A Practical Guide to the Latest
Research on Teaching & Learning
       with New Media

                Jason Hando
       ...
RATIONALE
• Research   means evidence for practice
• Teachersdon’t always have
 time to analyse & compare
 research

• New...
BUILDING THE RED DUCATI
    OF EDUCATION....
.... ONE PIECE AT A TIME
RICHARD E. MAYER
RICHARD E. MAYER




    Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition, 2009
RICHARD E. MAYER




     Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition, 2009

    http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/
       may...
RESEARCH CONTEXT
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA
    INSTRUCTION




              jason@utopiainternet.com
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA
           INSTRUCTION
• Multimedia   Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation
 formats




     ...
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA
           INSTRUCTION
• Multimedia   Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation
 formats

• Verbal...
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA
            INSTRUCTION
• Multimedia    Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation
 formats

• Verb...
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA
            INSTRUCTION
• Multimedia    Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation
 formats

• Verb...
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA
            INSTRUCTION
• Multimedia    Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation
 formats

• Verb...
TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED




             jason@utopiainternet.com
TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED


• “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system
 and in a few years it will supplant lar...
TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED


• “Video  is designed to revolutionize our educational system
  and in a few years it will supplant l...
TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED


• “Video  is designed to revolutionize our educational system
  and in a few years it will supplant l...
MAYER EVALUATES...

• “I attribute the disappointing results of various technology’s
  attempt to tap the potential of vis...
HUMAN-CENTRED
• Begins   with understanding of how the human mind works

• Asks
     question: “How can we adapt multimedi...
HUMAN-CENTRED
• Begins   with understanding of how the human mind works

• Asks
     question: “How can we adapt multimedi...
AUGMENTED REALITY




            jason@utopiainternet.com
AUGMENTED REALITY

• Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist
 learning:




                         ...
AUGMENTED REALITY

• Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist
 learning:

   1. Automation - replacing...
AUGMENTED REALITY

• Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist
 learning:

   1. Automation - replacing...
MEDIA VS METHOD

• Clark(2001) argued that instructional methods cause learning
 but instructional media do not cause lear...
THREE METAPHORS




           jason@utopiainternet.com
THREE METAPHORS


1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening




                                      jason@utopiai...
THREE METAPHORS


1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening

2. Multimedia learning as information acquisition




...
THREE METAPHORS


1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening

2. Multimedia learning as information acquisition

3. ...
RESPONSE STRENGTHENING



• Multimedia   is a drill-and-practice system




                                              ...
INFORMATION ACQUISITION



• Multimedia   is an information delivery system




                                          ...
KNOWLEDGE
               CONSTRUCTION



• Multimedia   is a cognitive aid




                                    jason@u...
THREE METAPHORS




           jason@utopiainternet.com
THREE METAPHORS
                                                                             Goal of
Metaphor       Definit...
THREE METAPHORS
                                                                             Goal of
Metaphor       Definit...
THREE METAPHORS
                                                                             Goal of
Metaphor       Definit...
THREE METAPHORS
                                                                             Goal of
Metaphor       Definit...
LEARNER ACTIVITY


• Behavioural activity (being hands-on) does not guarantee
 cognitive activity (cognitive processing) w...
MEASURES OF LEARNING


• Tests
      of Retention - being able to remember the steps in the
 explanation

• Tests
      of...
EFFECT SIZES

• EStells us how many standard deviations of improvement in
 transfer test performance were obtained by impl...
DESIGN FEATURES
 Vary the way lesson presented, same content

                                              Spatial
Cohere...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP
Lightening can be defined as the discharge of electricity
resulting from the differenc...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP                           Downdrafts
                                                ...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP




              jason@utopiainternet.com
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP




              jason@utopiainternet.com
EXTRANEOUS PROCESSING
        OVERLOAD
• Cognitive processing of extraneous material in a lesson is so
 demanding that the...
FIVE WAYS TO REDUCE
EXTRANEOUS PROCESSING
     Principle                       Description

    Coherence       Delete ext...
SPATIAL CONTIGUITY



• Screen   real-estate is limited, as is page space for worksheets

• Halfof space in science textbo...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
           DEVELOP
1. Warm moist air rises, water                                           Downdraf...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP                           Downdrafts
                                                ...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP                            Downdrafts
                                               ...
HOW LIGHTENING STORMS
       DEVELOP                            Downdrafts
                                               ...
MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
1. Coherence Principle: People learn better extraneous words,
pictures and sounds are excluded rather ...
MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
6. Segmenting Principle: People learn better when a multimedia
lesson is presented in user-paced segme...
MULTIMEDIA LEARNING

