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1. 1. Introduction to Spreadsheets Fundamental Skills 1
2. 2. Spreadsheets • A spreadsheet is an application that is used for performing calculations. • Spreadsheets consist of columns and rows. A B C D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2
3. 3. Spreadsheets • The intersection of each row and column is called a CELL A B C D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 • Each cell is identified by a row and column reference such as A4, D6 etc. 3
4. 4. Cells • Cells can contain either text, numbers or formulas. • To enter data in the cell it must first be selected (by clicking on the cell) A B C D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4
5. 5. • Cells can be formatted to display numbers as either date, currency, percent, decimal and other numerical formats. A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% 7 8 • Most common text formatting options are also available 5
6. 6. Formulas • Formulas are used to make a spreadsheet more versatile. • When writing formulas in a cell an equal sign “=“ is first entered. Relational Operations Equal = Mathematical Operations Not equal to <> Multiplication* Less than < Greater than > Division / Less than or equal to <= Addition + Greater than or equal to >= Subtraction - 6
7. 7. Formulas • Formulas should be written in terms of cell references e.g. = C4 + C5 + C6 A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% =C4+C5+C6 7 8 7
8. 8. Formulas • Once the formula is entered into the cell the results will be shown. A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% 7 \$ 226.60 8 8
9. 9. Functions • There are many formulas or FUNCTIONS that can be used in a spreadsheet. Functions make calculations easier. • These functions cover a variety of categories such as mathematics, financial or logical. 9
10. 10. Functions • Common functions include SUM, AVERAGE, MAX and MIN. • Functions consist of a name, a set of brackets and arguments or parameters. • Arguments are the values on which the functions operate. 10
11. 11. SUM • The SUM function is one of the most commonly used. It adds up all the numbers in a range of cells. =sum(A1,A2,A3,A4) adds cells A1,A2,A3 and A4 =sum(A1,B6,C67,F2) =sum(A1:B5) adds the cells indicated. adds all the numbers from A1 to B5 11
12. 12. A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% 7 =sum(C4:C6) 8 A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% 7 \$ 226.60 8 12
13. 13. AVERAGE • The AVERAGE function operates in a similar way as SUM. =AVERAGE(A1,A2,A3,A4) averages cells A1,A2,A3 and A4 =AVERAGE(A1,B6,C67,F2) averages the cells indicated. =AVERAGE(A1:B5) averages all the numbers from A1 to B5 13
14. 14. A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% 7 =average(D4:D6) 8 A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% 7 6.0% 8 14
15. 15. MAX and MIN • MAX returns the largest value from a =MAX(B2:B9) range of cells. • MIN returns the smallest value from a range of =MIN(B2:B9) cells. 15
16. 16. A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit Highest Profit =MAX(D4:D6) 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% Lowest Profit 7 =MIN(D4:D6) 8 A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 Profit Highest Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 6.2% 7.3% 5 April \$ 102.34 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 4.5% Lowest Profit 7 4.5% 8 16
17. 17. Repetitive Formulas • Often the same formula will need to be applied to different ranges of cells. A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 X Y Z Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 \$ 98.56 \$ 88.89 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 \$ 77.89 \$ 145.62 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 \$ 124.90 \$ 97.45 4.5% 7 Total 8 17
18. 18. Repetitive Formulas • Instead of entering the same formula in each cell and adjusting the cell reference, it is possible to ‘fill’ the formula across and have the cell referencing adjusted automatically. • First select the cell with the formula and then either select FILL from the edit menu or use the ‘FILL’ handle. 18
19. 19. Repetitive Formulas A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 X Y Z Profit 4 March \$ 78.50 \$ 98.56 \$ 88.89 6.2% 5 April \$ 102.34 \$ 77.89 \$ 145.62 7.3% 6 May \$ 45.76 \$ 124.90 \$ 97.45 4.5% 7 Total =sum(C4:C6) =sum(D4:D6) =sum(E4:E6) 8 FILL handle Note: Fill Down may also be used to copy formulas down a column/s 19
20. 20. Absolute References • When ABSOLUTE references are used the contents of the formula are not changed when filling down or across. – i.e. the cell references remain the same. • Absolute references are indicated by placing a ‘\$’ before the column and/or row reference. – e.g. \$A\$1 20
21. 21. Absolute References A B C D E F 1 ABC Ca r pet s 2 3 No. metres Cost Rate/m \$42.50 4 Jones 12 =C4*\$F\$3 5 Day 23 =C5*\$F\$3 6 Mckay 5.6 =C6*\$F\$3 7 Hill 32 =C7*\$F\$3 8 21