
      • Which of the following describes the function of a Rapid Response Team (RRT)?
        • To handle large-scale emergencies over an extended period.
        • To deploy a quick response in a very short time.
        • To establish and operate a storm watch prior to any emergency.
        • To review the effectiveness of an emergency communication group.
    • 58. Lesson 1 Questions
      • In an emergency situation -- when a served agency asks you to forward an urgent message -- which one of the following methods would you NOT employ?
        • CB radio
        • Family radio
        • Informal, conversational grapevine
        • The served agency's own radio system.
    • 59. Supplemental Exercise
      • Information to Send
      • List of requested hospital supplies
      • CERT Team report from neighborhood search
      • SITREP to full team membership
      • Tactical communications from local shelter
      • Specific patient information for transfer from one facility to another
      • Communication Method
      • Amateur Radio
      • FAX Machine
      • Internet email
      • FRS Radio
      • Landline phone
      Match the information to an appropriate communication method
    • 60. Lesson 1 References
      • ARRL Public Service Communications Manual http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/sec1-ch1.html
    • 61. Lesson 2 – The Served Agency Relationship
    • 62.  
    • 63. Attitude is Everything
      • “ Working with ham radio operators is like herding cats.. Get them the heck out of here!”
        • Words of one emergency management official
      • Attitude is everything!
        • This has been a weak point for amateurs historically
        • Will most affect your relationship with the served agency
      • Amateur means we are not paid for our efforts
      • Professionalism means getting the job done efficiently – with a minimum of fuss!
      Think of Yourself as an Unpaid Employee
    • 64. Who Works for Whom?
      • You work for them!
        • “ Them” being the served agency
      • Your job?
        • Meet the communication needs of the served agency
      • How to end a relationship with an agency:
        • Be a “Know it all”
        • “ I will show you how good I am and how inadequate you are”
        • “ I can do this better than you!”
      But I thought “volunteers” do not have to take orders…
    • 65. Taking Orders
      • You do not have to “take orders” as a volunteer
      • However…as a volunteer…
        • You implicitly agree to accept and comply with reasonable orders and requests from your “employer”
        • If you are not comfortable with this, then don’t volunteer
      But what if there is a situation where you can’t comply…
    • 66. Handling Situations Where You Can’t Comply
      • Situations where you may not be able to comply include:
        • Personal,
        • Related to safety and health,
        • You do not consider yourself qualified or capable of meeting the demand,
        • Or perhaps the request is something that is not permitted under FCC rules
      • How to Handle:
        • Respectfully explain the situation
        • Work with the served agency or your superiors in the communications group
        • Come up with an alternate solution
      • If discussion becomes difficult or uncomfortable
        • Pass the discussion to your emcomm superiors to handle
    • 67. Scenario
      • What would you do in these circumstances?
        • Your agency has asked you to relay a message on their 800MHz system. You have not been trained on this system.
        • Your agency has asked you to pass a patient’s name and specific health details to another hospital.
        • Your agency representative (non-licensed) tells you to run an errand and while you are gone, he will operate the amateur radio station and pass several messages that he has written.
    • 68. How are Volunteers Viewed?
      • “ Less than useful” or “Part timers”
        • Professionals view when they don’t work regularly with competent volunteers
        • Some agencies have learned volunteers cannot be depended upon when needed most
        • Need a positive, and long established relationship
      • Professionals
        • Great amount of time and effort into skills and training
        • “ able to handle all possible situations without outside assistance”
      Middle of Incident is not the time to change “ we don’t need you” attitude
    • 69. Non-Communicating Roles
      • I thought you said our job should be limited to “communicating”?
        • Yes and no…
      • Events happen quickly, agency’s communications must move fast too
      • Job description is more like….
        • “ any function that also includes communication”
        • Defined by the served agency
    • 70. Non-communicating Roles
      • Because the job description may be broad…
        • Pre-planning to clearly define jobs is essential
        • Obtain job-specific training in advance
        • Take part in exercises and drills
      Flexibility is becoming increasingly important to continue our contribution to public safety as Amateur Radio Operators
    • 71. Example Job Descriptions
      • Radio operator , using Amateur or served agency’s radio systems
      • Dispatcher , organizing the flow of personnel, vehicles, and supplies
      • Resource coordinator , organizing assignments of disaster relief volunteers
      • Damage assessor , evaluating and reporting damage conditions
      • Van driver , moving people and supplies from location to location
      • Searcher , also providing communication for a search and rescue team
      What are some other examples?
    • 72. Served Agency Relationships
      • Define general relationships
        • Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
        • Statement of Understanding (SOU)
        • Statement of Affiliation (SOA)
      • Actual working relationships are more precisely defined at the local level
    • 73. Example Relationships
      • Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
        • Statement of Affiliation, making ARES an affiliate member of DHS's Citizen's Corp community readiness program
      • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
        • Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS) and at the national level with ARRL
      • American Red Cross
        • Chapters may have their own communication teams, or they may have a SOU with a local ARES group
      • The Salvation Army
        • Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network (SATERN)
    • 74. Example Relationships
      • State and Local Emergency Management
        • Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)
      • SKYWARN
        • Sponsored by the National Weather Service
        • SKYWARN volunteers collect on the spot weather observations
    • 75. Talking to the Press
      • Press will be hunting for any tidbit of information
      • They should never get information regarding a served agency or its efforts from you
        • Don’t try to put yourself in the spotlight
      • Refer all requests to the served agency’s public spokesperson or “Public Information Officer”
      Consequences for unauthorized comments could include being asked to leave – or worse
    • 76. FCC Rules on Supporting News Gathering
      • §97.113(b) Prohibited transmissions
        • An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way communications except as specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity related to program production or news gathering for broadcasting purposes , except that communications directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination to the public where no other means of communication is reasonably available before or at the time of the event.
    • 77. What if the Press is Bugging You?
      • Explain that they are impeding you from doing your job
      • Refer the reporter to the PIO or another emcomm management person
      • If your organization permits , you may discuss your part of the emergency communication effort
        • But only if separate from the served agency (i.e. ARES)
      • “ Press policy” should be defined in advance by emcomm group and served agency
        • All team members should know the policy
    • 78. Scenario
      • There has been a major disaster. You are located at a field location where patients have just been transported to your Hospital. A TV reporter at your location asks you to ask the Hospital how many patients have admitted to the Hospital so that he can report it on the next newscast.
      • What do you do?
    • 79. Volunteering Where You are Not Known
      • Emergency occurs in a neighboring area
        • Where you are not a member of the responding communication group
        • Or perhaps your own group and you have not been active
      • It is best to make your offer before making any significant preparations, or leaving home
      • It is possible that your offer might be welcomed, but it is equally possible that it will be refused
        • Served agency has specific requirements, such as specialized training, official IDs, and time consuming background checks
        • Most emcomm managers prefer to work only with operators whose abilities and limitations they know
      If you are turned away, accept the situation gracefully
    • 80. Volunteering Where You are Not Known
      • If your offer of assistance is accepted, the situation you find may vary quite a bit
        • Well-organized effort
          • Your role will be clear
          • Someone to help orient you to the response effort, provide any required information, and answer your questions
        • Not so well-organized effort
          • You might be given an assignment, but with little additional information or support
          • Should be prepared to improvise and fend for yourself
      Best time to offer your services to an emcomm group is well before any emergency occurs
    • 81. Mutual Assistance
      • An emcomm group should define in advance procedures for supporting the mission
        • With team members you are familiar with
        • With “spontaneous volunteers” which includes:
          • Your team members you may not be familiar with
          • Amateurs from the local community whom you are not familiar with
          • Amateurs from neighboring communities (or perhaps even across the country)
    • 82. Mutual Assistance Resources
      • First Resource
        • Locally registered, trained, and equipped team members
      • Second Resource
        • Registered and trained members/team from a nearby jurisdiction
      • Third Resource
        • Spontaneous volunteers, those that just “show up”
        • Can cause more problems
        • Each individual evaluated and judged on their own merits
    • 83. Worker’s Compensation
      • Worker’s Compensation Law is Complex
        • Regulated by individual state’s laws
        • Some states, Worker’s Compensation insurance coverage may be extended to volunteers
          • Working on behalf of a government or non-profit agency
        • In many cases, volunteers are not paid employees of the served agency, and are not covered
      • Emcomm managers should investigate own state laws
        • See 118-04 Washington Administrative Code
          • http://apps.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=118-04
        • See 38.52 Revised Code of Washington (RCW)
          • http://apps.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=38.52
    • 84. Scenario
      • Are these scenarios covered or not covered under the Emergency Worker Program (118-04)?
        • An earthquake occurs and you respond to your local hospital.
        • You and your significant other have just finished an evening of celebration which included wine. You get a call to deploy to your assigned location.
        • You are deploying to your EOC assignment and in trying to get to the EOC as quickly as possible, you run a red light.
    • 85. Scope of WAC 118-04
      • Emergencies, disasters, and related incidents that are determined by appropriate state or local authorities to require the use of emergency workers and that are authorized by the issuance of an emergency management division mission number.
      • Search and rescue missions, including urban search and rescue and evidence search missions, that are conducted under the authority of local law enforcement officers and that are authorized by issuance of an emergency management division mission number.
      • Training events authorized by issuance of an emergency management division training event number.
    • 86. Registration
      • Emergency workers shall register in their jurisdiction of residence or in the jurisdiction where their volunteer organization is headquartered by completing and filing an emergency worker registration card, Form EMD-024 or equivalent, with the local emergency management agency
        • The information provided during registration may be used by local authorized officials to conduct criminal history and driving record background checks
        • Failure to truthfully respond to statements set forth on the registration form may result in the denial of registration, revocation of registration as an emergency worker, or denial of compensation for claims or damage.
      • Each emergency worker shall be assigned to an emergency worker class as listed in WAC 118-04-100 in accordance with their skills, abilities, licenses, and qualifications.
        • Communications includes, but is not limited to, any emergency communications activities carried out in accordance with approved state or local emergency operations and communications plans.
    • 87. Highlights of WAC 118-04
      • Personal Responsibilities
        • Be aware of and comply with all applicable responsibilities & requirements
        • Notify on-scene official if they have been using any medical prescription or other drug that may render them impaired, unfit or unable to carry their assignment.
        • Comply with all other requirements as determined by the authorized official using their services
        • Inform the on-scene authorized official whether they are mentally and physically fit for their assigned duties.
          • If not fit for currently assigned duties may request a less demanding assignment that is appropriate to their current capabilities
      • Prohibited
        • Use of narcotics or any illegal controlled substance
        • Alcohol
    • 88. When Are You On-Duty?
      • Emergency workers are considered to be on duty when they are performing their duties during a mission, evidence search mission, or training event authorized by the emergency management division and they are under the direction and control of an authorized official.
      • Upon notification by an authorized official to report to duty at a specific time and place, emergency workers are entitled to the benefits and provisions under chapter 38.52 RCW when acting in compliance with such notification and these rules.
        • Eligibility for compensation shall be limited to the time and distance necessary to travel to the duty station, performance of services, and reasonable time and reasonable time to return to the point of origin.
    • 89. Vehicles, Vessels, or Aircraft
      • Must possess valid operator’s license
      • All emergency workers driving vehicles to or from a mission must possess a valid driver's license and required insurance.
        • Use of private vehicles, vessels, boats, or aircraft by emergency workers in any mission, training event, or other authorized activity without liability insurance required by chapter 46.29 RCW is prohibited
          • Washington  25/50/10 for autos
        • Unless specifically directed otherwise by an authorized official in accordance with RCW 38.52.180
      • Must adhere to all applicable traffic regulations during any mission, training event, or other authorized activity
    • 90. What If I Get Injured?
      • Eligibility Requirements
        • The injured person shall have been a registered emergency worker, activated by an authorized official for an authorized activity under the provisions of chapter 38.52 RCW, and shall have reported to or been in the process of reporting to the authorized on-scene official.
      • In the event of injury to an emergency worker, the responsible agency's on-scene authorized official shall be notified as soon as possible.
        • Documentation shall include any reports, mission logs, ambulance and hospital bills, receipts, medical reports, or other information helpful in describing the extent of the injury, the circumstances under which the injury occurred, and the costs that were incurred as a result of the injury.
