Cosmic-Synergy Model of Governance : Sangeeta Sharma<br />A PROLOUGE<br />The book focuses on the production of knowledge ...
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
Cosmic Synergy Model
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  1. 1. Cosmic-Synergy Model of Governance : Sangeeta Sharma<br />A PROLOUGE<br />The book focuses on the production of knowledge and the articulation of fresh vision for social transformation in the coming era. It collects the voices of the post 1990 that have engaged in serious introspection (and deconstructions of failures) in the building of equal and harmonious societies. The work has focused on varied aspects of rebuilding not only particular culture, but also a sustainable and energized global environment.<br />To date, our present is a conflicting mass of ideologies, obfuscating the path to rejuvenation. The emerging world scenario is presenting a new dynamics of inter and intra relationship with in and outside the identity driven systems. How can we reverse this trend as thinkers and activists committed to project viable and acceptable “transformative pathways”, that will be the see of a new future with renewed vision.<br />How have individuals or communities launched on this challenging path in diverse cultures? In what instances has the notional domain of Ethics attained a quantum leap at the level of a practicing ethics? This has been well addressed in the present work by incorporating discourses on defining procedural ethics of action pool in successful initiative of practicing ethics or neo-ethics that redefine pathways, even as they may selectively absorb cultural legacies of values. The analysis on Islamic work ethics presents one such effort in the direction of understanding the intricacies of the process of transformation within this realm.<br />The global society is increasingly given shape by cyber-culture and informatics, fundamentalism and violence hence there is an urgent need to reinterpret the notion of a good and simple life. Role models, messiah figures, religious and spiritual organization are all contesting the reversal of complexities that go into the renewed notion of development by preparing a road map for future. The eternal philosophy of Buddhism, Vivekanada has been envisioned with newer experience to understand the depth of wisdom. The domain of spirituality within the normative periphery shows the path of eternity to create violence free world. The inner strengthening of individual self is the core of furtherance of the process, which can lead to the creation of more tolerant world.<br />Attainable prognostic constructs can be visualized; can be activated through several interrelated structural-functional dimensions. These mechanics may include forms of leadership; channels of ethics; concepts of growth and learning; expansion of knowledge innovations and creativity; path visualizations and expansion of self and family; managing the socio-cultural diversities.<br />The transformation is a conglomeration of various diversified forces which may seemingly appear contradictory in practice but philosophically presents a unified process of virtually all dimensions responsible for positive change, may it be social, economical administrative or spiritual. In the unique experimentation, such interdisciplinary influx liberates itself from unidirectionality of conditioning of mind and prepares people to develop a fresh vision. The entirety to understand the phenomena of transformation from different pathways are inevitable to have better tomorrow and therefore cannot be delayed any further. The propensity of opaque views appears to be converging into fragile systems with weakened ethical core and directionless growth. As thinkers, we have prime responsibility to remold the hovering thoughts into a variety of well-knit philosophical perspectives to create a conscious system capable of building up the society by those whose minds are free of apprehensions and inhibitions.<br />The inheritances from our past to some extent have blocked the ability to evolve a society, which is free of apprehensions, because the self-driven ways are dominantly controlling the social formation. The reversal of this needs confluences of such under-currents, which can transform the whole approach to view the various social phenomena shaping the society in a more constructive manner. The activation of momentum to move from conventional ways to non-conventional ways of transformation is inevitable. The generation of collaborative collection of ideas to look into the arena of attaining the finality of a peaceful world of coexistence though in the nascent form of conceptual construction but cannot be subdued. The seeds of future are sown in our present therefore; any dualism based on obsolete notions of prevailing concepts must be obliterated to transmit something with in the pragmatic realm of consciousness. Do we need to have future with inherited turbulent present or do we need to have future with conflict free social structures? To make right choice is a difficult proposition because one involves inability to manage turbulences completely as these are self-created leading to parochial outlook. However, the creation of conflict free social structure needs extra-leverage to evolve right perspective by having right frame of mind to reach out to the soul of people. The ideas remain in circulation at different levels but a concrete shape can be given through presentation as documented ventures. This is one such venture, which aims at exploring the different modes of transformation varying from self to societal to learn to manage the conflicts.<br />The articles included in this book explain the true purpose of making available the text, which is free of notional frigidity and myopic contention to structure the future. The variety of articles is the real strength of this presentation, which directs minds of novice to certain deliberately chosen channels of thoughts into a positive aroma thereby activating thinking beyond formal conceptions. The creativity occupied the centre stage in the elaborations included in the present work.<br />The book is planned with the thrust areas as deconstruction of certain existent structures where an effort has been made to construct conceptual frames by presenting the alternatives in the form of models. The construction of models of social responsibility, cosmic synergy model governance are such attempts; neo-ethics by redefining the spirituality from different angles and also going beyond recusancy to certain religiosity to understand the mechanisms of enhancing the inner strengths present a fresh analysis of ethical formation and transcending the national outlook. The contributors from different countries have provided the insights to discover the world of future by interrogating the ideologies, values, texts, structures and formulations of initiatives to evolve a new ethical frame of starting a refreshed analysis so that unmanageable do not scar the future. The socio-ethical dynamics not only has to be understood, but also has to be given a proper direction per se.