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Industrial Revolution
Agricultural movement
Factory Life

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  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution 1750-1850
  2. 2. <ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>New Technology </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Enclosure Movement
  4. 4. “ Enclosed” Lands Today
  5. 5. How might agricultural developments increase farm productivity and efficiency?
  6. 6. Population Explosion <ul><li>1700s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining death rates rather than rising birthrates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower famine problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier & stronger babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better hygiene and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved medical care </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
  8. 8. Metals, Woolens, & Canals
  9. 9. <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>New Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Political and Social Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Coal, Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled mechanic eager to work for new inventions </li></ul><ul><li>Capital from slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth produced by entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>People focused on the afterlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk takers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventors and bankers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Textile Industry <ul><li>Putting out system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water power to speed up spinning </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
  12. 12. Transportation <ul><li>On Land </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Locomotive </li></ul><ul><li>George Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Major rail line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liverpool to Manchester </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Engine Steamboat </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Fulton </li></ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
  14. 14. How did canals help to advance the Industrial Revolution
  15. 15. New Industrial City <ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>“ cloud of coal vapor” </li></ul><ul><li>Divided urban population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy and middle class in nice neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor in four smelling tenement slums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No running water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sewage or sanitation system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes and garbage rotted in the streets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholera and other diseases spread rapidly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The &quot;Haves&quot;: Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution
  17. 17. 19 c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche
  18. 18. Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie
  19. 19. Stereotype of the Factory Owner
  20. 20. “ Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life
  21. 21. The &quot;Have-Nots&quot;: The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute
  22. 22. Industrial Staffordshire
  23. 23. Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman - 1858
  24. 24. The New Industrial City
  25. 25. Early-19c London by Gustave Dore
  26. 26. Worker Housing in Manchester
  27. 27. The Factory System <ul><li>Rigid schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour day. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind-numbing monotony. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Factory Production <ul><li>Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. </li></ul><ul><li>Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of English industry in 1850. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers
  30. 30. Textile Factory Workers in England
  31. 31. British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812
  32. 32. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”
  33. 33. Jacquard’s Loom
  34. 34. Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830 Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wages under 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d. 11 - 16 4s. 1d. 4s. 3d. 17 - 21 10s. 2d. 7s. 3d. 22 - 26 17s. 2d. 8s. 5d. 27 - 31 20s. 4d. 8s. 7d. 32 - 36 22s. 8d. 8s. 9d. 37 - 41 21s. 7d. 9s. 8d. 42 - 46 20s. 3d. 9s. 3d. 47 - 51 16s. 7d. 8s. 10d. 52 - 56 16s. 4d. 8s. 4d. 57 - 61 13s. 6d. 6s. 4d.
  35. 35. Factory Workers at Home
  36. 36. Workers Housing in Newcastle Today
  37. 37. Hardships of Early Industrial Life “ The Population… is crowded into one dense mass of cottages separated by unpaved and almost pestilential streets. This is an atmosphere loaded with the exhalation of a large manufacturing city.” J.P Kay, Quoted in Mill Life at Styal
  38. 38. Coalfields & Industrial Areas
  39. 39. Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners 1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners 1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners 1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 miners
  40. 40. Young Coal Miners
  41. 41. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
  42. 42. British Pig Iron Production
  43. 43. 7.00 am get up 8.45 am start school 10.45- 11.05 am break  Starter activity <ul><li>Your task </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a timeline showing a typical school day. Include breaks and travelling times as well as leisure time after school and the time you normally go to bed. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Compare your daily routine with that of a factory girl working in Lancashire 1820. How are they different?