      • The injury, disability, or death shall not have been caused by the willful misconduct, gross negligence, or bad faith of the claimant.
      • Only property that is deemed necessary and reasonable for the mission activity shall be considered for compensation, if lost or damaged.
        • Compensation for the loss or theft of property left unsecured or for damage which could have been prevented through reasonable care may be denied.
    • 91. WAC 118-04 After Action Reporting
      • After action reports shall be filed for:
        • All missions
          • The required information includes location and other data on the incident, response, weather conditions, results, and resources used.
        • Training events.
          • The required information includes data on the training activities conducted, resources used, problems noted, corrective actions assigned, and other information of a training nature.
    • 92. WAC 118-04 After Action Reporting
      • WAC 118-04 After Action Reports Shall Include
        • Information from the participating emergency workers, including individual daily activity reports, other reports, rosters, mission event and communications logs,
        • Lost person information forms
        • Training event logs
        • Plans of instruction
        • Instructor lists
        • Any other information that may be helpful in a descriptive reconstruction of the mission or training event
    • 93.
      • Does an ARES team automatically fall under WAC 118-04 for all activities?
    • 94. Other Legal Protections
      • Federal Volunteer Protection Act of 1997
        • Services to government agencies or Section 501c(3) organizations are provided immunity from liability
          • If acting within scope of official duties
        • Provides broad liability protection for Amateurs in most contexts, especially under ARES
        • Exceptions:
          • Cause harm while operating a motor vehicle
          • Grossly negligent
          • Engages in criminal acts
        • http://www.races.net/voluntr.html
    • 95. Good Samaritan Law
      • RCW 4.24.300 Immunity from liability for certain types of medical care
        • Any person, including but not limited to a volunteer provider of emergency or medical services , who without compensation or the expectation of compensation renders emergency care at the scene of an emergency or who participates in transporting, not for compensation, therefrom an injured person or persons for emergency medical treatment shall not be liable for civil damages resulting from any act or omission in the rendering of such emergency care or in transporting such persons, other than acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct
          • Any person rendering emergency care during the course of regular employment and receiving compensation or expecting to receive compensation for rendering such care is excluded
    • 96. Lesson 2 Activities
      • Locate the ARRL website. Conduct a search for the Statement of Understanding (SOU) between The American Red Cross and ARRL. List three forms of assistance the Red Cross may request of ARRL ARES and NTS. (Hint: when searching the ARRL website, search on the term MOU rather than SOU).
      • If you were asked to develop a Statement of Understanding (SOU) between your local emcomm group and a local served agency, what general topics would you include?
    • 97. Lesson 2 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes your main job as an emergency communicator?
        • Dispatcher, organizing the flow of vehicles, personnel, and supplies.
        • Weather spotter.
        • Radio operator, using Amateur or served agency radio systems.
        • Resource coordinator, organizing the assignments of disaster relief volunteers.
    • 98. Lesson 2 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes the role of a modern emergency communicator?
        • You are strictly limited to communication tasks.
        • You may be asked to serve any function that includes communication.
        • You do anything a served agency asks.
        • Discuss the situation with the served agency, and develop an alternative solution.
    • 99. Lesson 2 Questions
      • If you are asked by a served agency to perform a task that falls outside FCC rules, which of the following is a proper response?
        • Document the request, and then do what is asked.
        • Document the request, but refuse to do it.
        • Leave immediately.
        • Discuss the situation with the served agency, and develop an alternative solution.
    • 100. Lesson 2 Questions
      • In an emergency situation, which of the following is the most appropriate response that you as an emcomm group member can make to an inquiry from the press?
        • Answer any question that you are asked.
        • Volunteer information and make yourself helpful to them.
        • Refer all inquiries to the served agency's public information officer (PIO).
        • Ignore them and hope they will go away.
    • 101. Lesson 2 Questions
      • Which of the following will most affect your relationship with a served agency?
        • Your radio and electronic equipment.
        • Your knowledge of FCC regulations.
        • Your attitude.
        • Your radio skills.
    • 102. Lesson 2 Reference Links
      • Reference links:
        • American Red Cross - www.redcross.org
        • The Salvation Army - www.salvationarmy.org
        • SKYWARN - www.SKYWARN.org
        • Military Affiliate Radio Service (Army) - www.asc.army.mil/mars/default.htm
        • Federal Emergency Management Agency - www.fema.gov
        • ARRL MOUs (SOUs) with various agencies - www.arrl.org/Fand ES/field/mou/index.html
        • ARRL -- Served Agencies - www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/sec1-ch7.html
    • 103. Lesson 3 - Network Theory and the Design of Emergency Communication Systems
    • 104. Network Theory
      • Study of information transfer between multiple points
      • During an emergency
        • Messages vary greatly in terms of length, content, complexity, and other characteristics
        • Available communication pathways vary in how well they handle messages having different characteristics
      Network theory is the process of matching a particular message to the best communication pathway
    • 105. Single versus Multiple Destinations
      • Broadcasting and one-to-one (exclusive) communication channels
        • Some messages are for one single addressee while others need to be received by multiple locations simultaneously
    • 106. Simplex Radio System
    • 107. Remote Base System
      • This is the same as Simplex, except the transmitter is on a hilltop or other high object
    • 108. Repeater System
      • Transmit and Receive on different frequencies
    • 109. Simulcast Radio System
    • 110. Simulcast with Voting Receivers
      • Remote or satellite receivers are used in addition to regular repeater receivers to pick up relatively weak portable and mobile signals
      • Audio from these receivers is routed to a central voting comparator or voter where the best received audio is selected
      • The strongest signal is not always selected; that with the highest signal-to-noise ratio is typically best
      • Selected audio may come from multiple receivers during a single transmission
      • Some systems are configured to lock on to a single receiver, once chosen, for a transmission
      • Selected audio is routed to the ultimate receiving locations, such as consoles or repeaters for retransmission
    • 111. Simulcast with Voting Receivers
    • 112. High Precision versus Low Precision
      • Precision is not the same as accuracy
        • All messages must be received accurately
          • Sending a list of names or numbers requires precision at the "character" level
          • A report that "the lost hiker has been found" does not require precision at the character level
        • Over low-precision communications channels (such as voice modes) even letters of the alphabet can be misinterpreted
          • Unless a phonetic system, feedback, or error-correcting mechanism is used
          • Typing out a low precision message that "the delivery van containing the coffee has arrived at this location" on a high-precision packet link = more time consuming (and inefficient) than a simple voice report
    • 113. Precision and Message Handling
      • Precision is a point of confusion in message handling
        • Not all messages need high precision
        • Sending a message that needs low precision using formal high precision methods will waste time and tie up the communications channel
        • Tactical messages generally do not need high precision
        • Formal message traffic generally needs high precision
      • ICS-213 forms
        • May be high or low precision depending upon content
      If you are not sure – ask the originator
    • 114. Complexity
      • Which of these is a more complex message?
        • A doctor at a hospital may use a radio to instruct an untrained field volunteer how to splint a fractured leg
        • A shelter manager may report that he is out of water
      • Long and complicated messages
        • Recipient cannot remember or comprehend the entire message upon its arrival
        • Detailed maps, long lists, complicated directions, and diagrams
          • Hard copy or electronic storage for later reference
          • Fax, email, and packet radio provide this
    • 115. Timeliness
      • Some messages are extremely time-critical
        • Others can tolerate delays without adverse effect
      • Relief workers/communicators are very busy people
        • Handling non-time-critical messages may prevent them from handling a more pressing emergency
      • Highly time-critical messages must get through without delay
      • Timeliness includes the establishment of a communications link
      Total elapsed time from the time the message originates to the time it is delivered to its final party
    • 116. Priority
      • QSK
        • Ability to "break in" on a communication in progress
      • Example: communication pathway is in use with a lengthy, but low-priority, message. A need suddenly arises for a high-priority message
        • Can the high-priority message take precedence and interrupt the low priority one to gain access to the channel?
        • Some communications modes allow for this; others do not
    • 117. Characteristics of Communication Channels
      • Consider the communication channels that might be used in an emergency
    • 118. The Telecom Network http://www.artesyncp.com/resources/teledata/
    • 119. Telephone
      • Surprisingly reliable one-to-one communication pathway
        • Ideal for messages containing sensitive or confidential information, such as casualty lists
      • No specialized communication training required
      • Localized and small-scale emergencies
        • Operational with plenty of unused capacity
      • Large-scale disasters
        • Complex central switching and control system can quickly become overloaded
        • Power
      • Very good for transferring simple information requiring low precision
    • 120. Cellular Phone
      • Simple to operate - do not require a licensed communication volunteer
        • Ideally suited to one-to-one communications
      • Lightweight and can be carried in a pocket
      • Reliant on a complex central switching and control system that is subject to failure or overloading
        • Designed for busy hour capacity, limited battery life both on handset and at cell site
      • There is no "go to simplex" contingency option with cellular phones
      • Unlike landline, cellular phones have RF issues…
    • 121. Cellular RF Issues Multipath Fading                                                            
    • 122.  
    • 123. FAX
      • Fax machines are widely available
        • Computers modems can send and receive fax
      • High-precision, lengthy, and complex information
        • Four-page list of first-aid supplies can be faxed much faster than it can be read over a voice channel and transcribed
        • Permanent record of the message as part of the transfer process
      • Rely on the phone system, and add one more piece of technology and opportunity for failure
        • Require 120Vac
          • Is an inverter part of your emcomm equipment?
    • 124. Two-Way Voice Radio
      • Simple and easy to operate
        • Public service bands or ham frequencies, whether SSB or FM, via repeater or simplex
      • Operate on multiple frequencies
      • Generally self-contained, enhancing portability and increasing reliability of the system in adverse environmental conditions
      • Ideal for broadcasting
      • However, while a message is being transferred between two stations, the entire channel is occupied, preventing other stations from communicating
        • Using radio for one-to-one communication can be very distracting to stations not involved in the exchange
        • Low precision inherent in voice modes of communication
    • 125. Trunked Radio
      • Conventional system, frequencies are allocated for channel use by function
        • Dispatch, car-to-car, tactical, mutual aid, etc.
      • In a trunk radio system, all users share a pool of frequencies
    • 126. Trunked Radio Systems
      • Highly popular with public service agencies
      • Fundamental purpose behind trunking …
        • Allow increased message density on fewer circuits
      • But when an emergency strikes and communication needs skyrocket, the channels quickly become saturated
        • Priority queue results, and messages are delayed
        • Medium and low priority messages, and even some high-priority messages, might not get through unless important stations are assigned a higher priority in the system's programming
    • 127. Trunked Radio Systems
      • Trunked systems rely on a complex central signaling system to dynamically handle the mobile frequency assignments
        • If the central control unit goes down, the entire system — base and mobile units — must revert to a pre-determined simplex or repeater-based arrangement
        • Risky in emergency situations because of the small number of frequencies available to the system
    • 128. Trunked Radio System Message on Channel 1 same frequency Reply on Channel 1 same frequency Conventional System Message on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 1 Reply on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 6 Next message on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 3 Next reply on Talkgroup 1, uses frequency 8 The frequencies are entirely random within the system and dependent upon which frequencies are available at that exact moment Trunked System If the system uses a repeater, then Tx and Rx are different frequencies but do not change
    • 129. Talkgroup
      • On conventional radio systems, frequencies are allocated according to channel use, i.e., one frequency for dispatch, one for car-to-car use, one for mutual aid use, etc.
      • On trunked radio systems, a different method for identification is used since any frequency can be used by any agency on that system
        • “ Talkgroup” is analogous to “channel”
      • This method involves the use of various numbers called "trunking IDs" or "talkgroups IDs" used to identify different agencies and their uses
    • 130. Trunked Radio Types
      • Most Common in U.S.:
        • Motorola - Type I,  II, IIi Hybrid, Smartnet, Smartzone, & Privacy Plus systems.
