Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas<br />
I. Ruling the Spanish Empire<br />Spain’s empire stretched from California to South America<br />Council of the Indies passed colony laws –appointed viceroys<br />The Catholic Church<br />Winning souls for Christianity was as important as gaining land<br />Introduced European clothing, the Spanish language, and new crafts<br />
I. Ruling the Spanish Empire<br />B. The Economy<br />Valuable resources were silver and gold<br />Plantations required large numbers of workers and were profitable<br />Encomiendas gave the right to demand labor or tribute from the Native Americans<br />C. Bartolome de lasCasas<br />He condemned the evils of the encomienda system<br />Native Americans were forced to labor for a landlord and create debts<br />
I. Ruling the Spanish Empire<br />Bringing workers from Africa<br />Colonists brought Africans to work in the Americas<br />Were forced to work as field hands, miners, and servants<br />Africans outnumbered American-born and rebelled many times.<br />
II. Colonial Society and Culture<br />Social Structure<br />Top of the society were peninsulares and creoles<br />Bottom of society were mestizos, mulattos, Native Americans and Africans<br />B. Cities<br />Spanish settlers lived in towns and cities<br />Centers of government, commerce and culture<br />
II. Colonial Society and Culture<br />C. Education<br />Built universities to educate young men<br />Women had to join convents to be educated<br />D. Cultural Blending<br />Native American style of building, native foods, traveled in canoes<br />Settlers taught religion, introduced animals<br />Africans added farming methods, cooking styles, and crops<br />
III. Portuguese Colony in Brazil<br />The Ecomony<br />Began trading Brazilwood to make dyes<br />Cleared land for sugar plantations and cattle raising.<br />A New Culture<br />European dominated the upper and middle class, Natives and Africans influenced the whole.<br />
IV. Challenging Spanish Power<br /> the wealth of the Americas helped make Spain the most powerful country in Europe<br />Dutch, English and French pirates preyed on Spanish treasure ships<br />
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