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  1. 1. BISCUITS1)The need for nutritious, easy-to-store, easy-to-carry, and long-lasting foods on long journeys, inparticular at sea, was initially solved by taking live food along with a butcher/cook. However, this tookup additional space on what were either horse-powered treks or small ships, reducing the time of travelbefore additional food was required. This resulted in early armies adopting the style of hunter-foraging.Many early physicians believed that most medicinal problems were associated with digestion.Hence, for both sustenance and avoidance of illness, a daily consumption of a biscuit wasconsidered good for health.Hard biscuits soften as they age. To solve this problem, early bakers attempted to create thehardest biscuit possible. Because it is so hard and dry, if properly stored and transported, navieshardtack will survive rough handling and high temperature. Baked hard, it can be kept withoutspoiling for years as long as it is kept dry. For long voyages, hardtack was baked four times,rather than the more common two, and prepared six months before sailing.[7] To soften hardtackfor eating, it was often dunked in brine, coffee, or some other liquid or cooked into a skillet meal.The more refined captains biscuit was made with finer flour.History of biscuitsSweet or salty. Soft or crunchy. Simple or exotic. Everybody loves munching on biscuits, but do theyknow how biscuits began?The history of biscuits can be traced back to a recipe created by the Roman chef Apicius, in which "athick paste of fine wheat flour was boiled and spread out on a plate. When it had dried and hardened itwas cut up and then fried until crisp, then served with honey and pepper."The word Biscuit is derived from the Latin words Bis (meaning twice) and Coctus (meaning cookedor baked). The word Biscotti is also the generic term for cookies in Italian. Back then, biscuits wereunleavened, hard and thin wafers which, because of their low water content, were ideal food to store.As people started to explore the globe, biscuits became the ideal travelling food since they stayed freshfor long periods. The seafaring age, thus, witnessed the boom of biscuits when these were sealed inairtight containers to last for months at a time. Hard track biscuits (earliest version of the biscotti andpresent-day crackers) were part of the staple diet of English and American sailors for many centuries. Infact, the countries which led this seafaring charge, such as those in Western Europe, are the ones wherebiscuits are most popular even today. Biscotti is said to have been a favourite of Christopher Columbuswho discovered America!Making good biscuits is quite an art, and history bears testimony to that. During the 17th and 18th
  2. 2. Centuries in Europe, baking was a carefully controlled profession, managed through a series of guilds orprofessional associations. To become a baker, one had to complete years of apprenticeship - workingthrough the ranks of apprentice, journeyman, and finally master baker. Not only this, the amount andquality of biscuits baked were also carefully monitored.The English, Scottish and Dutch immigrants originally brought the first cookies to the United States andthey were called teacakes. They were often flavoured with nothing more than the finest butter,sometimes with the addition of a few drops of rose water. Cookies in America were also called by suchnames as "jumbles", "plunkets" and "cry babies".As technology improved during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, the price of sugar and flourdropped. Chemical leavening agents, such as baking soda, became available and a profusion of cookierecipes occurred. This led to the development of manufactured cookies.Interestingly, as time has passed and despite more varieties becoming available, the essentialingredients of biscuits havent changed - like soft wheat flour (which contains less protein than theflour used to bake bread) sugar, and fats, such as butter and oil. Today, though they are known bydifferent names the world over, people agree on one thing - nothing beats the biscuit!Some interesting facts on the origin of other forms of biscuits:The recipe for oval shaped cookies (that are also known as boudoir biscuits, sponge biscuits, spongefingers, Naples biscuits and Savoy biscuits) has changed little in 900 years and dates back to the house ofSavoy in the 11th century France. Peter the Great of Russia seems to have enjoyed an oval-shapedcookie called "lady fingers" when visiting Louis XV of France.The macaroon - a small round cookie with crisp crust and a soft interior - seems to have originated in anItalian monastery in 1792 during the French Revolution.SPRING-uhr-lee, have been traditional Christmas cookies in Austria and Bavaria for centuries. They aremade from a simple egg, flour and sugar dough and are usually rectangular in shape. These cookies aremade with a leavening agent called ammonium carbonate and baking ammonia.The inspiration for fortune cookies dates back to the 12th and 13th Centuries, when Chinese soldiersslipped rice paper messages into moon cakes to help co-ordinate their defence against Mongolianinvaders.Top Biscuits Brands in IndiaFollowing are the leading biscuit brands in India:
  3. 3. Parle Products Pvt. LtdFounded in 1929, Parle Products Pvt. Ltd ranks among the top biscuit brands in India. Thecompany has 7 manufacturing units of its own and 51 manufacturing units on contract.Accounting for about 30-35% of market share in the biscuit industry this company is famous forbrands like Parle – G, Krackjack, Hide & Seek Milano, Hide and Seek, Magix and Monaco.Parle has been one of the leading biscuit brands in India for the last 8 decades. Parle-G is reputedto enjoy the most sales among all biscuit brands in the world. Its biscuits offer a fantasticcombination of quality, taste, and nutrition. Parle biscuits are available even in faraway villages.At present the company has a 40 percent share of the Indian market for biscuits and is a multi-million dollar organization. Following are the various brands of biscuits offered by Parle: Parle G Nimkin Krackjack 20-20 Cookies Monaco-Salted Craker Golden Arcs Kreams Festo Hide & Seek Choco Chips Top Hide & Seek Milano Happy Happy Hide & Seek Bourbon Hide & Seek Fab Parle Actifit Digestive Marie Magix Parle Marie Coconut Cookies Milk ShaktiBritannia Industries LtdBased in Bangalore Britannia Industries Ltd is reputed as being one of the top biscuit brands inIndia. The company was established way back in 1892 and till today has managed to maintain adistinctive position in the Indian biscuit industry specially with its most popular brand calledTiger.Britannia is presently one of the biggest brands in India and also the leading food related brand.