11.Voice Principle: People learn better when the narration in
multimedia lessons is spoken in a frien...
SEPARATED VS INTEGRATED
 Ice Crystals Freezing Level         Ice Crystals   Freezing Level

Water Droplets                ...
EXAMPLES
SOURCE:
dustincurtis.com
OTHER RESEARCH FINDINGS
• RESEARCH    PAPER: Saying the wrong thing: improving learning
 with multimedia by including misconceptions, D.A. Muller,...
• RESEARCH    PAPER: Using mobile communication technology
 in high school education: Motivation, pressure, and learning
 ...
CONCLUSION
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
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Research In New Media Learning

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This is the presentation I gave in October 2009 at the CSTA Meeting. It looks at research mainly conducted by Richard E. Mayer on Multimedia Learning.

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  • D.A. Muller,* J. Bewes,* M.D. Sharma* & P. Reimann†
      *School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   †Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Abstract  In this study, 364 first-year physics students were randomly assigned to one of four online multimedia treatments on Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion: (1) the 'Exposition', a concise lecture-style presentation; (2) the 'Extended Exposition', the Exposition with additional interesting information; (3) the 'Refutation', the Exposition with common misconceptions explicitly stated and refuted; or (4) the 'Dialogue', a student–tutor discussion of the same material as in the Refutation. Students were tested using questions from mechanics conceptual inventories before and after watching the multimedia treatments. Results show the Refutation and Dialogue produced the greatest learning gains, with effect sizes of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively, compared with the Exposition. Students with low prior knowledge benefited most, however high prior knowledge learners were not disadvantaged by the misconception-based approach. The findings suggest that online multimedia can be greatly improved, promoting conceptual change in students with all levels of experience, by including a discussion of misconceptions.
  • Motivation and pressure are considered two factors impacting vocational senior high school student learning. New communication technology, especially mobile communication technology, is supposed to be effective in encouraging interaction between the student and the instructor and improving learning efficiency. Social presence and information richness theory was applied to analyze the media and their impacts on the instruction process firstly. Then the author observed firstly the impact of using individual communication technologies – namely Short Message Service (SMS), email, and online forum – on student learning motivation, pressure, and performance, based on a comparative investigation of 176 students. Then the impacts of using combination of mobile and Internet communication technology – SMS + email, SMS + online forum – were examined with another experiment of 45 students. The result showed that instant messaging helps bonding the two roles – student and instructor – in the instruction process effectively. When combined with Internet communication media, it can significantly increase student extrinsic motivation without causing higher pressure. Additionally, communication media demanding public expression rather than private dialogue should be adopted with careful consideration, since they may raise student pressure.
  • Research In New Media Learning