        • EDACS ( E nhanced D igital A ccess C ommunication S ystem - owned by M/A-COM)
        • LTR ( L ogic T runked R adio - mainly used in the private business sector)
      • Other Systems:
        • iDEN Harmony
        • MPT-1327
        • OpenSky
        • SmarTrunk
        • Tetra
    • 131. Digital Trunked Radio System
      • APCO Project 25, or “ P-25 ”
        • Public safety industry standard developed by the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials
      • Interoperability according to a public safety industry standard and not by system manufacturer
        • Coordinate communications with other agencies and jurisdictions
        • Purchase radios and other equipment from more than one vendor
        • Upgrade or migrate systems without replacing all your equipment
        • Share resources with other organizations to control costs
    • 132. Example Trunked System http://www.macom-wireless.com/news/EDACS_VIDA.pdf
    • 133. Packet Radio
      • Facilitate high-precision message transfer
        • Near-perfect accuracy in transmission and reception
        • Permanent record of the message for later reference
        • No need for a conversion step before transmission
      • Generally self-contained
      • Perfect for the distribution of high-precision information to a large number of destinations simultaneously
      • Real-time packet messages require the operator to use a keyboard
        • Common packet protocols are inefficient when transferring precision graphics, drawings, and all but the most rudimentary maps
      • May not be reliable along marginal RF paths
    • 134. Store-and-Forward Systems
      • Bulletin boards, messaging gateways, electronic mailboxes, etc
        • Subset of packet radio
      • Non-time-critical messages and reference material
        • Good for when sender and receiver cannot be available simultaneously
      • Not limited to digital modes
        • Voice-answering machines,
        • NTS-like arrangement of liaison stations can function as voice-based store-and-forward systems
    • 135. Other Modes
      • Slow-scan television
      • Fast-scan television
      • Satellite communications
      • Human couriers
      • Internet
      • Email
      • WinLink
      • IRLP, Echolink
    • 136. Planning and Preparation
      • Give advance thought to the kinds of information that might need to be passed during each kind of emergency they wish to consider
        • Will maps need to be transferred?
        • What about long lists of names, addresses, supplies, or other detailed identification?
        • Will the communications consist mostly of short status reports?
        • Will the situation likely require transfer of detailed instructions, directions, or descriptions?
        • Will they originally be in verbal, written, or electronic form?
    • 137. Planning and Preparation
      • Consider the origins and destinations of the messages
        • Will one station be disseminating information to multiple remote sites?
        • Will there be a lot of one-to-one messages?
        • Will one station be overloaded while others sit idle?
        • Will a store-and-forward system, even via voice, be useful or necessary?
    • 138. Planning and Preparation
      • Content of the messages should also be considered
        • Will a lot of confidential or sensitive information be passed?
        • Will there be a need for break-in or interruption for pressing traffic or can one station utilize (tie up) the communications link for a while with no adverse consequences?
      • Frequency of occurrence (count of messages) of each type should also be estimated
    • 139. Planning and Preparation
      • Most important step:
        • The characteristics of the high-volume messages should be matched to one or more appropriate communication pathways
      • Take action to increase the likelihood that the needed modes will be available during the emergency …
    • 140. Planning and Preparation
      • “ Jump kit" emergency packs contain 2-meter radios, extra batteries and roll-up antennas
      • How about doing the same thing for some additional communication modes, too?
        • Put a list of critical phone numbers (including fax numbers, pager numbers, cellular numbers) in your kit.
        • Make sure your local packet digipeater has battery backup.
        • If you are likely to be assigned to a school, church, or office building, see if you can get a copy of the instructions for using the fax machine to keep in your kit.
        • If the phones are out, know how to interface the fax machine to your radio.
    • 141. Planning and Preparation
      • Advance scouting
        • It is a good idea to see if fax machines are in place and whether they will be accessible in an emergency.
          • Is there a supply of paper available?
        • Are the packet digipeaters within range of every likely communication post?
        • Can computers be made available or will hams have to provide their own?
        • How will backup power be provided to the computers?
        • Can a frequency list be developed, along with guidelines of when and how to use each frequency?
    • 142. Planning and Preparation
      • Contingency planning = critical importance
        • How many times has a repeater gone down, and only then did the communicators wish they had agreed in advance on an alternate simplex frequency?
        • What will you do if you need to send a map and the fax machine power fails?
        • Suppose you are relying on cellular phones and the cellular network fails?
      Remember, if you plan for problems, they cease to be problems and become merely a part of the plan.
    • 143. Planning and Preparation
      • Training
        • Manning roster, assignment lists, and contingency plans
          • Tied in to the training and proficiency
        • Questions you might want to ask are:
          • Who knows how to use a cellular phone?
          • Who knows how to use fax software?
          • Who knows how to upload or download a file from a packet BBS?
          • Who knows how to touch-type?
      A little advance planning and effort can go a long way to turning a volunteer mobilization into a versatile, effective, professional-quality communication system
    • 144. Planning and Preparation
    • 145. Planning and Preparation
    • 146. Lesson 3 Activities
      • Make a list of the kinds of messages that might need to be handled during a communication emergency likely in your area. Match the kind of message (tactical messages, served agency manpower requests, welfare inquiries, medical information, casualty lists, requests for supplies, shelter resident lists, etc) with the appropriate communication mode(s) (packet or other digital modes, FM phone, CW, HF SSB, etc.)
    • 147. Lesson 3 Questions
      • What mode should be used to send a list of casualties?
        • VHF repeater system.
        • A secure mode.
        • Packet radio.
        • An HF net.
    • 148. Lesson 3 Questions
      • What types of messages are good to send by fax?
        • High precision, lengthy and complex messages.
        • Simple low-precision, and short messages.
        • Messages to many destinations simultaneously.
        • High detail color photographs.
    • 149. Lesson 3 Questions
      • What types of messages should be handled by a packet bulletin board system?
        • Time sensitive messages of immediate priority.
        • Low precision messages.
        • Non-time-critical messages and reference material, when the sender and receiver cannot be available simultaneously.
        • Messages to be "broadcast" to numerous stations.
    • 150. Lesson 3 Questions
      • What is the pitfall that is common to telephone, cellular phone and trunked radio systems?
        • They do not take advantage of the benefits of Amateur Radio.
        • They are all difficult to use.
        • They are seldom available at shelters and public safety agencies.
        • They all require the use of a complex central switching system that is subject to failure in a disaster situation.
    • 151. Lesson 3 Questions
      • Which of the following is an example of an efficient communication?
        • A ham communicating a lengthy list of needed medical supplies over a voice net.
        • A lengthy exchange between two stations on a primary voice net channel being shared by a large number of users.
        • Typing out a digital message that "the delivery van containing the coffee has arrived at this location" on a high-precision packet link.
        • Sending a shelter list on the office fax machine.
    • 152. Lesson 3 References
      • For more information on this topic, see "Network Theory and the Design of Emergency Communication Systems" Part 1, October 1997 QST , Public Service column. Part 2 appears in November 1997 QST, Public Service. See also a discussion of communications theory in The ARRL Emergency Coordinator's Manual .
      • For more information on any of the elements presented, please consult the following links: http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/index.html
    • 153. Lesson 3 References
      • For additional general information, please see The ARRL Operating Manual , chapter on emergency communications. See also the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual . For local information, or to learn more about ARES and NTS net operation in your area, contact your Section Manager (SM) (http://www.arrl.org/field/org/smlist.html.), your Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC) or District Emergency Coordinator (DEC). See also The ARRL Net Directory for a list of ARES and NTS nets operating in your area.
    • 154. 10 Minute Break
    • 155. Lesson 4 – Emergency Communication Organizations and Systems
    • 156. Why is organization important to emcomm?
      • Imagine a random group of volunteers trying to tackle a full-scale disaster communication emergency, working together for the first time
      • They do not know each other well, have very different approaches to solving the same problem, and half of them want to be in charge
      Get the picture?
    • 157. Why is organization important to emcomm?
      • Emcomm organizations:
        • Provide training
        • Provide a forum to share ideas and develop workable solutions to problems in advance of a real disaster
      • When the time comes to assist the served agency, you will be as prepared as you can be.
        • Response will occur more smoothly
        • Challenges will be dealt with productively
        • The served agency's needs met
    • 158. ARES
    • 159. Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)
      • Program sponsored by the ARRL since 1935
        • Part of the League's field organization, which is composed of "Sections“
          • Most Sections are entire states, but some larger states have two or more Sections
          • Washington – 2 Sections
      • Elected Section Manager (SM) appoints the ARES leadership
      • Some larger Sections are further divided into two or more Districts
    • 160. ARRL Sections Western Washington Section (WWA) Eastern Washington Section (EWA) http://www.arrl.org/sections/EWA.html http://www.arrl.org/sections/WWA.html
    • 161. ARES Organization Structure Assistant Section Emergency Coordinator
    • 162. Washington ARES Regions http://www.wastateares.org/
    • 163. WWA ARES Leadership
      • Western WA ARRL Section Manager
        • Jim Pace, K7CEX
      • Western WA ARES Section Emergency Coordination (SEC) 
        • Ken Dahl, K7TAG
      • Assistant SEC – MST (District M)
        • Marina Zuetell, N7LSL
      • Assistant SEC - Training
        • Monte Simpson, K2MLS
      • District 1 Emergency Coordinator (DEC)
        • Bill Frazier, W7ARC
      • District 2 Emergency Coordinator
        • Owen Mulkey, NØWO
      • District 3 Emergency Coordinator
        • Duane Braford, WB7ROZ
      • District 4 Emergency Coordinator
        • Marc Lacy, KD7RYY
      • District 5 Emergency Coordinator
        • Steve Mc Keen, W7QLO
      • District 6 Emergency Coordinator
        • Kirk Bellar, N7UK
    • 164. WWA Emergency Coordinators
      • Region 6 King County:
        • Brian K Daly, WB7OML (District M)
        • Michael A Matteson, N7SIC
        • Richard K Olsen, N6NR
        • Robert R Phelps, K7UW
        • H Ward Silver, N0AX
    • 165. ARES MOUs
      • ARES MOUs at the national level:
        • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
        • American Red Cross
        • Salvation Army
        • National Weather Service
      • Local groups often have MOUs or other written or verbal agreements with:
        • State and city emergency management departments
        • Hospitals
        • Schools
        • Police and fire departments
        • Public works agencies
    • 166. RACES
    • 167. Why RACES?
      • Recall, the FCC or President can suspend amateur radio operations due to a national emergency
        • But in the event that the President invokes his War Emergency Powers, amateurs involved with RACES might be limited to certain specific frequencies (while all other amateur operation could be silenced)
      • RACES, administered by local, county and state emergency management agencies, and supported by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the United States government, is a part of the Amateur Radio Service that provides radio communications for civil-preparedness purposes only, during periods of local, regional or national civil emergencies
    • 168. Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)
      • Federal government created RACES after WWII
        • Need for Amateur Radio operators as an integral part of a state, county, or local Civil Defense (CD) agency in time of national emergency or war
      • RACES authorization provides the means to continue to serve the public even if the President or the FCC suspends regular Amateur operations
        • RACES rules provide for use of almost all regular Amateur frequencies, but place strict limits on the types of communications made, and with whom
    • 169. RACES
      • RACES is a radio communication service conducted by volunteer licensed amateurs, and is designed to provide emergency communications to local or state civil-preparedness agencies
        • Amateurs operating in a local RACES organization must be officially enrolled in that local civil-preparedness group
      • Sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
      • Emergencies are not limited to war-related activities, but can include natural disasters such as fires, floods and earthquakes
    • 170. RACES
      • "Civil Defense" (now known as “Emergency Management" in most states) utilization of Amateur radio operators has changed dramatically.
        • Fewer "pure" RACES operators today
        • Increasingly, RACES-registered operators also belong to ARES, and can "switch hats“
          • The RACES regulations make it simple and possible for an ARES group whose members are all enrolled in and certified by RACES to operate in an emergency with great flexibility
        • Emergency management officials like this arrangement since it provides more flexibility, and gives them more direct control over their ham radio volunteers.
    • 171. RACES Rules
      • A station operating under RACES may only communicate with:
        • 1) A RACES station licensed to the local civil defense organization;
        • 2) Other RACES licensees;
        • 3) Certain amateur stations registered with civil defense organizations;
        • 4) Certain US government stations authorized by the responsible agency to communicate with RACES stations and;
        • 5) Stations in a service regulated by the FCC when authorized by the FCC [97.407(d)].
      • A station operating in ARES may communicate with any amateur station.
