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An Introduction to Hive

An Introduction to Hive



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  • - Quickstart, page 6: If you are not running on HDFS, change hive.metastore.warehouse.dir or create the default directory: sudo mkdir -p -m 1777 /user/hive/warehouse

    - Page 15: 'only outer equi-joins are supported' should be 'only equi-joins are supported' since inner joins are supported (plain 'JOIN' means 'INNER JOIN').

    - Page 17: The AS and USING after the TRANSFORM are reversed (AS should be after USING).
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    20081030linkedin 20081030linkedin Presentation Transcript

    • An Introduction to Hive: Components and Query Language Jeff Hammerbacher Chief Scientist and VP of Product October 30, 2008
    • Hive Components A Leaky Database ▪ Hadoop ▪ HDFS ▪ MapReduce (bundles Resource Manager and Job Scheduler) ▪ Hive ▪ Logical data partitioning ▪ Metastore (command line and web interfaces) ▪ Query Language ▪ Libraries to handle different serialization formats (SerDes) ▪ JDBC interface
    • Related Work Glaringly Incomplete ▪ Gamma, Bubba, Volcano, etc. ▪ Google: Sawzall ▪ Yahoo: Pig ▪ IBM Research: JAQL ▪ Microsoft: SCOPE ▪ Greenplum: YAML MapReduce ▪ Aster Data: In-Database MapReduce ▪ Business.com: CloudBase
    • Hive Resources ▪ Facebook Mirror: http://mirror.facebook.com/facebook/hive ▪ Currently the best place to get the Hive distribution ▪ Wiki page: http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Hive ▪ Getting started: http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Hive/GettingStarted ▪ Query language reference: http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Hive/HiveQL ▪ Presentations: http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Hive/Presentations ▪ Roadmap: http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/Hive/Roadmap ▪ Mailing list: hive-users@publists.facebook.com ▪ JIRA: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP/component/12312455
    • Running Hive Quickstart ▪ <install Hadoop> ▪ wget http://mirror.facebook.com/facebook/hive/hadoop-0.19/dist.tar.gz ▪ (Replace 0.19 with 0.17 if you’re still on 0.17) ▪ tar xvzf dist.tar.gz ▪ cd dist ▪ export HADOOP=<path to bin/hadoop in your Hadoop distribution> ▪ Or: edit hadoop.bin.path and hadoop.conf.dir in conf/hive-default.xml ▪ bin/hive ▪ hive>
    • Running Hive Configuration Details ▪ conf/hive-default.xml ▪ hadoop.bin.path: Points to bin/hadoop in your Hadoop installation ▪ hadoop.config.dir: Points to conf/ in your Hadoop installation ▪ hive.exec.scratchdir: HDFS directory where execution information is written ▪ hive.metastore.warehouse.dir: HDFS directory managed by Hive ▪ The rest of the properties relate to the Metastore ▪ conf/hive-log4j.properties ▪ Will put data into /tmp/{user.name}/hive.log by default ▪ conf/jpox.properties ▪ JPOX is a Java object persistence library used by the Metastore
    • Populating Hive MovieLens Data ▪ <cd into your hive directory> ▪ wget http://www.grouplens.org/system/files/ml-data.tar__0.gz ▪ tar xvzf ml-data.tar__0.gz ▪ CREATE TABLE u_data (userid INT, movieid INT, rating INT, unixtime TIMESTAMP) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY 't'; ▪ The first query can take ten seconds or more, as the Metastore needs to be created ▪ To confirm our table has been created: ▪ SHOW TABLES; ▪ DESCRIBE u_data; ▪ LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH 'ml-data/u.data' OVERWRITE INTO TABLE u_data; ▪ SELECT COUNT(1) FROM u_data; ▪ Should fire off 2 MapReduce jobs and ultimately return a count of 100,000