<br />In the article “Transformation of Islamic Ethics in Turkey” Dr. Mahmut has presented the experience in Turkey by discussing the possible social, economic and political reasons as well as the background of the findings in the light of Weber’s interpretations of Islamic societies. The rising Islamic entrepreneurial class in societies has been highlighted in terms of Weber’s criticism. Max Weber argued that Islamic societies were not able to develop ‘the spirit of capitalism’ because of the negative results of oriental-despotism, warrior ethics and Sufism. From the Weberian point of view Islamic societies have three disadvantages in developing the work ethics viz. oriental despotism; warrior ethics; other worldly Sufism. The Author has made a very informative analysis by referring to the transformation of traditional Sufism to modernist, in this worldly Sufism. The modern work ethic includes most of Protestant work characteristics. It is apparent from the analysis that Muslim Turkish managers are more work oriented than their secularist counterparts due to their minority psychology and religious motivation.<br />In the article ‘Future of Utilization Ethics: Adjusting Environment Engineering and Public Administration Perspective’ Dr. Salim Sanin and Dr. M. Kemal Öktem have highlighted environment from the historical perspective by analyzing that how over the time human activities have contaminated the ecosystem and how the environmentally disastrous dogmas have been developed during the period of industrial development. Even they have failed in questioning the validity of these dogmas. In an interesting exposition the Authors have advocated for the role of students of Public Administration to work out the strategy together for supporting the lower levels of ecological pyramid. The discussion regarding environmental ethics centers around two main schools of thought one from anthropocentric and other from biocentrism perspectives. Arguing for the role of administrators with each community needs to be evaluated in terms of their internal balances and proposing that corruption at administrative level must be stopped. A right emphasis has been given by focusing that Public Administration as an instrument of implementation of policies must be serious in responding to the issues of environment related issues through policy making and implementation. They have emphasized that ‘education-formal and informal’; ‘control and supervision-legal, institutional, social’; ‘cultural factors- artifacts, proverbs, sanctions, cognitive preparation, cooperation’ are all important in the process of ethical development.<br />In the article ‘Social Responsibility: Structure, Content, and Process’ Dr. Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko views the emergence of the concept of social responsibility as the response to the corporate irresponsibility. However he opines that this is not only left to the corporate sector to define but the role of public sector and civil society is also crucial. He mentions that civil activism and non-governmental organizations have become vital instances of global solidarity. Exploring the fundamentals of social responsibility he defines what is social in social responsibility followed by a model that depicts the social ideological and ontological aspects of social responsibility. He mentions that social responsibility is to take into account the functionality of society and its subsystem including aggregate welfare and environmental conditions of the society. This radical concept is based on ethical and ideological imperatives that emphasize the moral as a natural and fundamental part of existence and functioning of organization. Interestingly he opines that there are layers of organizational responsibility, which have been constructed to systematize the organization specific principles and actions. He relates the determination process of social responsibility to the multi-faceted chain of inter-related events having conflicts of interests in which the responsibility of a certain actor or group of actors is a set. In addition, content of social responsibility in different sectors have been illustrated. In addition to this, he mentions that information society development is one of the mega trends of modern times which have given the birth to the new responsibility discourse.<br />The future without vision will not lead to the desirable future. Dr. Lech Zacher in his article “Some Repetitive Reflections on Visioning the Future” assumes that are three types of futures viz., Possible Future; Probable Futures and Desirable Futures. Elaborating the concept further, he opines that Possible Futures are extremely capacious and our talents, creativity, imagination can produce within these space utopias, visions, ideas. However the Probable Future has calculable probability which is based on investigation of trends, potentiality of change, and elaboration of policies , behavior of people, market research etc. The Desirable Future is based on the extrapolation of differentiated needs, aspirations, ambitions and other such external influences further strengthened by globalization. He visualizes that in the perspective of knowledge societies the knowledge about possible, probable and desirable futures has to constitute a growing part of societal knowledge, he therefore suggests that a more learned thinking about future is needed.<br />The inevitability of issue of development as prime mover of shaping the dynamics is understandable. Dr. Leslaw Michnowski in his article “Ecohumanism as Developmental Crossings” opines that two radically different approaches are dominating the assessments of today’s global situations. One approach accepts the view that world society development is and will be driven by ongoing economic growth. However second sees the world in global crisis. The science and technology is creating new situations and crisis therefore rejection of today’s dominating selfishness and individualism in favor of Ecohumanism is of prime importance. Elaborating the Ecohumanism he points out that it refers to the partnership-based cooperation for the common good of all people (rich and poor, their descendants) and natural environment - commonly supported by science and high technology.