  4. 4. It is well known for its ground breaking approach towards product manufacturing and marketing.Forbes Global has rated it as one of the Top 200 Small Companies of the World and it is also thesecond most trusted brand in India.Following are its various brands in the biscuits segment: Pure Magic Treat Britannia Cookies Milk Bikis Tiger Nutri Choice Good Day Time Pass Bourbon Little Hearts 50-50 Nice Time Marie Gold RusksPriya GoldPriya Gold is a part of Surya Foods & Agro Ltd that was established during November 1992. Itscommercial operations, which included selling and making biscuits under the brand name PriyaGold started during October 1993. Following are the various biscuits and cookies offered byPriya Gold: Italiano Cookies Glucose V Chatpatta Jeera and Cashew Butter Bite Cheez Bit Cheese Cracker CNC Marie Lite Snacks Zig Zag Coconut Crunch Kids Cream Classic CreamAnmolAnmol Biscuits is especially popular in eastern and northern India. It has a couple of top classproduction units at Noida and Dankuni in West Bengal. Following are its main products:
  5. 5. Lemon Mazaa Dil Khush Funfill Choco Vanilla Dream Lite Yummy - Milk Cream E-Time Tip Top Kajoo Kurkure Masala Funfill Orange Coconutty Funfill Rich Chocolate Thin Arrowroot Golmol Marie Jadoo Veg Munch Marie Time 2 in 1 Snackles Butter Bake Milk Made Cream Cracker BakersvilleHorlicksHorlicks Biscuits were introduced during 1992 and since then the brand has witnessed increasingpopularity. These are liked by both children and parents. Every pack provides 100 percentcalcium and the biscuits are available in elaichi and standard flavors.CREMICACREMICA is one of the most prominent biscuit brands in northern India. Its products areprimarily available in four categories – crackers, cookies, cream biscuits, and glucose biscuits.The company is setting up a new plant in Himachal Pradesh, which is expected to have acapacity of 5 thousand tons on a monthly basis. This will be a fully automated plant and issupposed to be one of the very best in its kind in the country.In a recent survey done by Insight, a famous consumer magazine, as per parameters stated by theBIS, the glucose biscuits of CREMICA came first in the category for sweet biscuits.It is also a part of the Indian government’s program to create fortified biscuits for people inAfghanistan. The whole program is being done under the guidance of the World FoodOrganization. It has also been entrusted with the responsibility of exporting biscuits to Iraq aspart of the World Food Program.Sunfeast
  6. 6. Sunfeast is the biscuit brand of ITC and was initiated during July 2003. To start with the branddealt with glucose, Marie, and cream biscuits. Following are the major brands of Sunfeast: Sunfeast Milky Magic Sunfeast Dream Cream Sunfeast Marie Light Sunfeast Snacky Sunfeast Dark Fantasy Sunfeast sweet n salt Sunfeast Dark Fantasy Choco Fills Sunfeast Nice Sunfeast Glucose Sunfeast SpecialBiskfarmBiskfarm was established during 2000. It is marketed and held by SAJ Food Products (P) Ltd,which is a sister concern of Aparna Group of Companies. It is primarily available in NorthEastern and Eastern part of the country as well as several parts in Southern, Northern, andCentral India. It is among the top 3 bakery brands in all the markets where it enjoys a substantialpresence.Biskfarm biscuits can be categorized into the following products: Sweet Countlines Semi Sweet Creams Crackers RuskRoseRose biscuits are produced by Veeramani Biscuit Industries Limited, which is also famous asVBIL. The company was incorporated during 1987 in the outer areas of Hyderabad. It producesa wide variety of biscuits such as the following: Cookies Cream Biscuits Marie Biscuits Salt Biscuits Glucose Biscuits Salt & Sweet Biscuits Coconut Biscuits
  7. 7. SobiscoSobisco is part of the Sona Biscuits Ltd group, which was incorporated during 1992. Its headoffices are at Kolkata and it is presently an ISO 22000 organization. It also enjoys themembership of the American Institute of Bakery. It offers 54 different products under 4 majorcategories such as sweet biscuits, salted biscuits, semi sweet biscuits, and cream biscuits.Majority of its annual production is done in the sweet biscuits, and cream biscuits segments.DukesDukes biscuits are marketed by Ravi Foods Private Limited. The organization has set up manyplants in Hyderabad that are at par with ISO 9001 requirements. Yet another plant is being set upat Rudrapur in Uttarakhand. It offers the following biscuits: Marie Break Cream Cracker See Saw Nice Salt Kiss Danish Butter Cookies Masala Nibbles Namkeen Salted Crackers Cream 4 Fun Teddy Bear Cookie Honey Cream 4 Fun Bourbon Dukes Minees Sandwich Cookies Kukkies Delicious Kukkies - Chocolate Merry MilkNezoneNezone Biscuits started off as an organization during 1996 and presently has a yearly productionof INR 100 crore. Its present production capacity is 60 tons and offers 40 different types ofbiscuits that may be enumerated as below: Chocolate Marie Biscuit Sweet Biscuit - Elaichi Marie Biscuit Sweet Biscuit - Gluco Rich Marie Super Biscuit Milk Rusk Nutri Marie Biscuit Suji Rusk Orange Marie Biscuit Cream Biscuit - Energy Mix