    • Hive Query Language Utility Statements ▪ SHOW TABLES [table_name | table_name_pattern] ▪ DESCRIBE [EXTENDED] table_name [PARTITION (partition_col = partition_col_value, ...)] ▪ EXPLAIN [EXTENDED] query_statement ▪ SET [EXTENDED] ▪ “SET property_name=property_value” to modify a value
    • Hive Query Language CREATE TABLE Syntax ▪ CREATE [EXTERNAL] TABLE table_name (col_name data_type [col_comment], ...) [PARTITIONED BY (col_name data_type [col_comment], ...)] [CLUSTERED BY (col_name, col_name, ...) [SORTED BY (col_name, ...)] INTO num_buckets BUCKETS] [ROW FORMAT row_format] [STORED AS file_format] [LOCATION hdfs_path] ▪ PARTITION columns are virtual columns; they are not part of the data itself but are derived on load ▪ CLUSTERED columns are real columns, hash partitioned into num_buckets folders ▪ ROW FORMAT can be used to specify a delimited data set or a custom deserializer ▪ Use EXTERNAL with ROW FORMAT, STORED AS, and LOCATION to analyze HDFS files in place ▪ “DROP TABLE table_name” can reverse this operation ▪ NB: Currently, DROP TABLE will delete both data and metadata
    • Hive Query Language CREATE TABLE Syntax, Part Two ▪ data_type: primitive_type | array_type | map_type ▪ primitive_type: ▪ TINYINT | INT | BIGINT | BOOLEAN | FLOAT | DOUBLE | STRING ▪ DATE | DATETIME | TIMESTAMP ▪ array_type: ARRAY < primitive_type > ▪ map_type: MAP < primitive_type, primitive_type > ▪ row_format: ▪ DELIMITED [FIELDS TERMINATED BY char] [COLLECTION ITEMS TERMINATED BY char] [MAP KEYS TERMINATED BY char] [LINES TERMINATED BY char] ▪ SERIALIZER serde_name [WITH PROPERTIES property_name=property_value, property_name=property_value, ...] ▪ file_format: SEQUENCEFILE | TEXTFILE
    • Hive Query Language ALTER TABLE Syntax ▪ ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name; ▪ ALTER TABLE table_name ADD COLUMNS (col_name data_type [col_comment], ...); ▪ ALTER TABLE DROP partition_spec, partition_spec, ...; ▪ Future work: ▪ Support for removing or renaming columns ▪ Support for altering serialization format
    • Hive Query Language LOAD DATA Syntax ▪ LOAD DATA [LOCAL] INPATH '/path/to/file' [OVERWRITE] INTO TABLE table_name [PARTITION (partition_col = partition_col_value, partition_col = partiton_col_value, ...)] ▪ You can load data from the local filesystem or anywhere in HDFS (cf. CREATE TABLE EXTERNAL) ▪ If you don’t specify OVERWRITE, data will be appended to existing table
    • Hive Query Language SELECT Syntax ▪ [insert_clause] SELECT [ALL|DISTINCT] select_list FROM [table_source|join_source] [WHERE where_condition] [GROUP BY col_list] [ORDER BY col_list] [CLUSTER BY col_list] ▪ insert_clause: INSERT OVERWRITE destination ▪ destination: ▪ LOCAL DIRECTORY '/local/path' ▪ DIRECTORY '/hdfs/path' ▪ TABLE table_name [PARTITION (partition_col = partiton_col_value, ...)]
    • Hive Query Language SELECT Syntax ▪ join_source: table_source join_clause table_source join_clause table_source ... ▪ join_clause ▪ [LEFT OUTER|RIGHT OUTER|FULL OUTER] JOIN ON (equality_expression, equality_expression, ...) ▪ Currently, only outer equi-joins are supported in Hive. ▪ There are two join algorithms ▪ Map-side merge join ▪ Reduce-side merge join
    • Hive Query Language Building a Histogram of Review Counts ▪ CREATE TABLE review_counts (userid INT, review_count INT); ▪ INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE review_counts SELECT a.userid, COUNT(1) AS review_count FROM u_data a GROUP BY a.userid; ▪ SELECT b.review_count, COUNT(1) FROM review_counts b GROUP BY b.review_count; ▪ Notes: ▪ No INSERT OVERWRITE for second query means output is dumped to the shell ▪ Hive does not currently support CREATE TABLE AS ▪ We have to create the table and then INSERT into it ▪ Hive does not currently support subqueries ▪ We have to write two queries