<br />The future perspectives are important to be explored. Dr.Jacek F. Macynski in his article “The Multiple Shocks of the Future in the 21st Century” has examined how the shocks of 20th century were so terrible that whole world try hard to forget them, however, the positive changes have contributed vastly to the well-being and to the richness of our life. He has tried to find out why the necessary measures are not applied to look for the solutions of problems. Through computer modeling reasonably adequate forecasts are possible hence it can be applied to explore the possibilities of scientific solutions. The technology, science, economy, environment, politics, human habitat, human beings are posing multiple shocks for future so are the variegated solutions. In an interesting way he questions will people try to create some sound political engineering science? And train their politician in this discipline. He makes a very authentic observation that education happens to be intensive social stabilizing factor. In the concluding remarks he establishes the fact that future will not be devoid of multiple shocks. The Postmodernists idea of indiscriminate equality of cultures will be supplemented by some unbiased evaluation criteria.<br />The concept of Leadership is ever growing field of study. For future transformations, we need transformational leadership who can generate the awareness of the mission or vision of the organization. Dr. Semra Guney, in her article “Women Leadership in Turkey” argues that women make up half of the work-force and number of women graduate is also increasing but the ratio of women managers is still low especially for top managerial positions. She advocates that though women have transformation and intellectual capacity to run their business effectively but they do not get the rights they deserve. Interestingly she has analyzed sex differences in transformational /charismatic leadership styles. The traits are not the attributes of men but women also show high on these qualities. In Turkey there are so many transformational women leader, managers displaying thee kinds of styles successfully. She has also focused on meaningful relationship between gender and leadership style. She points out that traditional Turkish socio-cultural context is changing due to free market economy and trends towards Liberalization and Globalization. She proposes that exclusion of women from informal networks that aid advancement must be prevented by the organization. The Turkish working women must occupy place in male’s network.<br />The education is important sector that can transform the personalities. The formative years are crucial bench-march in the life journeys of individuals. The cognitive abilities are nurtured by the educational institutions. These institutions have enormous capacity to build values and shape visions with right focus. A right frame of mind can be evolved through education. Dr. K.L.Sharma in his article “Some Reflections on Higher Education, State and Social Hierarchy in India” puts forward the premiss that since society is diversified and inequalitarian; the social opportunities are also incongruent vis-à-vis education. He visualizes the role of education as agent of change in the Indian society which is a sum total of continuity and change, absorption and assimilation, give and take, unity and diversities and vice-versa and is also grand synthesis of cultures, languages, region and religions. Hence education in true sense is antithetical to market civil society and a desired type of citizenry is concomitant with quality of education. He advocates that higher education must aim at rediscovery of the humanizing vocation of the intellectual, the power of thought. Hence we must acknowledge what he says that knowledge is not a mechanical activity but a creative enterprise.<br />The education capacitates people with different skills but for sustenance the transformation, skill utilization is through economic sector. The economical transformation provides special impetus to the development in the right direction. The phenomenon of globalization has opened up new vistas for the process to understand different dimensions of human resource management.<br />Dr. Raymon Bruce along with his team has presented the research results of the two Research Workshops on New Comparative Economics, one jointly held by the Department of Economic Theory- Interim Center for Management and Economic Development, V.N.Karakiv National University, Ukraine and University of Texas at Arlington and another was held by School of Public Administration, Renmin University of China. Two Research Workshops one in Ukraine and one in China conducted a review of the Institutional Possibilities Choices (IPF) framework presented in the World Bank policy paper no. 3054 “New Comparative Economics” by Djankov,et al. The research workshops then examined the practical aspects implementing institutional possibility choices and in developing additional dimensions to the IPF framework in making the transition from Command and Control national economy to a free market global economy in applying the IPF Framework model. The paper’s conclusions include the notion that each nation can learn from each other and so that the framework is applicable for the larger community as well.<br />The enhancement of inner strengths is the key to have focused future. The strengthening of ethical dimension with morality and spirituality will restore the human dignity, which may have been violated through invasions of psyche in the present times. The transformation without ethical core will add to the miseries of humankind. The articles addressing to this issue have interestingly surfaced the variety of interrelated notional analysis and presents a more inclusive view of the whole vision.<br />In highlighting the normative dimension Dr. James R. Heichelbech in his article “Normative Analysis: A Vision for Ethical and Spiritual Growth” has made an effort to share an empirically grounded view of ethics research and clarify the implications for public services. He suggests that empirical research is necessary for successful implementation of ethics policy and that it helps us to connect with one another as human beings living together in an increasingly fragmented world. According to him two methodological foci are essential, an understanding of ritual context through ethnographic work and an understanding of subjective experience through phenomenology. He then has described that how both contribute to an empirically grounded vision of ethics research, normative analysis with practically focusing on the tasks of understanding and improving normative infrastructure. The 20th century includes continuous effort towards reintroducing value into the study of human interaction and in new millennium with methodological resources to support the agenda of empirical research toward ethical and spiritual success.