1.
Introduction to Spreadsheets
Fundamental Skills 1
2.
Spreadsheets
• A spreadsheet is an application that is
used for performing calculations.
• Spreadsheets consist of columns and
rows.
A B C D E F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
3.
Spreadsheets
• The intersection of each row and
column is called a CELL
A B C D E F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
• Each cell is identified by a row and
column reference such as A4, D6 etc. 3
4.
Cells
• Cells can contain either text, numbers
or formulas.
• To enter data in the cell it must first be
selected (by clicking on the cell)
A B C D E F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4
5.
• Cells can be formatted to display
numbers as either date, currency,
percent, decimal and other numerical
formats.
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
7
8
• Most common text formatting options
are also available
5
6.
Formulas
• Formulas are used to make a
spreadsheet more versatile.
• When writing formulas in a cell an equal
sign “=“ is first entered.
Relational Operations
Equal =
Mathematical Operations Not equal to <>
Multiplication* Less than <
Greater than >
Division /
Less than or equal to <=
Addition + Greater than or equal to >=
Subtraction -
6
7.
Formulas
• Formulas should be written in terms of
cell references
e.g. = C4 + C5 + C6
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
=C4+C5+C6
7
8
7
8.
Formulas
• Once the formula is entered into the cell
the results will be shown.
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
7 $ 226.60
8
8
9.
Functions
• There are many formulas or
FUNCTIONS that can be used in a
spreadsheet. Functions make
calculations easier.
• These functions cover a variety of
categories such as mathematics,
financial or logical.
9
10.
Functions
• Common functions include SUM,
AVERAGE, MAX and MIN.
• Functions consist of a name, a set of
brackets and arguments or parameters.
• Arguments are the values on which the
functions operate.
10
11.
SUM
• The SUM function is one of the most
commonly used. It adds up all the
numbers in a range of cells.
=sum(A1,A2,A3,A4)
adds cells A1,A2,A3 and A4
=sum(A1,B6,C67,F2)
=sum(A1:B5) adds the cells indicated.
adds all the numbers
from A1 to B5
11
12.
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
7 =sum(C4:C6)
8
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
7 $ 226.60
8 12
13.
AVERAGE
• The AVERAGE function operates in a
similar way as SUM.
=AVERAGE(A1,A2,A3,A4)
averages cells A1,A2,A3 and A4
=AVERAGE(A1,B6,C67,F2)
averages the cells indicated.
=AVERAGE(A1:B5)
averages all the numbers
from A1 to B5
13
14.
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
7 =average(D4:D6)
8
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5%
7 6.0%
8 14
15.
MAX and MIN
• MAX returns the
largest value from a =MAX(B2:B9)
range of cells.
• MIN returns the smallest
value from a range of
=MIN(B2:B9)
cells.
15
16.
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit Highest Profit
=MAX(D4:D6)
4 March $ 78.50 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5% Lowest Profit
7 =MIN(D4:D6)
8
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 Profit Highest Profit
4 March $ 78.50 6.2% 7.3%
5 April $ 102.34 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 4.5% Lowest Profit
7 4.5%
8 16
17.
Repetitive Formulas
• Often the same formula will need to be
applied to different ranges of cells.
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 X Y Z Profit
4 March $ 78.50 $ 98.56 $ 88.89 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 $ 77.89 $ 145.62 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 $ 124.90 $ 97.45 4.5%
7 Total
8
17
18.
Repetitive Formulas
• Instead of entering the same formula in
each cell and adjusting the cell
reference, it is possible to ‘fill’ the
formula across and have the cell
referencing adjusted automatically.
• First select the cell with the formula and
then either select FILL from the edit
menu or use the ‘FILL’ handle.
18
19.
Repetitive Formulas
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 X Y Z Profit
4 March $ 78.50 $ 98.56 $ 88.89 6.2%
5 April $ 102.34 $ 77.89 $ 145.62 7.3%
6 May $ 45.76 $ 124.90 $ 97.45 4.5%
7 Total =sum(C4:C6) =sum(D4:D6) =sum(E4:E6)
8
FILL handle
Note: Fill Down may also be used to copy formulas down a column/s
19
20.
Absolute References
• When ABSOLUTE references are used
the contents of the formula are not
changed when filling down or across.
– i.e. the cell references remain the same.
• Absolute references are indicated by
placing a ‘$’ before the column and/or
row reference.
– e.g. $A$1
20
21.
Absolute References
A B C D E F
1
ABC Ca r pet s
2
3 No. metres Cost Rate/m $42.50
4 Jones 12 =C4*$F$3
5 Day 23 =C5*$F$3
6 Mckay 5.6 =C6*$F$3
7 Hill 32 =C7*$F$3
8
21
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.
Be the first to comment