  45. 45. Did things change? <ul><li>1819 Factory Act </li></ul><ul><li>1833 Althorp`s Factory Act </li></ul><ul><li>1842 Mines and Colleries Act </li></ul><ul><li>1844 Graham`s Factory Act </li></ul><ul><li>1847 Fielder`s Factory Act </li></ul>Cotton Mill
  46. 46. 1819 Factory Act <ul><li>No children under 9 to work in factories. Children from 9 to 16 allowed to work a maximum of 72 hours per week with one and a half hours a day for meals. </li></ul>
  47. 47. 1833 Althorp`s Factory Act <ul><li>Children from 9 to 13 to work a maximum of 42 hours per week; also children aged 13 to 16 to work a maximum of 69 hours a week. No night work for anybody under the age of 18. </li></ul>
  48. 48. 1842 Mines and Collieries Act <ul><li>Banned all women and children under 10 from working underground. No-one under 15 years was to work winding gear in mines. </li></ul>
  49. 49. 1844 Graham`s Factory Act <ul><li>Minimum age for working in factories reduced to 8 years old. 8 to 13 years old to work a maximum of six and a half hours a day. 13 to 18 year olds to work a maximum of 12 hours a day and the same applied to women. Safety guards had to be fitted to all machines. </li></ul>
  50. 50. 1847 Fielder`s Factory Act <ul><li>10 hour day introduced for under 18's and for women. </li></ul>
  51. 51. 1834 Poor Law <ul><li>Previously poor had been looked after by parish </li></ul><ul><li>Now poor looked after by Poor Law Unions with Boards of Governors to administer them </li></ul><ul><li>Established 100s of workhouses across the country </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone claiming (old, sick or unemployed) outdoor relief had to work in workhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions inside workhouses must be worse than the lowest-paid worker </li></ul>A typical workhouse of the nineteenth century
  52. 52. Regulations <ul><li>1847, commissioners issued detailed regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone entering a workhouse needed a medical examination </li></ul><ul><li>Unwell paupers would be isolated in infirmaries </li></ul><ul><li>Paupers would be cleaned and made to wear a special uniform </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women were separated </li></ul>
  53. 53. Example of workhouse regulations
  54. 54. Evidence from Gressenhall Workhouse
  55. 55. Punishment <ul><li>John Craske & Anne his wife were brought before the Board for stealing bread. They shall be put in the dungeon for 24 hours and their diet shall be bread and water for the remainder of the week. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Daily routine <ul><li>Hour of rising 5.45pm </li></ul><ul><li>Interval for breakfast 6.30-7-.00am </li></ul><ul><li>Time for work 7.00-12.00pm </li></ul><ul><li>Interval for dinner 12.00-1.00pm </li></ul><ul><li>Time for work 1.00-6.00pm </li></ul><ul><li>Interval for supper 6.00-7.00pm </li></ul><ul><li>Time for going to bed 8.00pm </li></ul>
  57. 57. The schools <ul><li>I have this day inspected the schools. The boys answered remarkably well in the Scriptures. Indeed, their religious knowledge would do any school credit. Their arithmetic is fair and they possess greater knowledge of geography than is usually the case in schools of this description. Their reading is still much below their other attainments and their writing might be improved. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Leaving the workhouse <ul><li>Artists 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Army 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Carpenters 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Gentleman’s service 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessmaker 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Printers 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Shoemakers 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Tailors 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Schoolmasters 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Farm service 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Other employments 26 </li></ul><ul><li>No known 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Destinations of boys from Gressenhall Workhouse, 1845-53 </li></ul>
  59. 59. Reactions <ul><li>Improved morals of the poor, public houses and beer shops are much quieter </li></ul><ul><li>The New Poor Law has saved huge sums of public money </li></ul><ul><li>People who could not be made to work have now become good labourers </li></ul><ul><li>Families should not be separated </li></ul><ul><li>The workhouse is held in great dread </li></ul>
  60. 60. Outdoor relief <ul><li>Money given to poor people in parishes where there was no poorhouse or other form of accommodation. The money was given to poor people so they could stay in their own homes even if they were sick or out of work. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Infirmary <ul><li>A sort of hospital, where the sick could be cared for away from everyone else until they were better. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Commissioners <ul><li>Government officials who are given a specific job to do such as gather information on a particular problem and write up a report. </li></ul>
  63. 65. New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
  64. 66. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”
  65. 67. The Power Loom
  66. 68. James Watt’s Steam Engine
  67. 69. Steam Tractor
  68. 70. Steam Ship
  69. 71. An Early Steam Locomotive
  70. 72. Later Locomotives
  71. 73. The Impact of the Railroad
  72. 74. “ The Great Land Serpent”
  73. 75. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.
  74. 76. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits
  75. 77. Crystal Palace: British Ingenuity on Display
  76. 78. Crystal Palace: American Pavilion
  77. 79. The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!
  78. 80. Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
  79. 81. Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls”
  80. 82. Protests & Methodism
  81. 83. The Luddites: 1811-1816 Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].
  82. 84. The Luddite Triangle
  83. 85. The Luddites
  84. 86. British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! Peterloo Massacre, 1819
  85. 87. Methodism <ul><li>John Wesley </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed the need for a personal sense of faith </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt sober and moral ways </li></ul><ul><li>Sunday school to teach the bible and reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Anger toward social reform </li></ul>
  86. 88. New Middle Class <ul><li>“ RAGS TO RICHES” </li></ul><ul><li>Influence in parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Women became “ladies” </li></ul><ul><li>Valued hard work and determination to “get ahead” </li></ul>
  87. 89. New Ways of Thinking
  88. 90. Thomas Malthus <ul><li>Population growth will outpace the food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>War, disease, or famine could control population. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor should have less children. </li></ul><ul><li>Food supply will then keep up with population. </li></ul>
  89. 91. Adam Smith <ul><li>Free market </li></ul><ul><li>Unregulated exchange of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Free-enterprise pointed to success </li></ul>
  90. 92. David Ricardo <ul><li>“ Iron Law of Wages.” </li></ul><ul><li>When wages are high, workers have more children. </li></ul><ul><li>More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages. </li></ul>
  91. 93. The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill <ul><li>The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net. </li></ul>
  92. 94. Jeremy Bentham
  93. 95. The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists <ul><li>People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to build perfect communities [ utopias ]. </li></ul>