<br />The sanctity of administration lies in providing governance with precise focus of service. Dr. Sangeeta Sharma in her article “Cosmic-Synergy Model of Governance” sketches the conceptual framework of governance with spirituality. This model presents an alternative to the present condition of turmoil by proposing infusion of spirituality into the governmental system. Five variables have been identified to construct the Spirituality Grid, which helps in locating the spiritual content amongst the employees. It also suggests the mechanics of conversion of concept into reality. The proper synergy of various inputs and other ambient factors will help in devising a system, which might provide the key to amiable coexistence. This is a scientific projection of mapping oneself on the spirituality grid to know about position of one’s inner-strengths. This also proposes the ways in which the transformation of inner-self is possible.<br />This book is quintessence of futuristic thoughts that spin around finding out the ways and in-roads of tomorrow’s transformations by interrogating ideologies, values, texts, structures etc. Apart from interrogation it has also compiled the works on suggested trajectories of the seemingly utopian constructs that are much ahead of their times. We need roots but tendency of remaining rooted in the past may not be the road for a path-breaker. There is a need to understand the present but with future in our mind. The change is corollary of continuity thus sensitizing people with proper focus is the way of creating tomorrow of better values and comprehensible perspective. The readers while going through different chapters will find themselves journeying in different lanes of transformation varying from social to economical to environmental to managerial to ethical and finally to spiritual. The most important feature of this book is liberating readers from their frigidity of ideas. This liberation is enjoyable to see that how same notion is viewed kaleidoscopically.<br />JUST FEW INSIGHTS FROM MY COLLECTIONS<br />ECOLOGY OF E- GOVERNANCE, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DIGITAL GOVERNANCE , USA. EDITED BY ARI-VEIKKO ANTTIROKO AND MATTI MALKIA,2006 <br />The seeds of future lie in present. The power of mind and beauty of heart must work in consonance toward managing deprivations, depressions,dehumanization and desensitization which are adding to the miseries of humankind…. E-governance can be used as the important tool for releasing an individual from the capitivity of  his parochial outlook and help him acquire a vision of co-existence in broader perspective to work towards humanity.<br />BUREAUCRATIC LIES: ETHICAL BLOKADES, DYNAMICS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, 2006<br />This article is divided into four major discussions (I). Can we categorize Bureaucratic Lies-Systemic Lies related to the role structures of the system. …Because it is related to the structuring aspect of the system people can lie for the following reasons- Misusing authority; Shrugging the responsibility; Ambiguity regarding responsibility…. Relational Lies related to the different kinds of relationships … man mostly draw satisfaction by evolving dependable relationships that also constitute the basis of informal system…lie for social relationship;Official relationship;family relationship…Behavioral Lies related to personality dimension …lie as Habit formation;Psychological disordering; Purposive; Compulsive. (II) Impacts-The Impacts are, Displacement of Targets; Erosion of Ethics;Rotation of Social Normative Axis.(III). Reversing the Impact- If bureaucratic lies continue to be the practicing act then deformation of the system as well as of the society would be the end result…so it requires Social Efforts;Systemic Efforts,Behavioral Efforts…(V) Startegic Interventions which have been divide into two categories-  Cognitive Strategy through Induced Learning; Ethical Sensitization; Analytical Nuturance and Non-Cognitive Strategy through Role Structuring; E-connectivity and Secular spiritualizing.<br />METHODOLOGICAL QUESTIONS:TOWARDS FUTURISTIC IDEALIZATION IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, DYNAMICS OF PA,2005<br />The discilpline of PA is the closest one in not only understanding the realities but in providing impetus to design activities to transform the societies…. The important Premisses are 1. Evolving the Idealistic Conceptual Constructs in the field of Public Administration2. Establishing the philosophical content in the light of its capacity to bring out transformations.3.Enunciating the practical diffculties in achieving the Ideal State of Constructs.4. Designing the Collaboartive activity with philosophical and practical cores.5. validating the practical designs.6 Creating Solution Pacakages Forms …. In the sub-title Searching for the Research Areas it proceeds by discussing can we have Neo-Bureaucratic Model; Can we have Universal Value Model Can we plan Interventional strategies . … In subsequent pages Appropriate Adapatations and Conversion of Ideals into Realities find the elaborations.<br />ADMINISTRATIVE ETHICS- A ROAD AHEAD, IJPA, 2004<br />Any Administrative Activity in order to prove its efficacy must comply with the ethical framework subjected to the conformity of societal norms in a particualr society. … Administration is an inevitable instrumnet to fulfil fundamental goal of providing respectful essence of life to its people…. An ethical framework must specify teh moral requirements pertaining to carrying out administrative functions. in the section The Moral Requirements of Administrative Ethics a three level framework has been designed by Author,<br />1. Individual Cognitive Ethical Framework 2. Institutional Functioanl Ethical Framework 3. Societal Normative Ethical Framework. <br />In the last portion Interplay of Various Ethical Frameworks: Looking for Possibilities of Administrative Ethics has been highlighted.<br />COSMIC-SYNERGY MODEL OF GOVERNANCE<br />The Cosmic-Synergy Model of Governance <br />By Dr. Sangeeta Sharma<br />India<br />The sanctity of governance lies in creating a blissful World, a World that is capable of managing the created differences by transforming social structures into the systems of constellations of innumerous cultures as a single unit of existence. The virtuous governance has been the legacy of past centuries though negative elements have been intertwined with the positive ones, influencing the psyche of individuals. It will not be an exaggeration to say that the core of governance had been to ameliorate morality depicted in the ancient folkways, epics and other literary works around the globe that have nurtured the human values and continue to do so even in the era of technological proliferations.