    1. 1. A Practical Guide to the Latest Research on Teaching & Learning with New Media Jason Hando Digital Learning Strategist, Trainer & Developer jason@utopiainternet.com
    2. 2. RATIONALE • Research means evidence for practice • Teachersdon’t always have time to analyse & compare research • New research being conducted every week around world • Need to stay current with ‘best practice’ jason@utopiainternet.com
    3. 3. BUILDING THE RED DUCATI OF EDUCATION....
    4. 4. .... ONE PIECE AT A TIME
    5. 5. RICHARD E. MAYER
    6. 6. RICHARD E. MAYER Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition, 2009
    7. 7. RICHARD E. MAYER Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition, 2009 http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/ mayer/publications/publications.php
    8. 8. RESEARCH CONTEXT
    9. 9. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION jason@utopiainternet.com
    10. 10. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats jason@utopiainternet.com
    11. 11. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text jason@utopiainternet.com
    12. 12. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text • Pictorial = Static graphics & Dynamic graphics jason@utopiainternet.com
    13. 13. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text • Pictorial = Static graphics & Dynamic graphics • Dynamic Graphics = Animation & Video jason@utopiainternet.com
    14. 14. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text • Pictorial = Static graphics & Dynamic graphics • Dynamic Graphics = Animation & Video • “People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone” jason@utopiainternet.com
    15. 15. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED jason@utopiainternet.com
    16. 16. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED • “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” jason@utopiainternet.com
    17. 17. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED • “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” • “Itis possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with video.” jason@utopiainternet.com
    18. 18. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED • “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” • “Itis possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with video.” ➡ Thomas Edison 1922 jason@utopiainternet.com
    19. 19. MAYER EVALUATES... • “I attribute the disappointing results of various technology’s attempt to tap the potential of visual and worldwide learning to the technology-centred approach taken by the promoters. Instead of adapting technology to fit the needs of human learners, humans were forced to adapt to teh demands of cutting-edge technologies.” • Focus on access rather than on helping people learn through the aid of technology jason@utopiainternet.com
    20. 20. HUMAN-CENTRED • Begins with understanding of how the human mind works • Asks question: “How can we adapt multimedia to enhance human learning?” jason@utopiainternet.com
    21. 21. HUMAN-CENTRED • Begins with understanding of how the human mind works • Asks question: “How can we adapt multimedia to enhance human learning?” Design Starting Point Goal Issues Approach Capabilities of How can we use cutting-edge Technology- Provide access to multimedia technology in designing multimedia centred information technology presentations? How can we adapt multimedia Human- How the human mind Aid human technology to aid human centred works cognition cognition? jason@utopiainternet.com
    22. 22. AUGMENTED REALITY jason@utopiainternet.com
    23. 23. AUGMENTED REALITY • Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist learning: jason@utopiainternet.com
    24. 24. AUGMENTED REALITY • Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist learning: 1. Automation - replacing humans on certain tasks. Largely running out of steam. jason@utopiainternet.com
    25. 25. AUGMENTED REALITY • Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist learning: 1. Automation - replacing humans on certain tasks. Largely running out of steam. 2. Augmentation - enhance human performance on various cognitively complex tasks. Disappointing progress. jason@utopiainternet.com
    26. 26. MEDIA VS METHOD • Clark(2001) argued that instructional methods cause learning but instructional media do not cause learning. • Moreno and Mayer (2002) have shown that the same instructional methods have the same effects on learning regardless of whether the medium is a desktop computer, nonimmersive virtual reality or immersive virtual reality. • Focus on the Instructional Methods! jason@utopiainternet.com
    27. 27. THREE METAPHORS jason@utopiainternet.com
    28. 28. THREE METAPHORS 1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening jason@utopiainternet.com
    29. 29. THREE METAPHORS 1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening 2. Multimedia learning as information acquisition jason@utopiainternet.com
    30. 30. THREE METAPHORS 1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening 2. Multimedia learning as information acquisition 3. Multimedia learning as knowledge construction jason@utopiainternet.com
    31. 31. RESPONSE STRENGTHENING • Multimedia is a drill-and-practice system jason@utopiainternet.com
    32. 32. INFORMATION ACQUISITION • Multimedia is an information delivery system jason@utopiainternet.com
    33. 33. KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION • Multimedia is a cognitive aid jason@utopiainternet.com
    34. 34. THREE METAPHORS jason@utopiainternet.com
    35. 35. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    36. 36. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    37. 37. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    38. 38. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    39. 39. LEARNER ACTIVITY • Behavioural activity (being hands-on) does not guarantee cognitive activity (cognitive processing) which is the cause of meaningful learning. • Well designed multimedia instructional messages promote active cognitive processing in learners even when they seem to be behaviourally inactive. jason@utopiainternet.com
    40. 40. MEASURES OF LEARNING • Tests of Retention - being able to remember the steps in the explanation • Tests of Transfer - being able to use the explanation to solve new problems jason@utopiainternet.com
    41. 41. EFFECT SIZES • EStells us how many standard deviations of improvement in transfer test performance were obtained by implementing a particular design feature • 0.8 ES is considered large • 0.5 is considered medium • 0.2 is considered small jason@utopiainternet.com
    42. 42. DESIGN FEATURES Vary the way lesson presented, same content Spatial Coherence Signaling Redundancy Contiguity Temporal Segmenting Pre-training Modality Contiguity Multimedia Personalization Voice Image jason@utopiainternet.com