    • Hive Query Language Running Custom MapReduce ▪ Put the following into weekday_mapper.py: ▪ import sys import datetime for line in sys.stdin: line = line.strip() userid, movieid, rating, unixtime = line.split('t') weekday = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(float(unixtime)).isoweekday() print ','.join([userid, movieid, rating, str(weekday)]) ▪ CREATE TABLE u_data_new (userid INT, movieid INT, rating INT, weekday INT) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘,’; ▪ FROM u_data a INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE u_data_new SELECT TRANSFORM (a.userid, a.movieid, a.rating, a.unixtime) AS (userid, movieid, rating, weekday) USING ‘python /full/path/to/weekday_mapper.py’
    • Hive Query Language Programmatic Access ▪ The Hive shell can take a file with queries to be executed ▪ bin/hive -f /path/to/query/file ▪ You can also run a Hive query straight from the command line ▪ bin/hive -e 'quoted query string' ▪A simple JDBC interface is available for experimentation as well ▪ https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HADOOP-4101
    • Hive Components Metastore ▪ Currently uses an embedded Derby database for persistence ▪ While Derby is in place, you’ll need to put it into Server Mode to have more than one Hive concurrent Hive user ▪ See http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/HiveDerbyServerMode ▪ Next release will use MySQL as default persistent data store ▪ The goal is have the persistent store be pluggable ▪ You can view the Thrift IDL for the metastore online ▪ https://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/core/trunk/src/contrib/hive/metastore/if/hive_metastore.thrift
    • Hive Components Query Processing ▪ Compiler ▪ Parser ▪ Type Checking ▪ Semantic Analysis ▪ Plan Generation ▪ Task Generation ▪ Execution Engine ▪ Plan ▪ Operators ▪ UDFs and UDAFs
    • Future Directions ▪ Query Optimization ▪ Support for Statistics ▪ These stats are needed to make optimization decisions ▪ Join Optimizations ▪ Map-side joins, semi join techniques etc to do the join faster ▪ Predicate Pushdown Optimizations ▪ Pushing predicates just above the table scan for certain situations in joins as well as ensuring that only required columns are sent across map/reduce boundaries ▪ Group By Optimizations ▪ Various optimizations to make group by faster ▪ Optimizations to reduce the number of map files created by filter operations ▪ Filters with a large number of mappers produces a lot of files which slows down the following operations.
    • Future Directions ▪ MapReduce Integration ▪ Schema-less MapReduce ▪ TRANSFORM needs a schema while MapReduce is schema-less. ▪ Improvements to TRANSFORM ▪ Make this more intuitive to MapReduce developers - evaluate some other keywords, etc. ▪ User Experience ▪ Create a web interface ▪ Error reporting improvements for parse errors ▪ Add “help” command to the CLI ▪ JDBC driver to enable traditional database tools to be used with Hive
    • Future Directions ▪ Integrating Dynamic SerDe with the DDL ▪ This allows the users to create typed tables along with list and map types from the DDL ▪ Transformations in LOAD DATA ▪ LOAD DATA currently does not transform the input data if it is not in the format expected by the destination table. ▪ Explode and Collect Operators ▪ Explode and collect operators to convert collections to individual items and vice versa. ▪ Propagating sort properties to destination tables ▪ If the query produces sorted we want to capture that in the destination table's metadata so that downstream optimizations can be enabled.
    • (c) 2008 Cloudera, Inc. or its licensors.  quot;Clouderaquot; is a registered trademark of Cloudera, Inc. All rights reserved. 1.0