<br />The manifestation of moral excellence amongst individuals in the public institutions had been the practicing ethos that guided them to maintain the minimum level needed to survive, enriching their strengths from the older ethical testaments. The richness of humane value is nurtured in these testaments through out the World. The concept of ‘Wholeness’ has been systematically emphasized in the Indian works like, Geeta, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Vedas, Puranas, Kural, Upanishads HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn1" [1]. The philosophical insights have been included in the literature of Sikhism, Jaininsm, Buddhism, Christianity, and Judaism HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn2" [2]. The dharmic interpretations regarding purpose of life and how to attain the state of self-actualization are made in Sanatan dharma HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn3" [3]. The mechanics to understand human dynamics is also supported by other Indian schools of thought like Nayaya, Vasheishik, Sankhaya, Yoga, Mimansa, Vedanta HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn4" [4]. Ancient I-Ching, Zionism, Taoism, Chintoism philosophies focusing on evolution of consciousness also propagates the spirituality HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn5" [5]. The meta-physicians like Hegel in his encompassing dialectic system emphasized that existence embodies multiple dimensions, which can be integrated into Unitary whole. HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn6" [6] The present scenario however presents certain deviant practices, because complex selves have replaced simpler situations; moral conducts have been diluted due to the erosion of human values, followed by rising incidences of conflicts. As potential saviors, there is a need to search for solutions and one of the solutions lies in reviving spiritual routing. The concept of cosmic-synergy deals with the basics of relocating tangible and intangible dimensions of governing the public institutions to promote the peaceful coexistences. This model is based on developing the conceptual framework of analyzing the concept of governance from the viewpoint of ‘cosmic-synergy’, thereby enabling us to understand the mechanics of spirituality as the source of power, power that constitutes the important ingredient of governmental decisions at various levels. Plato’s cosmology may be considered as the source of the purposiveness of things, of the teleological and valuational aspects of nature of mind. His tripartite division of soul also indicates how to attain the spirited faculty. HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn7" [7] The plethora of great literary works provides the perennial source of learning different aspects related to the evolution of higher consciousness. Amongst the Western philosophers, few like (Aqcuinas 1225-1274;Descartes1596-1650; Spinoza 1632-1677; Locke 1632-1704; Leibnitz 1646-1716; Hume 1711-76; Berkley 1714-54;) HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn8" [8] can be searched to get a kaleidoscopic view. However spirituality is the area, which puts forward the thesis of self-journeying on the one hand and extending of self on the other, to subsequently create a unified whole. It lies in connecting finite self with infinite universe at the level of consciousness. In this context, this model focuses on the dimension of spirituality in governance.<br />The processes that are pertinent here to explore include, creating cosmic centers and developing synergic equations. The cosmic centers here are centers of ethical perpetuation within the system or outside the system that can energize the employees to work efficiently and help them to move higher on the path of the spirituality. Within the system, policy-making levels can be converted in to the cosmic centers, whereas outside the system, association with the genuine spiritual core can play an important role in spiritual elevation of the governmental employees. The operational requirements for creating such centers can be indicated as,<br />Identifying the levels, which are entrusted with the task of policy-making.<br />The contents of the framed policy documents must ensure that the virtuous elements are included in the governmental statements.<br />Introducing the self-corrective mechanisms to control the erosion of values and to uphold morality of conduct amongst people.<br />Designing the training schedule by focusing on inculcating the basic attributes of the spirituality amongst the employees.<br />Developing a complete network to link synergic conversions with the impacts through systemic interventions.<br />In this regards, framework developed by Sri Aurobindo, identifies wisdom, power, harmony, and work as the principal, constituents of human affairs, and enables us to understand people in their unified cosmic setting. HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftn9" [9]<br />A proper synergy articulates the individuals’ potentials into positive direction either by converting negative energies into positive energies or by managing the negative energies in such a way that their effects can be reduced to minimum. Yongming Tang observes that the purpose of synergic work is mainly to cultivate capacities from various levels, it is a spiritual action process that leads to evolution of consciousness, (Tang, 1995; 96). Similarly Ken Wilbery presents his view by looking into the relationship between matter, life and mind, (Wilbery, 1995). It also provides a worldview that focuses on the effects produced by the relationships between things. It highlights the fundamental property of the Universe and more relevant ones for humankind that forms the basis of human societies. Thus synergy can be defined as combined effects produced by two or more parts, elements or individuals, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and human societies alike. (Corning, 1998; 2001; 2005).