    43. 43. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Lightening can be defined as the discharge of electricity resulting from the difference in electrical charges between the cloud and the ground. When the surface of the earth is warm, moist air near the earth’s surface becomes heated and rises rapidly, producing an updraft. As the air in these updrafts cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms cloud..... Within the cloud, the moving air causes electrical charges to build, although scientists do not fully understand how it occurs. jason@utopiainternet.com
    44. 44. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals 3. Negatively charged particles vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward fall to the bottom of the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from the from the ground rush upward cloud to the ground along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    45. 45. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP jason@utopiainternet.com
    46. 46. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP jason@utopiainternet.com
    47. 47. EXTRANEOUS PROCESSING OVERLOAD • Cognitive processing of extraneous material in a lesson is so demanding that there is little or no remaining cognitive capacity to engage in essential or generative processing. • Essential Cognitive Processing is processing during learning that serves to represent the essential material. (selecting) • GenerativeCognitive Processing is processing during learning aimed at making sense of the essential material and is caused by the motivation of the learner. (organising & integrating) jason@utopiainternet.com
    48. 48. FIVE WAYS TO REDUCE EXTRANEOUS PROCESSING Principle Description Coherence Delete extraneous words, sounds, or graphics Signaling Highlight essential words or graphics Delete redundant captions from narrated Redundancy animation Place essential words next to corresponding Spatial Contiguity graphics on the screen or page Present corresponding words and pictures Temporal Contiguity simultaneously jason@utopiainternet.com
    49. 49. SPATIAL CONTIGUITY • Screen real-estate is limited, as is page space for worksheets • Halfof space in science textbooks used for graphics, half used for words (Levin & Mayer 1993) jason@utopiainternet.com
    50. 50. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP 1. Warm moist air rises, water Downdrafts Positively charged vapor condenses and forms a particles cloud Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - 2. Raindrops and ice crystals - drag air downward Negatively 3. Negatively charged particles Updrafts Updrafts charged particles fall to the bottom of the cloud + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + charged particles rush from the cloud to the ground 5. Positively charged particles + + + + + + from the ground rush upward along the same path - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + jason@utopiainternet.com
    51. 51. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals 3. Negatively charged particles vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward fall to the bottom of the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from the from the ground rush upward cloud to the ground along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    52. 52. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 3. Negatively charged 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals particles fall to the bottom of vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from from the ground rush the cloud to the ground upward along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    53. 53. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 3. Negatively charged 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals particles fall to the bottom of vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from from the ground rush the cloud to the ground upward along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    54. 54. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING 1. Coherence Principle: People learn better extraneous words, pictures and sounds are excluded rather than included (0.97 ES) 2. Signaling Principle: People learn better when cues that highlight the organisation of the essential material are added (0.52 ES) 3. Redundancy Principle: People learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration and on-screen text (0.72 ES) 4. Spatial Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen (1.19 ES) 5. Temporal Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively (1.31 ES) Richard E. Mayer, Caimbridge University Press, 2009 (p267-268) jason@utopiainternet.com
    55. 55. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING 6. Segmenting Principle: People learn better when a multimedia lesson is presented in user-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit (0.98 ES) 7. Pre-Training Principle: People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts (0.85 ES) 8. Modality Principle: People learn better from graphics and narration than from animation and on-screen text (1.02 ES) 9. Multimedia Principle: People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone (1.39 ES) 10. Presentation Principle: People learn better from multimedia lessons when words are in conversational style rather than formal style (1.11 ES) Richard E. Mayer, Caimbridge University Press, 2009 (p267-268) jason@utopiainternet.com
    56. 56. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING 11.Voice Principle: People learn better when the narration in multimedia lessons is spoken in a friendly human voice rather than a machine voice (0.78 ES) 12. Image Principle: People do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speaker’s image is added to the screen (0.22 ES) Richard E. Mayer, Caimbridge University Press, 2009 (p267-268) jason@utopiainternet.com
    57. 57. SEPARATED VS INTEGRATED Ice Crystals Freezing Level Ice Crystals Freezing Level Water Droplets Water Droplets 1. Warm moist air rises, water vapor condenses and forms a cloud Updrafts Updrafts Warm Moist Air Warm Moist Air 1. Warm moist air rises, water vapor condenses and forms a cloud Seperated Integrated jason@utopiainternet.com
    58. 58. EXAMPLES
    59. 59. SOURCE: dustincurtis.com
    60. 60. OTHER RESEARCH FINDINGS
    61. 61. • RESEARCH PAPER: Saying the wrong thing: improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions, D.A. Muller,* J. Bewes,* M.D. Sharma* & P. Reimann, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   †Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia jason@utopiainternet.com
    62. 62. • RESEARCH PAPER: Using mobile communication technology in high school education: Motivation, pressure, and learning performance jason@utopiainternet.com
    63. 63. CONCLUSION

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