    • 172. RACES Rules
      • RACES members may transmit only messages related to:
        • 1) Impending danger to the public or affecting national defense during emergencies;
        • 2) The immediate safety of individuals, the immediate protection of property, maintenance of law and order, alleviation of human suffering and need, and combating armed attack and sabotage;
        • 3) The dissemination of information to the public from a local civil defense organization or other government or relief organization and;
        • 4) Communications during RACES drills [97.407(e)].
      • RACES drills and tests can’t exceed a total time of one hour per week
        • With proper authorization, such drills and tests may be conducted for a period not to exceed 72 hours and such drills can occur no more than twice in a calendar year [97.407(e)].
        • There are no specific limits on ARES drills and tests.
    • 173. Dedicated RACES Operating Frequencies
      • 1800-1825 kHz
      • 1975-2000 kHz
      • 3.50-3.55 MHz
      • 3.93-3.98 MHz
      • 3.984-4.000 MHz
      • 7.079-7.125 MHz
      • 7.245-7.255 MHz
      • 10.10-10.15 MHz
      • 14.047-14.053 MHz
      • 14.22-14.23 MHz
      • 14.331-14.350 MHz
      • 21.047-21.053 MHz
      • 21.228-21.267 MHz
      • 28.55-28.75 MHz
      • 29.237-29.273 MHz
      • 29.45-29.65 MHz
      • 50.35-50.75 MHz
      • 52-54 MHz
      • 144.50-145.71 MHz
      • 146-148 MHz
      • 222-225 MHz
      • 420-450 MHz
      • 1240-1300 MHz
      • 2390-2450 MHz
    • 174. Washington RACES
      • Certified RACES operators carry State Emergency Worker cards with them while participating in RACES functions
        • Issued and controlled by local Emergency Management Departments 
      • Other special qualifications may also required such as First Aid and CPR training, basic SAR techniques and map reading along with special training in operation of amateur radio equipment and message handling
      http://www.wastateares.org/
    • 175. RACES Officials
      • State RACES Officer
        • Bob Purdom, AD7LJ
      • Assistant State RACES Officers
        • Ken Dahl, K7TAG
        • Gordon Grove, WA7LNC
    • 176.
      • Is your group ARES, RACES, or both?
        • If you think you are RACES, remember you need to follow FCC rules for RACES
        • Who is your RACES officer?
      • What is your group’s plan in the event the President or FCC suspends regular Amateur operations?
    • 177. Switching Hats
      • Although RACES and ARES are separate entities, the ARRL advocates dual membership and cooperative efforts between both groups whenever possible for an ARES group whose members are all enrolled in and certified by RACES to operate in an emergency with great flexibility
      • Using the same operators and the same frequencies, an ARES group also enrolled as RACES can "switch hats" from ARES to RACES and RACES to ARES to meet the requirements of the situation as it develops
      • For example, during a "non-declared emergency," ARES can operate under ARES, but when an emergency or disaster is officially declared by a state or federal authority, the operation can become RACES with no change in personnel or frequencies
    • 178. ARES vs. RACES FAQ
      • Q. During an emergency, when is ARES activated? How about RACES?
        • A. ARES is activated before, during and after an emergency. Generally, ARES handles all emergency messages, including those between government emergency management officials. RACES, on the other hand, almost never starts before an emergency and is active only during the emergency and during the immediate aftermath if government emergency management offices need communications support. RACES is normally shut down shortly after the emergency has cleared.
    • 179. ARES vs. RACES FAQ
      • Q. Which stations may a RACES station communicate with? How about ARES stations?
      • A. A station operating under RACES may only communicate with:
        • 1) A RACES station licensed to the local civil defense organization;
        • 2) Other RACES licensees;
        • 3) Certain amateur stations registered with civil defense organizations;
        • 4) Certain US government stations authorized by the responsible agency to communicate with RACES stations and;
        • 5) Stations in a service regulated by the FCC when authorized by the FCC [97.407(d)].
        • A station operating in ARES may communicate with any amateur station.
    • 180. ARES vs. RACES FAQ
      • Q. What type of communications may be transmitted by stations operating under RACES?
      • A. RACES members may transmit only messages related to:
        • 1) Impending danger to the public or affecting national defense during emergencies;
        • 2) The immediate safety of individuals, the immediate protection of property, maintenance of law and order, alleviation of human suffering and need, and combating armed attack and sabotage;
        • 3) The dissemination of information to the public from a local civil defense organization or other government or relief organization and;
        • 4) Communications during RACES drills [97.407(e)].
    • 181. ARES vs. RACES FAQ
      • Q. How long may RACES drills and tests be held? What about ARES?
        • A. RACES drills and tests can’t exceed a total time of one hour per week. With proper authorization, such drills and tests may be conducted for a period not to exceed 72 hours and such drills can occur no more than twice in a calendar year [97.407(e)].
        • There are no specific limits on ARES drills and tests.
    • 182. ARES vs. RACES FAQ
      • Q. How can I register for RACES? How about ARES?
        • A. RACES and ARES are both vital organizations and need your participation to make them effective. To register for RACES, contact your local civil defense office or Emergency Operations Center.
        • To register with ARES, complete an ARRL Form FSD-98 and send it to your local EC. You can obtain this ARRL form and others from ARRL HQ and, if you have access to the World Wide Web, from: http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/forms/ - fsd-98.
    • 183. SATERN
    • 184. Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network (SATERN)
      • Salvation Army volunteers
        • Partner with FEMA, participate in NVOAD
          • National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster, and with volunteer organizations (VOADS) on state and local levels
      • HF networks
        • Logistical communication between various Salvation Army offices
        • Health and welfare messages
      146.820- (103.5)
    • 185. Civil Air Patrol
    • 186. Civil Air Patrol
      • Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force
      • Volunteer, non-profit, benevolent organization made up of aviation-minded adult and cadet members committed to serving the nation
      • The system operates in support of all CAP missions, including Emergency Services, Aerospace Education and the CAP Cadet Program.
      • The focus of the CAP system is tactical communications, including air to ground, ground team to ground team, and communication with mission base
      • Using volunteer operators trained to professional standards, the CAP communications network is a ready force for homeland security and the protection of life and property
      • The nation-wide CAP communication system has 840 high-frequency radio stations, 5,000 fixed-land radio stations and 10,000 mobile radios, deployed in CAP units in every state, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico
    • 187. CAP Frequencies
      • NATIONWIDE C.A.P. CHANNELS ABOVE 30 MHz
      • AM 119.3500 Search and Rescue (Aircraft) (Rural Areas Only)
      • AM 120.8500 Search and Rescue (Aircraft)
      • AM 121.5000 AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY CHANNEL (Civilian and Military)
      • AM 121.6000 Practice Emergency Beacon (ELT-2)
      • AM 121.7750 Practice Emergency Beacon (ELT-1)
      • AM 122.0000 Flight Watch Nationwide Channel (Above 5,000 feet)
      • AM 122.7000 Glider Operations (Shared with UNICOM/MULTICOM)
      • AM 122.8000 Glider Operations (Shared with UNICOM/MULTICOM)
      • AM 122.9000 Search and Rescue (Aircraft)
      • AM 123.1000 Search and Rescue (Aircraft)
      • FM 143.7750 Search and Rescue (CAP Channel 6)
      • FM 143.9500 Search and Rescue (CAP Channel 7)
      • FM 148.1250 Repeater OUTPUT (CAP Channel 2) (Also used for simplex)
      • FM 148.1375 Simplex (CAP channel 3)
      • FM 148.1500 Repeater OUTPUT (CAP Channel 1) (Also used for simplex)
      • FM 148.7375 Search and Rescue (CAP Channel 5)
      • FM 148.9750 Search and Rescue (CAP Channel 8)
      • FM 149.4000 Old CAP Primary Channel (Now used for simplex only)
      • FM 149.5375 Search and Rescue (CAP Channel 4) (Aircraft-to-Ground Primary)
      • FM 149.8950 Packet Digipeater (Primary Packet Channel)
      • FM 149.9100 Aircraft Repeaters
      • FM 149.9250 Packet Digipeater (Secondary Packet Channel)
      • FM 149.9400 Aircraft Repeaters
      • HF Frequencies:
      • 2371 HF Network Nationwide USB
      • 2374 HF Network Nationwide USB
      • 4466 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Northeast/Southeast Regions
      • 4469 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Northeast/Southeast Regions
      • 4506 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) North Central Region
      • 4509 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) North Central Region
      • 4582 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Middle East/Pacific Regions
      • 4585 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Middle East/Pacific Regions
      • 4601 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Great Lakes/Rocky Mountain Regions
      • 4604 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Great Lakes/Rocky Mountain Regions
      • 4627 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Southwest Region
      • 4630 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Southwest Region
      • 7635 HF Network Nationwide USB
      • 14902 HF Network Nationwide USB
      • 26617 HF Network Nationwide USB
      • 26620 HF Network Nationwide USB Search and Rescue
    • 188. NDMS & DMAT
    • 189. National Disaster Medical System (NDMS)
      • Federally coordinated system that augments the Nation's medical response capability
      • Purpose of the NDMS is to supplement an integrated National medical response capability for assisting State and local authorities in dealing with the medical impacts of major peacetime disasters
      • Provide support to the military and the Department of Veterans Affairs medical systems in caring for casualties evacuated back to the U.S. from overseas armed conventional conflicts
      • National Response Framework utilizes the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), as part of the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Response, under Emergency Support Function #8
      • National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) Response Teams
        • Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT)
        • Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams (DMORT)
        • National Veterinary Response Team (NVRT)
        • National Nurse Response Team (NNRT)
        • National Pharmacy Response Teams (NPRTs)
    • 190. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT)
      • DMAT is a group of professional and para-professional medical personnel (supported by a cadre of logistical and administrative staff) designed to provide medical care during a disaster or other event
      • Responsibilities may include triaging patients, providing high-quality medical care despite the adverse and austere environment often found at a disaster site, patient reception at staging facilities and preparing patients for evacuation
      • NDMS/DMAT personnel are required to maintain appropriate certifications and licensure within their discipline
        • When personnel are activated as Federal employees, licensure and certification is recognized by all States
      • Washington-1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (WA-1 DMAT) is located in Seattle
    • 191. King County Search & Rescue
    • 192. KCSARA
      • Promote a unified organization of field teams
      • Enable an interchange of knowledge and field techniques
      • Deploy qualified personnel as required by the mission needs
      • Promote education of the public in wilderness safety and recreation
      • Promote training and maintain the highest proficiency in search and rescue techniques and operations of the member units
      • Promote the education and deployment techniques needed for responses to search and rescue and natural disasters
      • Respond to numerous incidents involving lost or injured hikers, hunters and children. SAR volunteers also assist in times of natural disasters like flooding, wind storms and earthquakes
      • Member Units
        • 4X4 Search & Rescue
        • Explorer Search And Rescue
        • King County SAR Operations
        • King County Search Dogs
        • Northwest Horseback SAR
        • Pacific Northwest Trackers
        • Rescue One
        • Seattle Mountain Rescue
        • Ski Patrol Rescue Team
      145.110- pl 103.5
    • 193. Requirements from WAC 118.04
      • Washington State Requirements
      • These requirements are codified in Washington Administrative Code 118.04
      • The exact content, length, and refresher cycle has been interpreted through an agreement of King County Sheriff's Office, and the unit leaders of King County Search and Rescue Association; last reviewed on February 20, 2007
      • King County Sheriff’s Office requires the Introduction to Emergency Worker course for all SAR members who joined after January 1st, 2004, and WAC118.04 requires:
        • First Aid
        • Pathogen Awareness
        • Cardiopulmonary Resusitation (CPR)
        • Crime Scene Awareness
        • Basic & Intermediate Helicopter Safety
        • Map & Compass
        • SAR Survival
        • SAR Techniques
    • 194. Rapid Response Teams
    • 195. The "Rapid Response Team" (RRT)
      • First minutes of an emergency …
        • Sometimes important to get the basic essentials of a network on the air quickly
      • RRT is small team within a larger emcomm group
      • Put a few strategically placed stations on the air within the first half-hour to an hour
        • Usually the emergency operations center (EOC), a resource net NCS, and often a few field teams where needed most
        • This is commonly known as a "Level 1 RRT response"
    • 196. RRT
      • Level 2 RRT response follows within a few hours, bringing additional resources and operators.