<br />The cosmic - synergy model thus also focuses on developing synergic equations in such a way that it could chanelize the individual’s working energies in to the productive resultant systemic energy to carry out welfare activities through governmental institutions. It relates to, devising the mechanisms, which can convert individual’s working energies in to productive synergy through cosmic centers. These centers need to be constituted at higher levels in the Government. The working energy constitutes the synchronization of mental, physical, professional and spiritual capacities of individuals such that,<br />Synergy= I (M+P+ Po +S) ;<br />I is the Individual’s potential, the Mental capacity(M) relates to the cognition, intellect, and attitude formation; Physical capacity(P) refers to the body strength, general health, and pressure bearing; Professional capacity(Po) means technical knowledge, aptitude, and practical skill; Spiritual capacity(S) deals with the self-actualization, purity, and compassion. A perfect synergy would involve unification of the above-mentioned capacities in such a way that individuals can conserve most of their capacities by controlling the unwanted waste of their potentialities. This can be ascertained by evolving a compatible workable combination, for instance, technical skill with proper attitudes need a particular kind of cognitive capabilities to have optimal utilization of potentialities. An ulterior combination may not yield the desirable output. Hence the placement policy regarding employees becomes the core of governmental decisions for optimal utilization of their potentialities.<br />Thus resultant output will depend upon the combinations of working energies in so that the general environment for enhancing spirituality can be created. This is based on the following premises,<br />1. Designing the cosmic centers at higher level for working out synergic combinations in public institutions, that needs percolation of such combinations down to the lowest level as well.<br />2. The role of these centers is to accumulate and disseminate working energies in such a way that it capacitates employees in government to pursue for higher societal goals.<br />3. These centers need to be synchronized in such a way that the flow of energy can be directed towards creating a positive environment to entrap the World for peaceful coexistence.<br />4. The entire mechanism of creating cosmic centers and developing a proper synergy between them need efforts either by broadening the functional zone as indicated in the SG (spirituality grid) or moving higher on the grid.<br />5. The structures created at various levels must be connected at universal level so that effective management of the differences, deprivations, depressions, and dehumanization can be ensured. This would help in achieving the ultimate objective of creating a world of peaceful coexistence.<br />The role of cosmic centers in identifying and working out the right combinations of the capacities is crucial one, because these centers can create a general environment by moving in the concentric circles from local to national then to international in the direction of attaining higher spirituality. Thus by generating a cosmic field at one point, its resonance effect will be carried forward automatically causing ripples in the entire World. The permutation of synergic combinations by extrapolating values on SG by working out the particular sequences of attributes included in the SSI (Spiritual Sensitivity Index) can generate the cosmic field. However the prerequisite for this conversion would be differential value of five variables on SG. The resultant value of each variable leading to higher values on SG indicates the feasibility of making this model workable. Thus,<br />CF =¦(VV, AI, CON)<br />CF-cosmic field; VV-variable value; AI-attribute inclination; CON-conditioning factors.<br />(Cosmic field refers to the field of an individual generated by computing the three factors<br />Variable value is computed through the scale, attribute inclination can be found by checking on the orientation of individuals on the parameters identified and conditioning factors are situational pressures that directly or indirectly shape the one’s perceptions and visibility.)<br />Thus when seen in totality a cosmic field can be reinforced by finding out the susceptibility of a person to get reoriented towards higher consciousness with the help of attributes. This in turn will affect the quality of a decision that is the prerequisite of good governance, because any decision, which inherits spirituality, forms the core of sensitive governance, and such government makes its employees genuinely accountable to the needs of common person for their actions. A related rationale to establish the relationship of cosmic centers with the SG and SSI can be explained by looking at the SG and SSI.<br />The value computation for the variables identified can be done on the basis of Spirituality Dimension Scale as presented in the text box.<br />Spiritual Dimensional Scale<br />Instructions: Tick the nearest option for the most appropriate choice. The abbreviations stand as, NO- not so often; O- often VO- very often. Take five minutes<br />1. How often you do not refer to I in your conversations.NO O VO2. How often you do not derive pride out of appreciationNO O VO3. How often you do not give credit to yourself for accomplishmentNO O VO4. How often you value the observations of othersNO O VO5. How often you are delighted by the appreciation of others.NO O VO6. How often you are capable of utilizing opportunities at your bestNO O VO7. How often you think of leaving your job for better career options.NO O VO8. How often you blame others for non-accomplishment of taskNO O VO9. How often you foresee yourself as the boss at the work placeNO O VO10. How often successful accomplishment arouses the desire for higherNO O VO11. How often you do not adhere to the socially conform sets of valuesNO O VO12. How often you compromise for your sets of valuesNO O VO13. How often you perceive virtuous values as hurdles in your wayNO O VO14. How often you would reason out for your valuesNO O VO15. How often you do not give away your values for practical utilityNO O VO16. How often you feel concerned for person whom you dislikeNO O VO17. How often you extend help to the unknown employee at work placeNO O VO18. How often you are able to diffuse the conflict at work place without hurtingNO O VO19. How often you do not feel offensive towards your subordinateNO O VO20. How often you pass on unconditional affection without discriminationNO O VO21. How often you can induce ethically regulated conduct amongst peopleNO O VO22. How often you take action against unethical practices fearlessly.NO O VO23. How often you have framed/helped the ethical based policy documentsNO O VO24. How often you have introduced strategic intervention for upholding ethicsNO O VO25. How often you converse with people regarding the importance of ethics.NO O VO<br />Scale Dimension: Giving 1-3 numerical value in ascending order does the computation of individual variable. There is a set of 5 questions per variable to find out the relevant attribute. Thus the mini-max variation for each variable on this dimension is 5-15. Value for each variable has to be calculated separately, to find out the spiritual content of employees. The individual value would also help in the mapping out position of individual employee on the grid, and can be a guide for knowing areas of improvement.