Chapter Menu Hydrocarbons Section 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons Section 21.2 Alkanes Section 21.3 Alkenes and Alkynes Section 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers Section 21.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exit Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides.
Section 21-1 Section 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons
Explain the terms organic compound and organic chemistry.
microorganism: a tiny organism, such as a bacterium or a protozoan, that cannot be seen without a microscope
Identify hydrocarbons and the models used to represent them.
Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Describe where hydrocarbons are obtained and how they are separated.
Section 21-1 Section 21.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons (cont.) organic compound hydrocarbon saturated hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons are carbon-containing organic compounds that provide a source of energy and raw materials. unsaturated hydrocarbon fractional distillation cracking
Section 21-1 Section 21.1 Assessment Petroleum is separated into usable parts by boiling and condensing each component in a process called ____. A. cracking B. fractional distillation C. saturation D. bonding
IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry): an international group that aids communication between chemists by setting rules and standards in areas such as chemical nomenclature, terminology, and standardized methods
Draw the structure of an alkane when given its name.
Describe the properties of alkanes.
Section 21-2 Section 21.2 Alkanes (cont.) alkane homologous series parent chain substituent group cyclic hydrocarbon cycloalkane Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds.
Compare the properties of alkenes and alkynes with those of alkanes.
hormone: chemical produced in one part of an organism and transported to another part, where it causes a physiological change
Describe the molecular structures of alkenes and alkynes.
Name an alkene or alkyne by examining its structure.
Draw the structure of an alkene or alkyne by analyzing its name.
Section 21-3 Section 21.3 Alkenes and Alkynes (cont.) alkene alkyne Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one double bond, and alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one triple bond.
Section 21-3 Section 21.3 Assessment What is the name of a straight-chain hydrocarbon with six carbon atoms and a triple bond between the second and third carbon atoms? A. 2-hexene B. 3-hexene C. 2-hexyne D. 3-hexyne
Distinguish between the two main categories of isomers—structural isomers and stereoisomers.
electromagnetic radiation: transverse waves that carry energy through empty space
Differentiate between geometric isomers with cis- and transprefixes .
Describe the structural variation in molecules that results in optical isomers.
Section 21-4 Section 21.4 Hydrocarbon Isomers (cont.) isomer structural isomer stereoisomer geometric isomer Some hydrocarbons have the same molecular formula but have different molecular structures. chirality asymmetric carbon optical isomer optical rotation
When polarized light passes through a solution containing an optical isomer, the plane of polarization is rotated to the right by the D-isomer and to the left by the L-isomer, producing and effect called optical rotation .
Section 21-4 Section 21.4 Assessment Which type of substances have the same physical and chemical properties but produce different optical rotations? A. isomers B. geometric isomers C. isotopes D. optical isomers
Section 21-5 Section 21.5 Assessment Which is NOT true of benzene? A. It is an aromatic compound. B. It has a flat hexagonal shape. C. The double bonds make it unstable. D. It has delocalized electrons.
STP 1 Molecules that have the same formula and the atoms are bonded in the same order but are arranged differently in space, and have different properties are ____. A. structural isomers B. geometric isomers C. optical isomer D. sterioisotopes
STP 3 Which does NOT describe what happens as a liquid freezes? A. The temperature of the system is increased. B. Energy is released by the system. C. The liquid is entering the solid phase. D. The molecules begin to form a lattice.
CIM Table 21.5 Examples of Alkenes Table 21.6 Examples of Alkynes Figure 21.17 Isomers of Pentane Figure 21.25 Sigma- and Pi-bonding in Benzene
Help Click any of the background top tabs to display the respective folder. Within the Chapter Outline, clicking a section tab on the right side of the screen will bring you to the first slide in each respective section. Simple navigation buttons will allow you to progress to the next slide or the previous slide. The “Return” button will allow you to return to the slide that you were viewing when you clicked either the Resources or Help tab. The Chapter Resources Menu will allow you to access chapter specific resources from the Chapter Menu or any Chapter Outline slide. From within any feature, click the Resources tab to return to this slide. To exit the presentation, click the Exit button on the Chapter Menu slide or hit Escape [Esc] on your keyboards while viewing any Chapter Outline slide.
End of Custom Shows This slide is intentionally blank.