      • Level 1 teams have:
        • Pre-assigned jobs
        • Short-term (12-24 hour) "jump kits", ready to go whenever the call comes
      • Level 2 teams have:
        • Longer term (72 hour) jump kits, and
        • A variety of other equipment, possibly including tents, portable repeaters, extended food and water supplies, sleeping gear, spare radios, and generators
    • 197. ARESMAT
    • 198. ARES Mutual Assistance Team (ARESMAT)
      • Communication emergency which lasts longer than a day or two, or when the scale of the emergency is beyond the ability of a local ARES group to handle
        • Help can be requested from neighboring areas
      • ARESMAT teams consist of hams who are willing and able to travel to another area for a period to assist ARES groups based in the disaster area
        • May also bring additional resources in the form of radios, antennas, and other critical equipment
      • If you travel to another area as part of an ARESMAT, remember that the local group you are supporting is still in charge
        • You are there to do what they need done
        • The host ARES group becomes a "served agency"
    • 199. ARESMAT Basic Action Elements
      • Pre-Departure Functions
        • Notification of activation/assignment
        • Credentials should be provided for recognition by local authorities
        • Provide a general and technical briefing on information from the requesting authority
        • Invitation, transportation (including routes in disaster area) and accommodations considerations, and expected length of deployment should all also be reviewed with the team members
    • 200. ARESMAT Basic Action Elements
      • In-Travel Functions  Team leaders should review situation's status:
        • Job assignments
        • Checklists
        • Affected area profile
        • Mission disaster relief plan
        • Strengths and weaknesses of previous and current responses
        • Maps
        • Technical documents
        • Contact lists
        • Tactical operation procedures
        • Response team requirements
    • 201. ARESMAT Basic Action Elements
      • Arrival Functions
        • Check with host ARES officials and obtain information about:
        • Frequencies in use
        • Current actions
        • Available personnel
        • Communication and computer equipment
        • Support facilities that could be used by the team to support the relief effort
      • Host's ARES plan in effect for the disaster should be obtained
      • Establishment of an initial intra-team communication network and an HF or VHF channel back to the home section for morale traffic
    • 202. ARESMAT Basic Action Elements
      • “ In-situ Functions”
        • Make an initial assessment of functioning communication facilities
        • Monitor host ARES officials' communications, and other response team relief efforts to coordinate operations and reduce duplication of effort
        • Team members should be monitored and their capabilities to perform their duties evaluated
        • Proper safety practices and procedures must be followed
        • Daily critique of communication effectiveness with served units and communication personnel should be conducted
    • 203. ARESMAT Basic Action Elements
      • Pre-Demobilization and Demobilization Functions
        • Extraction procedure should be negotiated with served agencies and host ARES officials before it is needed
        • To get volunteers' commitment to travel and participate, they must be assured that there will be an end to their commitment
          • Open-ended commitments of volunteers are undesirable, partly because they make potential volunteers hesitate to become involved
        • Leaders  coordinate with host ARES officials and served agencies to determine when equipment and personnel are no longer needed
    • 204. ARESMAT Basic Action Elements
      • Pre-Demobilization and Demobilization Functions (continued)
        • A team critique, begun on the trip home, should be conducted, and individual performance evaluations on team members should be prepared
        • Copies of critiques should be sent to both the home SEC and in-disaster SEC
        • Problems stemming from personality conflicts should be addressed and/or resolved outside of formal reports, as they only provide distractions to the reports
        • Equipment should be accounted for.
        • A post-event evaluation meeting should always be conducted, and a final report prepared upon which an update to the inter-sectional ARESMAT plan can be made
    • 205.
      • Remember, the “we can handle it” syndrome is common
      • As soon as you suspect mutual assistance is needed, the EC should notify the DEC or SEC
    • 206.                 
    • 207. Military Affiliate Radio Service (MARS)
      • Department of Defense sponsored auxiliary communication program, three separately managed and operated programs
        • US Army
        • US Navy/Marine Corp
        • US Air Force
      • Operate disciplined and structured nets on assigned military radio frequencies adjacent to the Amateur bands
      • MARS has a strict set of rules regarding the type, content and format of messages
      • Special call signs are issued for MARS use
    • 208. MARS
      • MARS stations handle quasi-official and morale messages for the three services
        • MARSGRAMS  free public service, intended to boost the morale of Soldiers, airmen, sailors, and other authorized users worldwide
      • During times of emergency, MARS provides backup communication networks to military, federal, state, and local agencies
      • Advantage of the MARS system is that it is specifically authorized to communicate with other government radio services in time of emergency, including the federal SHARES HF networks
        • More on SHARES later
    • 209. Army MARS Mission
      • To provide Department of Defense sponsored emergency communications on a local, national, and international basis as an adjunct to normal communications.
      • To provide auxiliary communications for military, civil, and/or disaster officials during periods of emergency.
      • To assist in effecting normal communications under emergency conditions
      • Headquartered at Fort Huachuca, Arizona
      • Assigned to the Headquarters, United States Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal Command (Army) (NETCOM/9th SC(A)), which directly reports to the Department of the Army's Chief Information Officer/G-6
    • 210. MARS Links
      • Army:
        • http://www.netcom.army.mil/mars/default.aspx
        • http://wa.mars.hfradio.org/about_wamars.html
      • Navy-Marine:
        • http://navymars.org/
      • Air Force:
        • http://public.afca.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=7037
    • 211. National Traffic System
    • 212. National Traffic System (NTS)
      • NTS consists of local, regional and national nets operating on a regular basis to pass messages (traffic) from place to place
      • Day-to-day usage
        • Handles non-critical organizational messages for its own members and ARRL field organizations, radiograms for the public, and various personal messages
      • E-mail
        • NTS has seen a significant decrease in the number of messages passed through the system, and a corresponding decrease in membership and overall effectiveness
        • NTS still has an important role in emergency communication
      More Later ….
    • 213. Local Radio Clubs Redmond ARES
    • 214. Local Radio Clubs
      • Not every area has a working ARES or other nationally affiliated emcomm group
      • In many cases, the void is filled by local radio clubs who either work informally with served agencies, or with a formal MOU
    • 215. National Communications System (NCS)
      • NCS consists of 23 government organizations tasked with ensuring that the Federal Government has the necessary communication capabilities under all conditions from day-to-day use to national emergencies and international crises; includes:
        • Forest Service,
        • Federal Emergency Management Agency,
        • Coast Guard,
        • FBI,
        • ATF, and others who have a variety of communication assets.
      • The Manager of the NCS is also the Director of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), usually an Air Force general.
    • 216. SHARES
      • US Government's "Shared Resources System"
        • pairs MARS with various federal agencies and state emergency operations centers to provide a high frequency (HF) communication backbone if normal communication systems should fail
      • Key communications companies such as AT&T, and agencies such as the Red Cross have SHARES radios
      • The SHARES system utilizes a number of nationwide and regional networks
    • 217. SHARES http://www.ncs.gov/n3/shares/shares.htm
    • 218. FEMA INTEGRATED NETWORK
      • Facilities linked with high-speed terrestrial circuits that provide integrated voice, data, and video network service
      • Routers connect FEMA facilities and provide access to the internet
      • Private Branch Exchange (PBX) systems provide voice capability through FEMA’s Integrated Network, Public Network, and Federal Telephone System (FTS)
      • Disaster Field Offices are quickly added to architecture to provide a robust field operating environment
    • 219. FEMA INTEGRATED NETWORK Jessup, MD Frankfort,KY Emmitsburg, MD Chicago, IL Bothell, WA Kansas City, MO Maynard, MA Thomasville , GA Presidio Denver , CO Boston, MA Lanham, MD Philadelphia, PA New York, NY Atlanta, Ga Albany, NY Hyattsville NPSC Region 6 (+NTC) Mt. Weather Headquarters Elkridge, MD Olney, MD FIA Altern- ate
    • 220. FEMA National Radio System (FNARS)
      • Provide a minimum essential emergency communication capability among federal agencies, state, local commonwealth, and territorial governments in times of national, natural and civil emergencies
      • FEMA monitors the FNARS HF frequencies on a daily basis
      • FNARS is an Single Side Band (SSB) radio system that can transmit both voice and data, and that has the capability to operate in both secure and non-secure modes
      • At the state level, FNARS radios are typically located at the state emergency operations center (EOC)
        • http://www.emd.wa.gov/telcom/telcom_other_radios_systems.shtml
    • 221. FNARS
    • 222. http://www.reactintl.org/
    • 223. Radio Emergency Associated Communications Teams (REACT)
      • REACT is a national emcomm group
        • members include Citizen's Band (CB) radio operators, hams, and others
      • In addition to CB and Amateur Radio, they may use General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS), Family Radio, and the Multiple Use Radio Service (MURS).
      • Organizational structure similar to ARES
      • Mission is somewhat broader than that of ARES.
        • Offer crowd and traffic control, logistics, public education, and other services that usually (but not always) include a need for radio communication.
    • 224. REACT
      • Mission:
      • We will provide public service communications to individuals, organizations, and government agencies to save lives, prevent injuries, and give assistance wherever and whenever needed.   We will strive to establish a monitoring network of trained volunteer citizen-based communicators using any and all available means to deliver the message.
      • REACT and ARRL have an MOU
    • 225. Emergency Warning Systems
    • 226. Emergency Alert System -- EAS
      • Current EAS system has evolved from the earlier Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) and the original "CONELRAD System" developed during WWII
      • EAS relies on radio and TV broadcast stations to relay emergency alert messages from federal, state, and local authorities
      • Messages may pertain to any immediate threat to public safety, including enemy attack, storm warnings, earthquake alerts, and wildfires
      • Messages are relayed from station to station using automatic switching systems and digital signaling
    • 227. Washington EAS Plan
      • State of Washington Emergency Alert System EAS Plan
      • Innovations in Washington State Plan:
        • Broadcasters are not expected to originate messages, they just relay them. Government agencies originate all EAS messages at the both the State and Local levels. LP1 & LP2 stations may not be manned, but their equipment will still relay the proper alerts automatically.
        • EAS messages pass through the network in the background and stay in the background as much as possible. What is called a daisy chain of broadcast stations is avoided except for backup.
        • NOAA/NWS is fully integrated into the system, so events that were not originated by NWS are still routed through their transmitters.
    • 228. Washington EAS System
      • VHF relay network that utilizes a Washington State Patrol frequency.
        • This network is controlled from the Washington State Department of Emergency Services building at Camp Murray Washington.
      • This network gives full state coverage.
      • The decoder/encoder installed at the WSDEM not only can initiate EAS messages, it can also receive them and relay them.