<br />SPIRITUALITY GRID (SG): The five variables identified in the cosmic-synergy model of governance for SG, are egolessness, ambition’s level, value rotation, ethics penetration capacity and compassionate congeniality. The individual scores for each variable can be computed by getting values on the scale. Further the sensitivity for each variable can be measured through index. Thus this grid not only helps in mapping the spiritual orientation of individuals but also helps in locating the gaps, which need to be bridged. Each variable has been discussed as under.<br />Egolessness: A state of no ego if we go by the wordy meaning of the term. This refers to the state that people attain by reducing the ‘destructive ego’ that shields one’s perspective to analyze, understand and work strategically. In the government people with patience are required for carrying out the policy decisions. It would be pertinent to identify the individual parameters to testify the level of egolessness. The followings can be identified,<br />1. No elevation of self-ego.<br />2. Taking no personal pride for official accomplishments.<br />3. Respecting the subordinates/ministerial staff.<br />4. Acknowledging the contributions of others at your work place.<br />5. Allowing people to express their point of view.<br />The resultant value of this variable on the spirituality grid has to be more. The preferable value must lie in between 11-14 in the 5-15 mini-max variation scale for this variable. The relationship can be expressed as,<br />Spirituality ¥ Egolessness<br />The welfare activities make the ambience of governmental functioning, which makes it essential for the employees to inculcate the attitude of diminishing self-ego. It would be in the interest of any government to develop self-less relationships within and outside the formal premises so that a genuine bond with the common man can be evolved. This genuineness can determine the efficacy of delivering the services to the society at large.<br />Ambition’s Level: This variable refers to the urge of individual employee to shift his level of aspiration to the higher level. This pushing tendency though helps him to remain under constant pressure of delivering high quality services but this can also pull him down on the spirituality grid. In the governmental functioning, which is formalistic in nature, too many ambitious people might disturb the pace of implementation of policies. What are the parameters of this variable?<br />1. Persistent Job dissatisfaction.<br />2. Leaving one job for another for materialistic gains.<br />3. Maximum utilization of the existing opportunities.<br />4. Shifting the responsibility of non-performance.<br />5. Eying for the top position.<br />The resultant value of this variable has to be low due to inverse relationship with the spirituality. A person having value between 6-9 on the scale of 5-15 will be desirable for governmental employee. The rationale for this range is that value lower than 6 will make a person too low to ignite a desire even to perform a given task with minimal efficiency. And value higher than 9 will arouse a desire of becoming over- ambitious.<br />The relationship can be expressed as,<br />Spirituality ¥ 1 / Ambition’s Level<br />The role of ambitions in personal growth will depend upon the priority one sets for himself to fix up his desires.<br />Value Rotation: The value rotation refers to the realignment of value axis formed by the individual as per the felt need of work place. The values are essential components of one’s personality, however the inculcation of right values is affected by all those factors that build up a mind-set of person. It can also relate to the relationship between personal and professional values. The probable parameters would be<br />1. Adherence to the personal sets of values.<br />2. Changing values for personal gains.<br />3. Guided by the socially conformed values.<br />4. Changing values for professional gains.<br />5. Not aligning to the set of virtuous values.<br />The resultant value for this variable has to be low on the grid. The preferable value will be between 5-8. The logic behind this range is that, erosion of values will be affecting the spirituality in the most aggressive manner. The virtuous values form the core of both cosmic centers and spirituality.<br />Spirituality ¥ 1/ Value Rotation<br />Ethic’s Penetration Capacity: This variable refers to the influences that can be exercised on others regarding inoculating ethical values. Any activity, which is devoid of ethics and doctrines, would stagnate the system; therefore it is necessary to re-strengthen the ethical core. This will depend upon the capacity of its employees to change the mind-sets of those who are reluctant in adapting the revised approach. People with negative attitudes and notions are most difficult to change and often do not allow anybody to infiltrate in their domains. Thus those who can transform themselves into role models can in turn reinforce the ethics amongst the employees. The parameters include,<br />1. Inculcating strong ethical core.<br />2. Effective role model to induce needed ethics.<br />3. A capability to increase the receptivity of employees for ethical sensitization.<br />4. A capacity of converting negative notions into positive ones.<br />5. The capacity to change the mind-sets of people<br />The resultant value of this variable has to be more on this grid. The expected value must lie between 10-13; the logic being that people high on this grid value are not only spiritually oriented but can also mould the inclination of other people towards spiritualism. The governmental duties can be best discharged when ethical bonds are strong enough to sustain the negative pressures. This can be represented as,<br />Spirituality ¥ EPC<br />Compassionate Congeniality: This variable focuses on motivating people to inculcate compassion, which is the primary condition to establish productive connectivity with the public. The core of governmental activities is guided by creating the environment, which is conducive to design the inflow patterns in such a way that a desired level of impact can be extrapolated on performance along with the spirituality. The parameters would be,<br />1. The urge to share unconditional affection with everyone.<br />2. A capacity to extend self for developing self-less relationship.<br />3. Sensitivity towards public demands.<br />4. Skill to derive agreeable solutions.<br />5. Getting empathetic towards other employees.