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Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
Research In New Media Learning
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Research In New Media Learning

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This is the presentation I gave in October 2009 at the CSTA Meeting. It looks at research mainly conducted by Richard E. Mayer on Multimedia Learning.

This is the presentation I gave in October 2009 at the CSTA Meeting. It looks at research mainly conducted by Richard E. Mayer on Multimedia Learning.

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  • D.A. Muller,* J. Bewes,* M.D. Sharma* & P. Reimann†
      *School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   †Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    Abstract  In this study, 364 first-year physics students were randomly assigned to one of four online multimedia treatments on Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion: (1) the 'Exposition', a concise lecture-style presentation; (2) the 'Extended Exposition', the Exposition with additional interesting information; (3) the 'Refutation', the Exposition with common misconceptions explicitly stated and refuted; or (4) the 'Dialogue', a student–tutor discussion of the same material as in the Refutation. Students were tested using questions from mechanics conceptual inventories before and after watching the multimedia treatments. Results show the Refutation and Dialogue produced the greatest learning gains, with effect sizes of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively, compared with the Exposition. Students with low prior knowledge benefited most, however high prior knowledge learners were not disadvantaged by the misconception-based approach. The findings suggest that online multimedia can be greatly improved, promoting conceptual change in students with all levels of experience, by including a discussion of misconceptions.
  • Motivation and pressure are considered two factors impacting vocational senior high school student learning. New communication technology, especially mobile communication technology, is supposed to be effective in encouraging interaction between the student and the instructor and improving learning efficiency. Social presence and information richness theory was applied to analyze the media and their impacts on the instruction process firstly. Then the author observed firstly the impact of using individual communication technologies – namely Short Message Service (SMS), email, and online forum – on student learning motivation, pressure, and performance, based on a comparative investigation of 176 students. Then the impacts of using combination of mobile and Internet communication technology – SMS + email, SMS + online forum – were examined with another experiment of 45 students. The result showed that instant messaging helps bonding the two roles – student and instructor – in the instruction process effectively. When combined with Internet communication media, it can significantly increase student extrinsic motivation without causing higher pressure. Additionally, communication media demanding public expression rather than private dialogue should be adopted with careful consideration, since they may raise student pressure.
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Practical Guide to the Latest Research on Teaching & Learning with New Media Jason Hando Digital Learning Strategist, Trainer & Developer jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 2. RATIONALE • Research means evidence for practice • Teachersdon’t always have time to analyse & compare research • New research being conducted every week around world • Need to stay current with ‘best practice’ jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 3. BUILDING THE RED DUCATI OF EDUCATION....
    • 4. .... ONE PIECE AT A TIME
    • 5. RICHARD E. MAYER
    • 6. RICHARD E. MAYER Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition, 2009
    • 7. RICHARD E. MAYER Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition, 2009 http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/ mayer/publications/publications.php
    • 8. RESEARCH CONTEXT
    • 9. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 10. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 11. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 12. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text • Pictorial = Static graphics & Dynamic graphics jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 13. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text • Pictorial = Static graphics & Dynamic graphics • Dynamic Graphics = Animation & Video jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 14. DEFINING MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTION • Multimedia Instruction = verbal + pictorial presentation formats • Verbal = Speech & Printed text • Pictorial = Static graphics & Dynamic graphics • Dynamic Graphics = Animation & Video • “People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone” jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 15. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 16. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED • “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 17. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED • “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” • “Itis possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with video.” jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 18. TECHNOLOGY-CENTRED • “Video is designed to revolutionize our educational system and in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.” • “Itis possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with video.” ➡ Thomas Edison 1922 jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 19. MAYER EVALUATES... • “I attribute the disappointing results of various technology’s attempt to tap the potential of visual and worldwide learning to the technology-centred approach taken by the promoters. Instead of adapting technology to fit the needs of human learners, humans were forced to adapt to teh demands of cutting-edge technologies.” • Focus on access rather than on helping people learn through the aid of technology jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 20. HUMAN-CENTRED • Begins with understanding of how the human mind works • Asks question: “How can we adapt multimedia to enhance human learning?” jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 21. HUMAN-CENTRED • Begins with understanding of how the human mind works • Asks question: “How can we adapt multimedia to enhance human learning?” Design Starting Point Goal Issues Approach Capabilities of How can we use cutting-edge Technology- Provide access to multimedia technology in designing multimedia centred information technology presentations? How can we adapt multimedia Human- How the human mind Aid human technology to aid human centred works cognition cognition? jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 22. AUGMENTED REALITY jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 23. AUGMENTED REALITY • Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist learning: jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 24. AUGMENTED REALITY • Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist learning: 1. Automation - replacing humans on certain tasks. Largely running out of steam. jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 25. AUGMENTED REALITY • Two major phases in the use of computer technology to assist learning: 1. Automation - replacing humans on certain tasks. Largely running out of steam. 2. Augmentation - enhance human performance on various cognitively complex tasks. Disappointing progress. jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 26. MEDIA VS METHOD • Clark(2001) argued that instructional methods cause learning but instructional media do not cause learning. • Moreno and Mayer (2002) have shown that the same instructional methods have the same effects on learning regardless of whether the medium is a desktop computer, nonimmersive virtual reality or immersive virtual reality. • Focus on the Instructional Methods! jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 27. THREE METAPHORS jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 28. THREE METAPHORS 1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 29. THREE METAPHORS 1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening 2. Multimedia learning as information acquisition jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 30. THREE METAPHORS 1. Multimedia learning as response strengthening 2. Multimedia learning as information acquisition 3. Multimedia learning as knowledge construction jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 31. RESPONSE STRENGTHENING • Multimedia is a drill-and-practice system jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 32. INFORMATION ACQUISITION • Multimedia is an information delivery system jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 33. KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION • Multimedia is a cognitive aid jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 34. THREE METAPHORS jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 35. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 36. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 37. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 38. THREE METAPHORS Goal of Metaphor Definition Content Learner Teacher Multimedia Strengthening Passive recipient Dispenser of Enable drill and Response strengthening or weakening Associations of rewards and rewards and practice; act as a an association punishments punishments reinforcer Passive Deliver Adding Information Information information; act acquisition information to Information information as a delivery memory provider receiver vehicle Building a Provide Knowledge coherent Active sense- Cognitive cognitive construction Knowledge guidance; act as mental maker guide a helpful structure communicator jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 39. LEARNER ACTIVITY • Behavioural activity (being hands-on) does not guarantee cognitive activity (cognitive processing) which is the cause of meaningful learning. • Well designed multimedia instructional messages promote active cognitive processing in learners even when they seem to be behaviourally inactive. jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 40. MEASURES OF LEARNING • Tests of Retention - being able to remember the steps in the explanation • Tests of Transfer - being able to use the explanation to solve new problems jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 41. EFFECT SIZES • EStells us how many standard deviations of improvement in transfer test performance were obtained by implementing a particular design feature • 0.8 ES is considered large • 0.5 is considered medium • 0.2 is considered small jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 42. DESIGN FEATURES Vary the way lesson presented, same content Spatial Coherence Signaling Redundancy Contiguity Temporal Segmenting Pre-training Modality Contiguity Multimedia Personalization Voice Image jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 43. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Lightening can be defined as the discharge of electricity resulting from the difference in electrical charges between the cloud and the ground. When the surface of the earth is warm, moist air near the earth’s surface becomes heated and rises rapidly, producing an updraft. As the air in these updrafts cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms cloud..... Within the cloud, the moving air causes electrical charges to build, although scientists do not fully understand how it occurs. jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 44. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals 3. Negatively charged particles vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward fall to the bottom of the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from the from the ground rush upward cloud to the ground along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 45. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 46. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 47. EXTRANEOUS PROCESSING OVERLOAD • Cognitive processing of extraneous material in a lesson is so demanding that there is little or no remaining cognitive capacity to engage in essential or generative processing. • Essential Cognitive Processing is processing during learning that serves to represent the essential material. (selecting) • GenerativeCognitive Processing is processing during learning aimed at making sense of the essential material and is caused by the motivation of the learner. (organising & integrating) jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 48. FIVE WAYS TO REDUCE EXTRANEOUS PROCESSING Principle Description Coherence Delete extraneous words, sounds, or graphics Signaling Highlight essential words or graphics Delete redundant captions from narrated Redundancy animation Place essential words next to corresponding Spatial Contiguity graphics on the screen or page Present corresponding words and pictures Temporal Contiguity simultaneously jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 49. SPATIAL CONTIGUITY • Screen real-estate is limited, as is page space for worksheets • Halfof space in science textbooks used for graphics, half used for words (Levin & Mayer 1993) jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 50. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP 1. Warm moist air rises, water Downdrafts Positively charged vapor condenses and forms a particles cloud Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - 2. Raindrops and ice crystals - drag air downward Negatively 3. Negatively charged particles Updrafts Updrafts charged particles fall to the bottom of the cloud + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + charged particles rush from the cloud to the ground 5. Positively charged particles + + + + + + from the ground rush upward along the same path - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 51. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals 3. Negatively charged particles vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward fall to the bottom of the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from the from the ground rush upward cloud to the ground along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 52. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 3. Negatively charged 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals particles fall to the bottom of vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from from the ground rush the cloud to the ground upward along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 53. HOW LIGHTENING STORMS DEVELOP Downdrafts Positively charged particles Ice Crystals Freezing Level Hailstones Freezing Level + + + Water Droplets Raindrops - - - - Negatively Updrafts Updrafts charged particles + + Warm Moist Air Wind Gusts + 3. Negatively charged 1. Warm moist air rises, water 2. Raindrops and ice crystals particles fall to the bottom of vapor condenses and forms a drag air downward the cloud cloud + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Stepped Return stroke Branches leader + + + + Upward-moving leader + + 4. Two leaders meet, negatively 5. Positively charged particles charged particles rush from from the ground rush the cloud to the ground upward along the same path jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 54. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING 1. Coherence Principle: People learn better extraneous words, pictures and sounds are excluded rather than included (0.97 ES) 2. Signaling Principle: People learn better when cues that highlight the organisation of the essential material are added (0.52 ES) 3. Redundancy Principle: People learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration and on-screen text (0.72 ES) 4. Spatial Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen (1.19 ES) 5. Temporal Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively (1.31 ES) Richard E. Mayer, Caimbridge University Press, 2009 (p267-268) jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 55. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING 6. Segmenting Principle: People learn better when a multimedia lesson is presented in user-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit (0.98 ES) 7. Pre-Training Principle: People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts (0.85 ES) 8. Modality Principle: People learn better from graphics and narration than from animation and on-screen text (1.02 ES) 9. Multimedia Principle: People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone (1.39 ES) 10. Presentation Principle: People learn better from multimedia lessons when words are in conversational style rather than formal style (1.11 ES) Richard E. Mayer, Caimbridge University Press, 2009 (p267-268) jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 56. MULTIMEDIA LEARNING 11.Voice Principle: People learn better when the narration in multimedia lessons is spoken in a friendly human voice rather than a machine voice (0.78 ES) 12. Image Principle: People do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speaker’s image is added to the screen (0.22 ES) Richard E. Mayer, Caimbridge University Press, 2009 (p267-268) jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 57. SEPARATED VS INTEGRATED Ice Crystals Freezing Level Ice Crystals Freezing Level Water Droplets Water Droplets 1. Warm moist air rises, water vapor condenses and forms a cloud Updrafts Updrafts Warm Moist Air Warm Moist Air 1. Warm moist air rises, water vapor condenses and forms a cloud Seperated Integrated jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 58. EXAMPLES
    • 59. SOURCE: dustincurtis.com
    • 60. OTHER RESEARCH FINDINGS
    • 61. • RESEARCH PAPER: Saying the wrong thing: improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions, D.A. Muller,* J. Bewes,* M.D. Sharma* & P. Reimann, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   †Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 62. • RESEARCH PAPER: Using mobile communication technology in high school education: Motivation, pressure, and learning performance jason@utopiainternet.com
    • 63. CONCLUSION

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