      • Decoders/Encoders are to be installed at all NWS offices through out the State
    • 229. Washington EAS System
    • 230. Washington EAS System                                                                                                                                  
    • 231. Western Washington EAS Matrix AREA NAME COUNTIES LP STA SRN SITE NOAA SITE & FREQ LRN FREQ EAN SOURCE CENTRAL PUGET SOUND ISLAND SNOHOMISH KITSAP KING PIERCE E.JEFFERSON 1- KIRO-710 GOLD 155.475 COUGAR 162.55 MILLER 162.425 W. Tiger Mtn. 450.0875 KIRO -710 or SRN 155.475 2-KPLU-88.5 CLALLAM EAST PORTION CLALLAM 1 -KONP -1450 GALBRAITH 155.475 MILLER 162.425 . 45.86 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2- NWS 162.425 CLALLAM (WEST) WEST PORTION CLALLAM 1-KVAC-1490 ELLIS 155.475 OCTOPUS 162.425 Neah Bay 162.550 . KIRO-TV via NWS RADIO 2-KLLM-103.9 COASTAL W. JEFF G. HARBOR PACIFIC 1-KXRO-1320 BAW FAW or NASELLE 155.475 OCTOPUS 162.425 NASELLE 162.400 TBD KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KDUX-104.7 COWLITZ WAHKIAKUM COWLITZ WAHKIAKUM 1-KZOE-90.3 BAW FAW 155.475 BAW FAW 162.475 or NASELLE 162.40 450.100 LRN to monitor SRN @ 155.475 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KLOG-1490 LEWIS LEWIS 1-KELA -1470 BAW FAW 155.475 BAW FAW 162.475 155.100 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KMNT-102.9 MASON- THURSTON MASON THURSTON 1-KGY-1240 GOLD 155.475 COUGAR 162.55 or BAW FAW 162.475 155.145 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KGY-96.9 NORTHERN PUGET SOUND WHATCOM S. JUAN SKAGIT 1-KGMI-790 GALBRAITH 155.475 MILLER PK 162.425 Mt. Const. 450.0625 KIRO-710 or SRN 155.475 2-KISM-92.9 PORTLAND/ VANCOUVER CLARK 1-KXL-750 CLARK CO. COMM CENTER 155.475 GOAT MT 162.550 166.250 NPR via SR-OPB 2-KGON-92.3
    • 232. Washington EAS Links
      • http://www.wsab.org/eas/eas.html
      • http://www.eas-wa.info/
    • 233. NOAA Weather Alert and National Weather Radio (NWR)
      • NWR is an all-hazards public warning system, broadcasting forecasts, warnings and emergency information 24 hours a day directly to the public
        • Natural (e.g., tornado, hurricane, floods, earthquakes)
        • Technological accidents (e.g., chemical release, oil spill, nuclear power plant emergencies, maritime accidents, train derailments)
        • AMBER alerts
        • Terrorist attacks
      • NWR uses seven frequencies in the 162MHz band
      • Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME)
        • remain silent until an alert is received for a specific geographic area
      NWR and the EAS use the same digital protocols NWR is primary means for NWS alerts to activate EAS
    • 234. NWR in Washington
    • 235. NWR in Washington Call Sign Site Name Site Location Frequency Power KEC91 Astoria Naselle Ridge 162.400 300 WXM62 Capitol Peak Capitol Peak 162.475 330 WXN21 Cle Elum Sky Meadows 162.400 300 WNG604 Davis Peak Cowlitz County 162.525 100 KZZ73 Dayton Patit 162.525 300 WNG566 Goldendale Goodnoe Hills 162.525 100 KAD93 H Street - Blaine Area H Street - Blaine Area 162.525 100 KIH36 Neah Bay Bohokus Peak 162.550 100 WWF49 Okanogan Tunk Mtn. 162.525 50 KXI27 Olympic Nat'l. Park Mt. Octopus 162.425 330 WWH27 Plymouth Sillusi Butte 162.425 100 WWG24 Puget Sound Marine Miller Peak 162.425 90 WWF56 Richland Richland 162.450 300 KHB60 Seattle Couger Mtn. 162.550 100 WXL86 Spokane Spokane Mtn. 162.400 100 WXM34 The Dalles Columbia Gorge 162.400 300 WXM48 Wenatchee Eagle Rock 162.475 100 KIG75 Yakima Ahtanum Ridge 162.550 300
    • 236. NWR in Washington NOAA Weather Radio in Washington Additional Sites (not shown) Astoria, OR 162.400 MHz Pendleton, OR 162.400 MHz Abbotsford, BC 162.550 MHz Blaine 162.525 MHz Puget Sound Marine 162.425 MHz Bonners Ferry, ID 162.500 MHz Cle Elum 162.400 MHz Richland 162.450 MHz Lewiston, ID 162.550 MHz Dayton 162.525 MHz Seattle 162.550 MHz Portland, OR 162.550 MHz Forks/Mt Octopus 162.425 MHz Spokane 162.400 MHz Vancouver, BC 162.400 MHz Goldendale 162.525 MHz The Dalles, OR 162.400 MHz Victoria, BC 162.400 MHz Heppner, OR 2 162.425 MHz Umatilla, OR 162.500 MHz     Neah Bay 162.550 MHz Upper Cowlitz Basin 162.425 MHz     Neahkahnie, OR 162.425 MHz Wenatchee 162.475 MHz     Okanogan 162.525 MHz Woodland 162.525 MHz     Olympia 162.475 MHz Yakima 162.550 MHz  
    • 237. NWR Coverage in Washington White: Signal level of greater than 18dBuV: Reliable coverage Green: 0dBuV to 18dBuV: picking up a signal is possible but unreliable Red: Less than 0dBuV: Unlikely to receive a signal
    • 238. NWR Seattle Coverage King County SAME: 053033
    • 239. NWR Coverage - Arizona
    • 240. NWR Questions
      • Do you have a NWR Radio as part of your home disaster plan?
        • Battery operated?
      • Is it continuously monitoring for an EAS tone?
        • Local SAME code?
      • Do you periodically “exercise” your NWR during the weekly tests?
    • 241. NAWAS (National Warning System)
      • “ Hardened" and secure national wireline phone network connecting the warning points in each state (usually the state police HQ or state EOC) to the Federal Government
      • The National Warning System (NAWAS), a major component of the Civil Defense Warning System (CDWS), was established with the primary purpose of providing a capability to warn the nation of a threat of a nuclear attack
      • NAWAS can be used for emergencies related to peacetime nuclear accidents, railroad disasters, downed aircraft, and warning of potential natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes, floods, tsunami's, and tornadoes).
      • Center of NAWAS operations is the National Warning Center at NORAD's Cheyenne Mountain command and control complex in Colorado
      • Provide notification in case of enemy attack, and to inform and coordinate alert and warning information among states in a given region
    • 242. NAWAS State/Local WP Lines ANWC THOMASVILLE, GA ALASKA HAWAII Warning Centers FEMA Regional Centers State Warning Points Main Lines - WC’s /Regions Region to State WP Lines
    • 243. Washington NAWAS
      • Primary State Warning Point located in the state EOC
      • Alternate State Warning Point located in the Washington State Patrol (WSP) communications center, Yakima
      • Twenty-nine (29) local primary warning points
      • NAWAS is a voice only network that allows simultaneous signaling and broadcasting to one or more warning points
    • 244. Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
      • Should an incident involving the storage and eventual incineration of chemical munitions at Umatilla Depot Activity pose a life threatening situation for communities within Benton County and surrounding areas, alert notification and information exchange between state and local authorities must occur automatically or within minutes after the event occurs
    • 245. Tsunami Warning System
      • National and international network of warning points to provide timely exchange of tsunami warning information
      • Information is relayed to a wide range of government, civil defense, military, and international tsunami research/warning points within each country or area
    • 246. All Hazard Alert Broadcasting (AHAB) Radio
      • All Hazard Alert Broadcast system is a single unit or network of warning sirens strategically placed to warn those who are outside or who are in close proximity to a siren
      • All Hazard Alert, the siren may be activated for an impending disaster, like a distant tsunami, or it may be activated for a hazardous material incident providing instructions to shelter- in-place
      • The sirens are placed on the top of a pole which looks much like any other utility pole
    • 247. AHAB Point Hudson AHAB Station
    • 248.
      • TO BE COMPLETED
      • Cape Disappointment
      Washington State All-Hazard Alert Broadcasting (AHAB) Network
      • Island County
      • OPERATIONAL (49)
      • Aberdeen
      • Bay Center
      • Clallam Bay
      • Copalis Beach
      • Diamond Point
      • Fort Worden
      • Grayland (2)
      • Hoquiam
      • Ilwaco
      • La Push (Makah Tribe)
      • Long Beach
      • Lower Elwha
      • Lummi Nation (2)
      • McAlder
      • McMillin
      • Neah Bay
      • Ocean City
      • Ocean Park (4)
      • Ocean Shores (4)
      • Orting (3)
      • Puyallup (2)
      • Pacific Park
      • Port Angeles
      • Port Townsend
      • Sandy Point
      • Seattle (3)
      • Seaview
      • Sumner
      • Surfside
      • Taholah (Quinault Nation)
      • Tokeland (Shoalwater Bay Tribe)
      • Westport (3)
    • 249. National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)
      • U.S. Geological Survey operates the National Earthquake Information Center, located in Golden, Colorado
      • Issues rapid reports for those earthquakes that register at least 4.5 on the Richter Scale in the United States, or 6.5 on the Richter Scale (or are known to have caused damage) anywhere else in the world
      • Public warning reports are disseminated in the affected areas via the NWR and EAS systems
    • 250. Washington State EOC
      • Essential numbers to know:
        • 1-800-258-5990 State EOC, State Emergency Operations Officer (SEOO) (24 hrs), Emergency Line (primarily for use by local/state/federal agencies for reporting/coordinating emergency situations)
        • 1-800-854-5406 State EOC, WHEN ACTIVATED for emergency situations
        • 1-888-849-2727 State EOC, State Emergency Operations Officer (SEOO) (24 hrs), Search and Rescue Line (primarily for use by local jurisdiction SAR agencies for requesting SAR missions/support)
        • (253) 512-7000 Emergency Management Division (EMD), main business line
        • (253) 512-7203 State EOC Fax line
        • (253) 512-7200 EMD Administrative Fax line
    • 251. King County Frequencies
    • 252. Lesson 4 Student Activities
      • Go the ARRL website (http://www.arrl.org/). Locate the MOU between ARRL and the American National Red Cross. According to the MOU, how is a "disaster" defined?
    • 253. Lesson 4 Student Activities
      • Go to the ARRL web site (http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/foreword.html) section entitled "Public Services Communications Manual". Find the answers to the following questions:
        • Is ownership of emergency-powered equipment a requirement for joining ARES?
        • Who can authorize RACES operation?
        • If the President were to invoke his War Emergency Powers, could there be any restrictions on Amateur Radio operation? If so, how would the two-meter band be affected for RACES operation?
        • What are the two primary components of ARRL's public service field organization?
    • 254. Lesson 4 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes the ARES organizational structure?
        • ARRL -District-Section-County
        • ARRL-Section-District-County
        • ARRL -County-Region-Section
        • ARRL -State - Region-Section
    • 255. Lesson 4 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes the ARES chain of command within a Section?
        • Section Manager-District Emergency Coordinator-Emergency Coordinator, Assistant Emergency Coordinator -Section Emergency Coordinator.
        • Section Emergency Coordinator- Section Manager-District Emergency Coordinator-Emergency Coordinator-Assistant Emergency Coordinator.
        • Section Manager-Section Emergency Coordinator-District Emergency Coordinator-Emergency Coordinator-Assistant Emergency Coordinator.
        • Section Manager-Section Emergency Coordinator-Emergency Coordinator District Emergency Coordinator-Assistant Emergency Coordinator.
    • 256. Lesson 4 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes a Level 2 RRT?
        • Is a first responder in any emergency.
        • Operates a few strategically placed stations within the first hour of an emergency.
        • Responds within a few hours and is prepared with longer term (72 hour) jump kits.
        • Is always affiliated with SATERN.
    • 257. Lesson 4 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes an ARES Mutual Assistance Team (ARESMAT)?
        • Is generally available for tasks lasting less than one day.
        • Is always from the local area.
        • An ARES team who are willing and able to travel to another area.
        • Is called out only when the President suspends regular Amateur operations.
    • 258. Lesson 4 Questions
      • Which of the following is true about REACT?
        • REACT is a part of ARRL.
        • REACT does not have an MOU with ARRL.
        • REACT's mission is more restricted than that of ARRL.
        • REACT's resources include CB, Amateur Radio, GMRS, FRS, and MURS.
    • 259. Lesson 4 Reference Links
      • National Communication System: www.ncs.gov
      • REACT International: www.reactintl.org
      • FEMA National Radio System: www.fema.gov
        • Use site search box to find “FNARS”
      • Amateur Radio Emergency Service: www.arrl.org/Fand ES/field.pscm/sec1-ch1.html
      • National Weather Radio: http://205.156.54.206/nwr/index.html
      • Emergency Alert System (EAS): www.fcc.gov/eb/eas/
      • Hawaii EAS: http://www.scd.state.hi.us/04_Preparedness/communications/eas/eas.htm
    • 260. Lesson 4 Reference Links
      • National Earthquake Information Center: http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/
        • Enter exactly as shown. There is no dot between "www" and "neic".
      • Army MARS: www.asc.army.mil/
      • Navy MARS: http://ns1.maf.mobile.al/users/navymars
      • Air Force MARS: http://public.afca.af.mil/public/mars1.htm
      • SATERN: http://satern.org/satern.html or http://www.qso.com/satern411/
    • 261. Lesson 5 - Served Agency Communication Systems
    • 262. Community Repeater Systems
      • “ Community" or "shared" repeater uses a different CTCSS tone for each of several user groups
        • One repeater shared by the water, public works, and sanitation departments, licensed as a single "local government" radio system
        • Each department uses a different CTCSS tone
      • When using any shared frequency -- repeater or simplex -- it is important to press the "monitor" button for a moment before transmitting.
