Nationalism triumphs in europe


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Nationalism triumphs in europe

  1. 1. Nationalism Triumphs in Europe<br />Building a German Nation<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Steps Toward Unity<br />Impact of Napoleon<br />Freed serfs, easier trade, abolished laws against Jews<br />Germans rebelled<br />Created German Confederation<br />Prussian Leadership<br />Zollverein (dismantled tariff barriers)<br />Demanded German political unity<br />Frederick William IV of Prussia (Kaisier)<br />
  4. 4. Crowning the German Emperor<br />
  5. 5. Bismarck and German Unity<br />Otto von Bismarck became chancellor in 1862<br />Realpolitik (realistic politics based on the needs of the state)<br />Loyalty to dynasty of Prussia<br />
  6. 6. Bismarck and German Unity<br />Built up the Prussian Army<br />Bismarck led Prussia into three wars in a decade<br />Increased Prussian Power for German Unification<br />
  7. 7. BismarckBlood and Iron Speech<br />  In September 1862 there was a crisis in Prussia where the Prussian Landtag, or lower parliamentary house, was refusing to approve increased military spending in defiance of the King's wishes. King Wilhelm I was advised by his Minister of War, Roon, to send for Bismarck as a formidable personality who might secure the passing of the military budget in the Landtag.On the 17 September the crisis had reached such a pitch that Wilhelm I seriously considered abdicating his throne. That evening Roon sent by telegraph to Bismarck suggesting that he, Bismarck, should hurry to Berlin and that there was danger in delay. The message in French and Latin read :- Depechez-vous; Periculum in mora.On 22 September Bismarck met Wilhelm I and assured him that he could form a ministry and carry through the army reforms as he desired, if necessary against the will of the deputies in the Landtag. Given this assurance the Wilhelm I decided not to abdicate. Bismarck was appointed acting chief minister of Prussia. Bismarck made an appearance before the Landtag on 29 September where he spoke expressing his regret at the hostility of the deputies to passing of the military budget and stressed the need for progress to be made on the military proposals favoured by the king. The next day at a meeting of a Budget Committee Bismarck went perhaps further than he his better judgement might have intended in asserting that:-  The position of Prussia in Germany will not be determined by its liberalism but by its power ... Prussia must concentrate its strength and hold it for the favourable moment, which has already come and gone several times. Since the treaties of Vienna, our frontiers have been ill-designed for a healthy body politic. Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood. This Speech by Bismarck has entered into popular understanding of history as ending blood and iron rather than as iron and blood <br />
  8. 8. Franco-Prussian War<br />War With<br /> Denmark and Austria<br />1864 alliance with Austria<br />Seized land from Denmark<br />1866 Bismarck attacked Austria<br />Lasted 7 weeks<br />Annexed Austria / dissolved German Confederation<br />Began 1870<br />“Ems dispatch” (telegram reporting an insult on Napoleon from William I<br />Napoleon declared war<br />France accepted a humiliating peace a few weeks later.<br />Napoleon III<br />
  9. 9. German Empire<br />Southern German States and Northern Confederation persuaded William I to become Kaiser<br />January 1871 birth of Second Reich<br />Two-house legislature<br />Upper house “Burdesrat” appointed position<br />Lower house “Reichstag” elected position<br />
  10. 10. Strengthening Germany<br />Economic Progress<br />Science, Government, and Industry<br />Iron and coal resources<br />Disciplined and educated work force<br />Rapid growing population<br />House of Krupp produced steel and weapons for a world market<br />Single currency<br />Reorganized banking system<br />Coordinated railroads<br />Germany raised tariffs to protect home industries from foreign competition during the 1880s depression<br />
  11. 11. Iron Chancellor<br />Campaign Against the Church<br />Kulturkampf “battle for civilization”<br />Laws to supervise Catholic education and approve appointment of priests<br />Expelled Jesuits<br />Compulsory for couples to marry by civil authority<br />Catholic Church gained support against Bismarck<br />
  12. 12. Iron Chancellor<br />Campaign Against the Socialists<br />Laws passed to dissolve socialist groups<br />Shut down newspapers<br />Banned their meetings<br />Workers unified in support of socialist cause<br />1890s health and accident insurance<br />Old-age insurance (retirement benefits)<br />
  13. 13. Kaiser William II<br />Asked Bismarck to resign<br />Programs created<br />Social welfare, cheap transportation, electricity<br />Public schools – taught students obedience, reading, writing, and mathematics<br />Grandson of Frederick William and<br /> Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom<br />
  14. 14. Unifying Italy<br />
  15. 15. Unification of Italy, 1858-1870<br />
  16. 16. Obstacles to Italian Unity<br />Italian States <br />Northern Italy <br />Southern Italy<br />Other Italian States <br />Ruled By<br />Austria<br />French Bourbon rulers<br />Hapsburg Monarchs<br />
