Standards We LOVE geography, but h ow do we know what to teach?
California H-SS Framework
1987: Original Adoption
1997: Reaffirmed with Appendices
2001: Standards Inclusion
2005: Instructional Materials
Criteria (K-8; adopted 2003)
This framework is centered in the chronological study of history. History, placed in its geographic setting , establishes human activities in time and place. History and geography are the two great integrative studies of the field. In examining the past and present, students should recognize that events occur in a specific time and place; …that life is bounded by the constraints of place. Throughout this curriculum, the importance of the variables of time and place, when and where, history and geography, is stressed repeatedly.
8. The framework incorporates a multicultural perspective throughout the H-SS curriculum. It calls on teachers to recognize that the history of community, state, region, nation, and world must reflect the experiences of men and women and of different racial, religious, and ethnic groups.
Goals & Strands
Develop an awareness of place.
Develop locational skills & understanding.
Understand human & environmental interaction.
Understand human movement.
Understand world regions & their historical, cultural, economic & political characteristics.
Early childhood spatial understandings
Develop sense of place
Connections and relevance
U.S. History & Geography (5, 8, 11)
World History & Geography (6, 7, 10)
K.4: Students compare and contrast the locations of people, places, and environments and describe their characteristics.
2.2: Students demonstrate map skills by describing the absolute and relative locations of people, places, and environments.
4.1: S tudents demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California.
5.8: Students trace the colonization, immigration, and settlement patterns of the American people from 1789 to the mid-1800s, with emphasis on the role of economic incentives, effects of the physical and political geography, and transportation systems.
6.2: Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.
8.6: Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the Northeast.
10.4: Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.
11.2: Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
Historical & Social Science Analysis Skills
K-5; 6-8; 9-12
Chronological and Spatial Thinking
K-5: Students judge the significance of the relative location of a place (e.g., proximity to a harbor, on trade routes) and analyze how relative advantages or disadvantages can change over time.
6-8: Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.
9-12: Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
K-5: Students identify the human and physical characteristics of the places they are studying and explain how those features form the unique character of those places.
9-12: Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
Standards-based Big Ideas
P: We live in a big world.
K: Pe ople create communities by working together and with the environment.
2: Where people live influences how they live.
4: Culture reflects adaptations to geographic regions.
5: People adapt to the geography of their environments.
7: Physical geography influences the development of culture and trade.
10: Nations compete for natural resources and strategic advantages over other nations.
12: Scarcity exists and therefore people must make choices. Economic forces beyond the U.S. border affect the United States economy.