        • Disables the CTCSS decoder, temporarily allowing you to hear any transmissions being made on the frequency
    • 263. Continuous Tone Controlled Squelch System
      • Motorola
        • Way to get more than one Land Mobile customer on the same frequency at almost the same time
        • Invented Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System or CTCSS for short
          • Patented it as "PL" short for "Private line".
      • Other manufacturers, finding that the system was absolutely necessary to stay competitive came up with
        • "Channel Guard" (CG)
        • "Quiet Channel"
        • "Call Guard"
        • Many other names for the same thing to avoid lawsuits for marketing a patented system
    • 264. CTCSS
    • 265. CTCSS No Access 100.0 100.0 100.0 146.82 PL 100.0 103.5 103.5 146.82 PL 103.5
    • 266. CTCSS
      • Amateur equipment
        • "tone" for encode only
        • "tone squelch" for encode/decode
      • Coordination in Western Washington
        • Western Washington Amateur Relay Association
        • http://www.wwara.org
    • 267. Digital Squelch Tone
      • DPL = Digital Private Line
      • Uses sub-audible digital code words
        • Each code word is unique and all code words may be used on the same channel without interference
        • 134.4 bits per second
    • 268. Going Beyond Amateur Radio
      • Emcomm volunteers may be asked to use the agency's own communication systems
      • Most served agencies will have their own communication systems and equipment
        • Ranging from modest to complex
      • Work with the served agency well in advance to determine
        • Whether the agency will need you to use its equipment
        • Under what conditions
      • On-air procedures will definitely be different
        • Training and drills may make Amateur Radio emcomm operators proficient
    • 269. Types of Served-Agency Radio Systems
      • Each agency will probably have its own radio system
        • Large city and state police and fire radio systems
        • More than one channel, assigned to different purposes
          • Fire department "dispatch" channel
          • One or more "fireground" channels
      • FCC allocates specific radio frequencies to different types of agencies, and some for multi-agency use
        • A frequency designated for use by police agencies may only be used for police business
    • 270. State and Local Government Radio Systems
      • Police, fire, sheriffs, highway, and other state, county, or city departments
        • Learn their standard operating procedures
        • Know their "phonetic alphabet" system
      • National Police Frequency 155.475 MHz
        • Intercommunication between any police agency, regardless of state or jurisdiction
      Be careful not to lapse into a ham radio operating style
    • 271. State of Washington
      • State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) warning systems:
        • National Warning System (NAWAS)
          • A dedicated landline voice system used to pass warning and notification information among federal, state, and local agencies
        • Emergency Alert System (EAS)
          • In coordination with the broadcast industry, EAS is used to provide alert type information essential to the public concerning an emergency
        • Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
        • A Central Computerized Enforcement Service System (ACCESS)
          • A landline data system primarily used by law enforcement agencies that are available to pass warning and notification information to local emergency management agencies.
    • 272. State of Washington
      • State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) voice systems:
        • Commercial Telephone/Satellite Phone
          • Primary means for communicating with local and state agencies.
          • Includes public switched, cellular, facsimile, and secure capabilities
          • Mitsubishi ST-121 satellite terminal emergency back-up system
        • Emergency Management Weather Information Network (EMWIN)
          • A satellite based automated network for receiving real-time weather data including warnings from the National Weather Service.
    • 273. State of Washington
      • State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) radio systems:
        • Comprehensive Emergency Management Network (CEMNET)
          • A Very High Frequency (VHF) radio system that is the primary back-up system for communicating with all county and city EOCs or Command Posts. It is used day-to-day by local government and some state agencies.
        • State Emergency Communications Using Radio Effectively (SECURE)
          • A High Frequency (HF) radio system used for point-to-point communications. It operates on eight assigned frequencies between 2-8 MHz. Use is limited to agencies having this capability.
        • Emergency Management Radio Systems State Agency Emergency Net - 800 MHz
          • Primarily designed to provide a capability for state agencies within the Capitol Campus, Tumwater, Lacey and surrounding areas to communicate with the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC) during emergency situations or disasters
        • Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)
          • Backup communication system that provides emergency communications to state and local government using Amateur Radio operators (HAMS) and their equipment
    • 274. State of Washington
      • Other Radio Systems Used by EMD:
        • FEMA MERS - Mobile Emergency Response System
        • FNARS - Federal National Radio System
        • STARCNET - State Area Command Net
        • OSCCR - On-Scene Command & Coordination Radio
        • SAR - Search and Rescue Net
        • REDNET/FIRECOM - Fire Communications Net (Mutual Aid Channel)
        • NLEEC - National Law Enforcement Emergency Communications
        • HEAR - Hospital Emergency Alerting Radio
        • MEDNET - Medical Net
    • 275. State of Washington
      • Other HF and VHF Radio Systems
        • Included is use of National Guard, Civil Air Patrol, and the United States Coast Guard systems and other public safety systems
    • 276. State Agency Emergency Net
      • Incorporated into the Department of Transportation's 800 MHz trunked radio system on Capitol Peak
      • Provide a capability for state agencies within the Capitol Campus, Tumwater, Lacey and surrounding areas to communicate with the State Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
      • State Emergency Operations Officer (SEOO) monitors the net on a 24-hour basis.
      • Communications checks of the net are scheduled on the 1 st and 3 rd Mondays of each month to ensure operational readiness
    • 277. Comprehensive Emergency Management Network
      • Primary backup communication link between the state EOC and local EOCs throughout the state
      • CEMNET operates primarily on three (3) frequencies,
        • F1 45.200 MHz
          • King County, Bellevue, Seattle, Redmond, Kirkland
        • F2 45.360 MHz
        • F3 45.480 MHz
      • CEMNET is tested weekly with local emergency management jurisdictions on the following schedule:
        • Western Washington stations: Tuesday, 0900 hours
        • Central Washington stations: Wednesday, 0900 hours
        • Eastern Washington stations: Thursday, 0900 hours
    • 278. CEMNET
    • 279. SECURE
      • S tate E mergency C ommunications U sing R adio E ffectively) high frequency (HF) net
        • Also known as CEMNET II
        • Secondary emergency back-up communications capability for intra- and inter-state use
      • HF frequencies assigned are:
              • 2.326 MHz (Upper Sideband (USB))
              • 2.411 MHz (USB)
              • 2.414 MHz (USB)
              • 2.587 MHz (USB)
              • 2.801 MHz (USB)
              • 5.192 MHz (USB)
              • 7.801 MHz (USB)
              • 7.935 MHz (USB)
    • 280. FEMA
      • Mobile Emergency Response System (MERS)
        • Five MERS locations are strategically placed throughout regions of the country
        • Able to respond to all 10 FEMA regions, providing quick action to disaster areas
        • MERS, a subset of FEMA, can be anywhere in the nation within hours after a disaster and can set up a temporary communications infrastructure
        • FEMA Operations Net, a VHF high-band system primarily used by FEMA MERS for communicating with FEMA personnel
        • For EMD purposes, this net is used as a secondary capability for communicating with FEMA Region X and MERS Operations located in Bothell, Washington
    • 281. Multi-Radio Van (MRV)
      • Description: The MRV is a 30-foot long communications van mounted on a Kenworth chassis with a total weight of 44,000 pounds. The rear section of the roof opens to reveal a 2.4 meter satellite antenna, while the rest of the roof contains antennas for use with its radio suite. The inside of the van houses the MRV's screen room that contains its communications equipment and a small office/work area in the front. The truck has two built-in 20 kW generators which provide self-contained power for the entire operation. There is also a Second Antenna System (SAS) that is mounted on another truck which can be connected to provide a second satellite link.
      • Capabilities: The MRV provides an interface to a variety of communications medium. It contains High Frequency (HF) Radios; Very High Frequency (VHF) Radios and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radios, all with telephone interface capability. It also contains a Ku band satellite system which can provide connectivity for telephones, Local and Wide Area Network (LAN/WAN), compressed video teleconferencing, and Broadcast Video. There are also computers with scanning, printing, copying and facsimile capabilities. The MRV also has a small telephone switch to provide limited telephone support.
      • Functions: The MRV provides a mobile communications platform that can quickly deploy to provide the initial means of communications for the disaster response team and/or the Disaster Field Office (DFO) until permanent communications mediums can be restored to the area.
    • 282. STARC
      • State Area Command (STARC) net
        • HF system primarily used by the Washington National Guard for intra-state emergency communications between Headquarters, STARC in Camp Murray and each Army/Air National Guard armory/station
        • It is also used by the guard for interstate communications with other National Guard units
        • For EMD purposes, this net is to be used as a secondary capability for communicating with local jurisdictions and deployed National Guard units
    • 283. Medical Radio Systems
      • MedStar
        • 10 simplex VHF frequencies with a dial-type pulsed-tone encoder to signal specific hospitals
        • Still in use in some rural areas, but is quickly being replaced by more modern systems
      • Emergency Medical Radio Service
        • 10 UHF duplex frequency pairs; one assigned to the hospital, the other to the ambulance, and 7 VHF simplex channels
      • Medical Emergency Delivery Network (MEDNET)
        • Primarily used by ambulance services for communicating medical operations with hospitals while en route.
        • 462.950 Mhz and 468.175 MHz
      • Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio (HEAR)
        • Primarily used by ambulance services for administrative communications with hospitals
        • 155.340 MHz or 155.280 MHz
    • 284. Other Radio Systems
      • On-Scene Command and Coordination (OSCCR)
        • Primarily used by public-safety agencies, "on-scene" at an event/incident, for command and coordination of activities between agencies. OSCCR can only be employed in the simplex mode via mobile and/or handheld equipment
        • 156.135 MHz
      • Search & Rescue (SAR)
        • Primarily used by Search and Rescue organizations for coordinating operations between SAR units
        • Can only be employed in the simplex mode via mobile and/or handheld equipment
        • 155.160 MHz
      • State Fire Control Channel (REDNET/FIRECOM)
        • Primarily used by fire departments and districts for coordinating operations between firefighting units
        • 153.830 MHz
      • National Law Enforcement Emergency Channel (NLEEC)
        • Primarily used by law enforcement agencies for mutual operations. Also used by EMD for activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) relay network
        • 155.475 MHz
    • 285. American Red Cross
      • Nationally licensed frequency 47.42MHz
        • Primarily for disaster or emergency operations
        • Some chapters also use 47.50MHz
      • Chapters may rent space on commercial systems or license their own VHF or UHF systems for day-to-day operations
    • 286. Trunked Systems
      • Allow several "low volume" users to share a single radio system
        • Several co-located repeaters tied together, using computer control to automatically switch a call to an available repeater
        • One radio in a group is switched to a new frequency, all the others in the group automatically follow
        • Channel switching and assignment data is transmitted on a dedicated channel
      • Amateur Radio does not currently use this type of system
      • In emergency situations most trunked systems suffer from a lack of reserve capacity
    • 287. King County Trunked System
      • The primary purpose of the system is to provide emergency radio communications services for all the police, fire, emergency medical services, public school districts and public hospitals within King County
      • The secondary purpose of the system is to provide, to the extent possible within the constraints of available funding and limited spectrum availability, sufficient capacity within the system to service other public agencies with emergency response duties
      http://www.metrokc.gov/emd/800MHz.htm
    • 288. King County Trunked System
      • The regional system consists of several subsystems joined together by electronic switching equipment to provide highly reliable region-wide communications
      • Each subsystem has been implemented by what is called a Subregion
      • Subregions are either individual governments or interlocal agencies who have a shared responsibility to build and operate the system
      • Subregions include:
        • The City of Seattle
        • King County
        • Valley Communications Center
          • An interlocal agency composed of the cities of Auburn, Kent, Renton, Tukwila and Federal Way
        • Eastside Public Safety Communications Agency
          • EPSCA, an interlocal agency composed of the cities of Bellevue, Kirkland, Redmond, Mercer Island and Issaquah
    • 289. King County Trunked System http://www.metrokc.gov/emd/mapof800.htm
    • 290. King County Trunked Radio Systems http://www.metrokc.gov/emd/flowch800.htm
    • 291. Seattle Columbia Simulcast
      • 852.6875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 866.3125 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (DIGITAL - RARE USE)
      • 868.175 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (CONTROL CHANNEL)
      • 852.9125 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 866.4375 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 853.4375 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 866.2875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 868.875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 867.2875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 854.1875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 868.475 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 868.675 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 854.3625 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 866.8875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 851.4125 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (SECONDARY CONTROL CHANNEL)
      • 867.7625 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (OVERFLOW)
      • 866.7375 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (DIGITAL - RARE USE)
      • 851.1875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (CW ID CHANNEL :24 & :54)
      • 866.3375 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 851.9375 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 867.7875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 866.7125 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) - UNVERIFIED
      • 851.9875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST)
      • 866.6875 CITY OF SEATTLE (COLUMBIA SIMULCAST) (OVERFLOW)
    • 292. EPSCA Simulcast
      • 868.525 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 866.9875 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 867.3125 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 867.8125 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 868.200 EPSCA (SIMULCAST) (SECONDARY CONTROL CHANNEL)
      • 867.4875 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 867.8875 EPSCA (SIMULCAST) (OVERFLOW CHANNEL)
      • 866.2125 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 853.3875 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 866.4625 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 852.6375 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 866.9125 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 854.2375 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 851.8875 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 868.825 EPSCA (SIMULCAST)
      • 868.775 EPSCA (SIMULCAST) (CONTROL CHANNEL)
      • 851.1375 EPSCA (SIMULCAST) (CW ID CHANNEL :24 AND :54)
    • 293. Seattle Police Talkgroups (Seattle Simulcast)
      • 3216 SPD Citywide ATG (patch ID?)