  8. 8. Prince Marie Biscuit Hit Cream Biscuit Salted Biscuit: Snacks (Classic Salted) Butter Cookies Salted Biscuit: Snacks (Mast Masala) Kaju Cookies Sweet Biscuit - Butter Kaju Coconut Cookies Sweet Biscuit - Butter Yums Classic Arrowroot Marie BiscuitFollowing are other biscuits brands operating in India Oreo Sumo Happy Bite Business License Contact your citys business license department to find out about getting a business license, which essentially grants you the right (after you pay a fee, of course) to operate a business in that city. When you file your license application, the city planning or zoning department will check to make sure your area is zoned for the purpose you want to use it for and that there are enough parking spaces to meet the codes. You cant operate in an area that is not zoned for your type of business unless you first get a variance or conditional-use permit. To get a variance, youll need to present your case before your citys planning commission. In many cases, variances are quite easy to get, as long as you can show that your business wont disrupt the character of the neighborhood where you plan to locate. Because youre planning to start a business in your home, you should investigate zoning ordinances especially carefully. Residential neighborhoods tend to have strict zoning regulations preventing business use of the home. Even so, its possible to get a variance or conditional-use permit; and in many areas, attitudes toward homebased businesses are becoming more supportive, making it easier to obtain a variance. Visit the Zoning section of this article for more information. Fire Department Permit You may need to get a permit from your fire department if your business uses any flammable materials or if your premises will be open to the public. In some cities, you have to get this permit before you open for business. Other areas dont require permits but simply schedule periodic inspections of your business to see if you meet fire safety regulations. If you dont, theyll issue a citation. Businesses such as restaurants, retirement homes, day-care centers and anywhere else that lots of people congregate are subject to especially close and frequent scrutiny by the fire department. Air and Water Pollution Control Permit Many cities now have departments that work to control air and water pollution. If you burn any materials, discharge anything into the sewers or waterways, or use products that produce gas (such as paint sprayers), you may have to get a special permit from this department in your city or county. Environmental protection regulations may also require
  9. 9. you to get approval before doing any construction or beginning operation. Check withyour state environmental protection agency regarding federal or state regulations thatmay apply to your business.Sign PermitSome cities and suburbs have sign ordinances that restrict the size, location andsometimes the lighting and type of sign you can use outside your business. To avoidcostly mistakes, check regulations and secure the written approval of your landlord (ifyou rent a house or apartment) before you go to the expense of having a sign designedand installed.County PermitsCounty governments often require essentially the same types of permits and licenses ascities. If your business is outside any city or towns jurisdiction, these permits apply toyou. The good news: County regulations are usually not as strict as those of adjoiningcities.State LicensesIn many states, people in certain occupations must have licenses or occupational permits.Often, they have to pass state examinations before they can get these permits and conductbusiness. States usually require licensing for auto mechanics, plumbers, electricians,building contractors, collection agents, insurance agents, real estate brokers, repossessors,and anyone who provides personal services (i.e., barbers, cosmetologists, doctors andnurses). Contact your state government offices to get a complete list of occupations thatrequire licensing.Federal LicensesIn most cases, you wont have to worry about this. However, a few types of businesses dorequire federal licensing, including meat processors, radio and TV stations, andinvestment advisory services. The Federal Trade Commission can tell you if yourbusiness requires a federal license.Sales Tax LicenseThere are two reasons you need a certificate of resale (in other states, this may be called a"sellers permit" or a "certificate of authority"). First, any homebased business sellingtaxable goods and services must pay sales taxes on what it sells. The definition of ataxable service varies from state to state. Depending on individual state rulings, both theparts and labor portions of your bill may be taxable.Sales taxes vary by state and are imposed at the retail level. Its important to know therules in the states and localities where you operate your business because if youre aretailer, you must collect state sales tax on each sale you make.Before you open your doors, be sure to register to collect sales tax by applying for eachseparate place of business you have in the state. A license or permit is important becausein some states its a criminal offense to undertake sales without one.Health Department PermitsIf you plan to sell food, either directly to customers as in a restaurant or as a wholesalerto other retailers, youll need a county health department permit. This costs about $25 andvaries depending on the size of the business and the amount and type of equipment youhave. The health department will want to inspect your facilities before issuing the permit