  17. 17. Obstacles to Italian Unity<br />Young Italy<br />1830 Giuseppe Mazzini<br />Goal “to constitute Italy, one, free, independent, republican nation”<br />The Tide of Nationalism<br />Nationalist reminded Italians of past glories in Rome and medieval papacy<br />Unify common language history<br />End trade barriers among Italian States<br />
  18. 18. Struggle for Italy<br />Cavour<br />Sardinia’s Prime Minister<br />Improved agriculture, built railroads, encouraged commerce<br />Goal – end Austrian power<br />Intrique with France<br />Crimean War- Joined Britain and France<br />Gained attention of Napoleon III<br />1858 Sardinia annexed Lombardy<br />
  19. 19. Struggle for Italy<br />Garibaldi’s Red Shirts<br />Recruited army<br />Sailed to Sicily to gain control<br />Unity at Last<br />Sardinian’s and Garibaldi’s forces overran Papal States<br />1861 Victor Emmanuel II crowned king of Italy<br />1870 Franco-Prussian War<br />
  20. 20. Challenges facing the New Nation<br />Divisions<br />North was rich<br />South had more cities<br />Northern cities flourished as centers of business and culture<br />South was rural and poor<br />Catholic Church was granted the Vatican<br />
  21. 21. Challenges facing the New Nation<br />Turmoil<br />Two-legislative<br />Upper house – appointed by the King<br />Lower house – elected representatives<br />Socialists organized strikes<br />Anarchists turned to sabotage and violence to abolish the government<br />Emigration- many Italians left their homeland for North and South America<br />
  22. 22. Nationalism Threatens<br />Old empires<br />
  23. 23. A Declining Empire<br />Oldest ruling house in Europe<br />Refused to change with the times<br />Ignored nationalist demands<br />Ruled<br />German speaking Austrians, Slavic groups including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Romanians, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Hungarians and Italians<br />
  24. 24. Early Reforms<br />Francis Joseph<br />Austria suffered a defeat against France and Sardinia in 1859<br />Granted a new constitution to set up a legislative<br />Hungarians were determined to settle for nothing less than self-government<br />
  25. 25. Dual Monarchy<br />Francis Deák<br />Created a new political power<br />Austria-Hungary<br />Separate states<br />Own constitution and parliament<br />One ruler Francis Joseph<br />Emperor of Austria, King<br /> of Hungary<br />
  26. 26. Balkan Nationalism<br />Stretched from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to North Africa and the Middle East<br />“the sick man of Europe”<br />Groups began to revolt<br />Russia, Britain, France, Germany all supported different groups in the Ottoman Empire.<br />Eventually led to WWI<br />
  27. 27. Russia: Reform and Reaction<br />
  28. 28. Conditions in Russia<br />Obstacles to Progress<br />Czars saw the need to modernize without losing absolute rule<br />Social Structure (nobles, middle class, serfs)<br />Serfdom<br />Peasants, servants, artisans, soldiers<br />Russia’s economy would remain backward<br />
  29. 29. Russian Absolutism<br />Czar Alexander I eased censorship and promoted education<br />Opposed liberal and nationalist impulses<br />Nicholas I suppressed Decembrists<br />Used police spies, banned books with liberal ideas, allowed only approved textbooks in schools<br />Locked up Russians with liberal or revolutionary ideas in mental hospitals<br />
  30. 30. Russian Absolutism<br />Nicholas I embraced three pillars<br />Orthodoxy – strong ties between church and government<br />Autocracy - absolute power of the state<br />Nationalism – respect for Russian traditions and suppression on Non Russian groups<br />New law code and economic reforms<br />
  31. 31. Reforms of Alexander II<br />Emancipation<br />Freed the serf<br />Lands allotted to serfs to small for farm efficiently<br />Serfs moved to cities to work in industries<br />
  32. 32. Reforms of Alexander II<br />Other Reforms<br />Zemstvos elected assemblies<br />Responsible for road repair, schools, and agriculture<br />Censorship and reformed military<br />Service reduced 25 yrs to 15 yrs<br />Women liberation<br />Left to be educated abroad<br />
  33. 33. Reaction to Change<br />Revolutionary Currents<br />Socialists spread word to peasants<br />Assassinated Czar Alexander II<br />Crackdown<br />Alexander III increased police power<br />Russification aimed to suppressing the cultures of non-Russian people within the empire.<br />One language One Church<br />Persecution and Pogroms<br /><ul><li>Jews restrictions
  34. 34. Violent mob attacks
  35. 35. Emigrated to US</li></li></ul><li>Crisis and Revolution<br />Peaceful March<br />Revolution of 1905<br />Workers strikes –shorter hours better wages<br />Constitution and reforms <br />Father George Gapon organized a march Sunday January 22, 1905<br /><ul><li>Strikes multiplied
  36. 36. October Manifesto
  37. 37. “Freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly and union”
  38. 38. Duma (elected legislative)</li></ul>Bloody Sunday<br />Czar fled palace<br />Troops shot into crowd<br />Killed the people’s faith and trust in the Czar<br />