      • 3248 SPD West
      • 3280 SPD North
      • 3312 SPD South
      • 3344 SPD East
      • 3408 SPD Data
      • 3440 SPD Tac 1
      • 3472 SPD Tac 2
      • 3504 SPD Tac 3
      • 3536 SPD Tac 4
      • 3568 SPD Event 1
      • 3600 SPD Emergency
      • 3632 SPD East Tac
      • 3664 SPD South Tac
      • 3696 SPD North Tac
      • 3728 SPD West Tac
      • 3760 SPD Inv Tac 1
      • 3792 SPD Inv Tac 2
      • 3824 SPD Ctr 1
      • 3856 SPD Ctr 2
      • 3888 SPD Cmd 1
      • 3920 SPD Cmd 2
      • 3952 SPD Cmd 3
      • 3984 SPD Cmd 4
      • 4016 SPD Cmd 5
      • 4048 SPD Cmd 6 Harbor Ptrl
      • 4080 SPD Narc 1
      • 4112 SPD Narc 2
      • 4144 SPD Narc 3
      • 4176 SPD NTF
      • 4208 SPD Vice 1
      • 4240 SPD Vice 2
      • 4336 SPD Emer Rsp Team 1
      • 4368 SPD Emer Rsp Team 2
      • 4400 SPD Hostage Neg 1
      • 4432 SPD Hostage Neg 2
      • 4464 SPD Internal Invest
    • 294. Redmond Police Talkgroups (EPSCA Simulcast)
      • Redmond (EPSCA Simulcast)
        • 18544 Redmond PD Dispatch
        • 18416 Redmond PD Tac1
        • 18384 Redmond PD Tac2
        • 18448 Redmond PD Admin
        • 18480 Redmond PD Investigations
        • 18512 Redmond PD Traffic
    • 295. Bellevue Police Talkgroups (EPSCA Simulcast)
      • 21424 Bellevue PD Disp 1 (Primary dispatch)
      • 21392 Bellevue PD Disp 2
      • 21360 Bellevue PD Records
      • 21328 Bellevue PD Tac 1
      • 21296 Bellevue PD Tac 2
      • 21264 Bellevue PD Training
      • 21232 Bellevue PD Car To Car
      • 21200 Bellevue PD Events
      • 21168 Bellevue PD Detectives
      • 21136 Bellevue PD SDU
      • 21104 Bellevue PD Traffic
      • 21072 Bellevue PD Comm Center
    • 296. Eastside Fire
      • Eastside Communications (to be NORCOM in July2009) currently dispatches the following Fire Departments:
        • Bellevue Fire Department
        • Kirkland Fire Department
        • Redmond Fire Department
        • Mercer Island Fire Department
        • Woodinville Fire & Life Safety
        • Bothell Fire Dept (including the Snohomish County parts of Bothell)
        • Kenmore/Northshore Fire Department
        • Shoreline Fire Department
        • King County FD 10 (Issaquah and all the outlying county areas east of Bellevue to include Duvall, Carnation, Fall City, North Bend, City of Snoqualmie)
        • King County FD 50, Skykomish Fire (and approx. 6 miles beyond Stevens Pass)
        • Snoqualmie Pass Fire Department (and several miles over the pass, joint response with Kittitas County Fire)
      • Talkgroups:
        • 22384 Eastside Fire Disp 1
        • 22352 Eastside Fire Disp 2
        • 22224 Eastside Fire Tac1
        • 22192 Eastside Fire Tac2
        • 22160 Eastside Fire Tac3
        • 22128 Eastside Fire Tac4
        • 22096 Eastside Fire Tac5
        • 22064 Eastside Fire Tac6
        • 22032 Fire Tac7
        • 22000 Fire Tac8
        • 21968 Eastside Fire Tac-9 (was Training Pool 3)
        • 21936 Eastside Fire Tac-10 (was Training Pool 2)
    • 297. APCO Project 25 Radio Systems
      • P25 radios are extremely flexible
        • Operate in both analog and digital voice modes, and as part of trunked and conventional radio systems
      • Radios from several manufacturers can be programmed to communicate with each other seamlessly, as can radios from different agencies and jurisdictions
      • Digital modes offer excellent audio quality, and optional encrypted modes offer message and data security
      • Not as effective in rural or mountainous areas
        • Reception of digital signals
    • 298. Phoenix P25 System Example
      • Simulcast A: Phoenix PD
        • 867.06250
        • 867.17500
        • 867.21250c
        • 867.26250
        • 867.38750
        • 867.41250
        • 867.68750
        • 867.71250
        • 867.76250
        • 867.87500
        • 867.91250
        • 867.96250c
        • 868.16250
        • 868.18750
        • 868.23750
        • 868.33750
        • 868.48750
        • 868.51250
      • Simulcast A: Phoenix Police and Municipal Services transmitting from 9 sites in Phoenix:
        • Site 1 (WPNW554): Downtown Phoenix, 200 West Washington.
        • Site 3 (WPWX741): SW Phoenix, Fire Sta34, 50 N. 51st Ave.
        • Site 4 (WPWT692): Maryvale, 4020 W. Glenrosa.
        • Site 5 (WPWR968): Squaw Peak Area, Phx PD Substation, 6208 N. 24th St.
        • Site 6 (WPXE694): North Mountain (North Central Phoenix), 10600 N 7th St.
        • Site 7 (WPWS651): Sky Harbor Airport area, T4, 3800 E Sky Harbor Blvd.
        • Site 8 (WPWY575): Conv Fire Ops: Far N. Desert Hills. 701 W Carefree Hwy.
        • Site 9 (WPWS758): North Phoenix, Adobe Mountain, 23060 N. 27th Avenue.
        • Site 26 (WPXE706): NE Phoenix, 15040 N. Tatum Blvd.
    • 299. Telephone Systems
      • Business telephone systems
        • Answering incoming calls
        • Placing outside calls
        • Placing and answering intercom calls
        • Making "speed dial" calls
        • Overhead paging
        • Placing calls on hold, and then retrieving them.
        • Transferring calls to another extension.
        • Transferring calls to voice mail, if available
        • Retrieving calls from a voice mail box
      • Good idea to keep user's manual close at hand
    • 300. Satellite Telephones
      • Becoming more common among served agencies as the cost of ownership and airtime decreases
        • Inmarsat, Iridium, Thuraya, and Globalstar
        • Iridium’s 66 satellite low earth orbit (LEO) constellation has the most coverage with 100%
        • Inmarsat at 98%
        • Globalstar with 80% land-area coverage
      • Require line-of-sight to the satellite
      • Typically expensive
    • 301. Satellite Telephones
    • 302. Satellite Data Systems
      • Satellite systems in use by public service agencies vary greatly
        • Two-way data and voice communication
        • One-way reception of voice, data, or video
      • NOAA Emergency Management Weather Information System (EMWINS) system
        • Obtain up-to-the-second weather maps and information
        • http://iwin.nws.noaa.gov/emwin/index.htm
      • Agency will have to provide training if they want you to operate this equipment
    • 303. EMWIN
      • Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN
        • provide the emergency management community with access to a set of NWS warnings, watches, forecasts, and other products
      • EMWIN is a supplement to other NWS dissemination services, which include: NOAA Weather Radio (NWR), NOAA Weather Wire System (NWWS), Family of Services (FOS), NOAAPORT, and NEXRAD Information Dissemination Service (NIDS).
      • Commercial EMWIN vendors:
        • http://www.weather.gov/emwin/winven.htm
    • 304. EMWIN
    • 305. Other Agency-Owned Equipment
      • Fax machines, copiers, computers, and similar devices
        • Some copiers and computer programs are quite complicated and may require instruction in their use
      • Computer software used in public safety applications is usually specially written for the purpose and may require extensive training in the rare situation where you will be required to use the system
    • 306. Monitoring Agency Radio Systems
      • Analog Scanners
        • V/UHF FM
        • Aircraft
      • Analog Trunking Scanners
        • Seattle, EPSCA
        • “ Trunking”
        • “ Triple Trunking”
      • Digital Scanners
        • P25 systems (Phoenix)
        • “ Digital”
    • 307. Lesson 5 Student Activities
      • Using the links provided, answer the following questions:
        • What do Sections 97.403 and 97.405 of the FCC Rules and Regulations (www.arrl.org/FandES/field/regulations/rules-regs.html) Part 97 state about Amateur communications during emergencies?
        • Which courses offered by IMSA (www.imsasafety.org/certify.htm) pertain to radio operations? To what extent do these courses pertain to emcomm operations?
    • 308. Lesson 5 Questions
      • When emcomm team members are called upon to operate on Public Safety Radio Systems, which of the following may they NOT do?
        • Use special "10 codes".
        • Use the served agency's standard operating procedure.
        • Use the phonetic alphabet employed by the served agency.
        • Engage in casual conversations.
    • 309. Lesson 5 Questions
      • Which of the following is another trademarked version of Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System (CTCSS)?
        • Private Guard.
        • Private Channel.
        • Line Guard.
        • Private Line.
    • 310. Lesson 5 Questions
      • Which of the following best describes the newer Emergency Medical Radio Services?
        • Ten UHF duplex frequencies and seven VHF simplex channels.
        • Ten simplex VHF frequencies with pulsed tone encoders for each hospital.
        • Seven UHF duplex frequencies and ten VHF simplex channels.
        • The MedStar system with channels Med 1 through Med 10.
    • 311. Lesson 5 Questions
      • Which one of the following statements is true about trunked systems?
        • Trunked systems are able to operate without the use of computer controllers.
        • The number of frequencies on a trunked system is always a multiple of 10.
        • Amateur radio does not currently use this type of system.
        • Most trunked systems have ample reserve capacity
    • 312. Lesson 5 Questions
      • When emcomm teams work with a served agency, a number of assumptions are made. Which of the following assumptions are true?
        • Amateur radio operators can operate any communication equipment they encounter.
        • There are NO significant differences between amateur radio operating procedures and the procedures used by the served agencies.
        • Served agencies must provide training if amateur operators are to be used effectively.
        • All phonetic alphabets are essentially the same and are thus interchangeable.
    • 313. Lesson 5 Reference Links
      • FCC -- Public Safety Radio Service: http://wireless.fcc.gov/publicsafety/
      • FCC Rules -- Ham Radio: www.arrl.org/FandES/field/regulations/rules-regs.html
      • APCO -- www.apco911.org
      • International Municipal Signal Association (IMSA): www.imsasafety.org/
      • Dispatch Magazine: www.911dispatch.com/
      • Project 25 -- www.project25.org
      • Inmarsat -- www.inmarsat.com
      • Globalstar -- www.globalstar.com
      • iridium -- www.iridium.com
      • Thuraya -- www.thuraya.com (United Arab Emirates)
      • Motorola -- http://www.motorola.com/cgiss/networks.shtml
    • 314. Lunch Break

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