<br />The resultant value of this has to be more because passing on unconditional love and affection to everyone is the prime condition for gaining spirituality. A decision can only be implemented when disagreements can be resolved without marginalizing anyone. Thus the resultant value must be on the higher side, preferably between 11-13. This can be represented as,<br />Spirituality ¥ Compassionate Congeniality.<br />The efficacy of government depends upon either by resolving or dissolving the differences in the constructive manner. A rational decision must focus on making it free from biases but with humane thrust. It can be represented as schema given under.<br />Figure 1: The Schema of SG <br />H H.L (15,5) H.H (15,15)<br />LOW- AL, VR HIGH-EG, EPC, CC<br />S HIGH -SP HIGH-SP<br />P (SP)<br />R<br />I MID VALUE<br />T FUNCTIONAL ZONE<br />U<br />A<br />L<br />I L.L (5,5) L.H (5,15)<br />T LOW - EG, EPC, CC LOW-SP<br />Y L LOW SP HIGH-AL,VR<br />L H<br />V A R I A B L E S<br />(EG AL VR EPC CC)<br />( Source: Author herself,2008)<br />The resultant value either for individual or for institution can be plotted on this Grid. The conversion of ulterior score into the needed one is possible on the basis of contextuality of each variable defined by the indicators identified in the SSI. Hence to analyze logically how an appropriate cosmic field of governance can be created it will be pertinent to construct the index.<br />Spiritual Sensitivity Index- The SSI includes those attributes that are prerequisites for inculcating the essence of spirituality in those individuals who are responsible for governance. The ancient Indian literary works have identified the principles of morality as the basic need for the human existence. Any reasoning that is destructive in nature can harm the humanity as such and moreover if such reasoning is rationalized it might affect the basic fabric of any society. Therefore for all those who are holding various positions in the government, the strengthening of moral- bonds is essential to negate the effects of negativity. Of many few can be referred as the essential components. The configuration of individuals on SG will depend upon the attributes from index that include, desires, contentment, anger, ego, compassion, tolerance, self-correction, impartiality, unbiased judgments, courage, divinity, (Indian parallels are moha, apārihar ,krodha, ahāmkar, sārvkutumbhaya, dhārmic ). Each one can be extrapolated on SG constructed for employees and likewise they can be trained on those dimensions that need to be altered. The attributes included in the index connote direct and indirect relationship with the spirituality, for instance desires, anger, ego, are negative elements which need to be controlled, where as the positive ones such as contentment, compassion, tolerance, self-correction, impartiality, value-free judgments, courage, divine faith need to be reinforced. Assurance of positive elements in the public institutions will have multifold effects on the decision making capacity of the system thereby helping society to grow. Further the governmental decisions because of its all-pervasive nature, affect the lives of millions of people. Any decision, which is parochial in perspective, defeats the purpose of good governance. To broaden the perspective, a vision with right focus must be evolved. This in turn would depend upon limiting the desires, anger and ego on the one hand and un-limiting the contentment, compassion, tolerance, ability to correct oneself, impartiality, conscientious action on the other. The movement on the grid can be regulated with the help of SSI by finding out the strengths and weaknesses of individuals as a composite of the government. In order to capacitate system with right perspectives, strengths need to be multiplied multifold and weaknesses to be reduced to minimum so that ability to take rational decisions without getting influenced by negative forces is enhanced. To get a better view each variable included in SG can be linked with the attributes on SSI to find out the existing quotient and altering quotient needed to help the movement on the SG to attain spirituality in governance. Egolessness can be linked with ego and anger; Ambition’s level with desires and contentment; Value Rotation with unconscientiously action and value biased judgments; Compassionate Congeniality with compassion and tolerance and Ethics Penetration Capacity with sticking to value based framework and strong ethical configuration, oneself and impartiality. Through synergic equations the difference between two quotients can be minimized. The minimization of the difference is affected by,<br />1. Compatibility of combinations in synergic equation for particular individual or cosmic center.<br />2. Adequate spacing to allow each indicator to activate the specific energy to facilitate the movement on SG.<br />3. Receptivity to accept the changes and readiness to adapt to move at the respective values on the Grid that will lead to higher value of spirituality.<br />4. Taking decisions by finding out the resultant score shall help in creating a cosmic field to diffuse the worldly tensions.<br />The variables and attributes with the respective probable values have been shown in the Tables 1 and 2. The tables also help in mapping out the positions of employee with probable values and how they can trained to internalize the desired set of values.<br />Table 1. Table 2.<br />Attributes-Variable Probable Value Variation<br />Attributes VariablesPositiveNegativeSpirituality Grid valueVariableMinimax (5-15)Egolessnessnegatingdestructive EgoAngerEgolessness11-14Ambition levelContentmentDesiresAmbition level6-9Value rotationunconscientiously actionvalue-biased judgmentValue-rotation5-8CompassionCompassionIntoleranceCompassionate congeniality11-13Ethics penetrationImpartialityunable to correct selfEthics penetration capacity10-13<br />EXTRAPOLATING EFFECTS: The effects can be extrapolated on two dimensions: (a) Conversion of inputs into outputs;(b) Mind orientation and attitude formation.<br />Input- Output Conversion: If we see the practicability of this formative concept then those inputs must be specified which are universally acceptable and conversion into outputs therefore shall not be regulated by the man made boundaries, if we are inclined to build spiritually elevated systems. <br />Inputs- The spirituality designates the higher level of human existence. This is the purest form where individual works for managing the inner conflicts and showing the right path to the people in distress whether in the government or outside the government. It will be pertinent to identify the inputs, which are beyond the cultural entities. These may be identified as, Right frame of mind; Working synergies; Values on Grid parameters; Vision of enlightenment; Self-less interest; Urge to inoculate morality; Compassion; Mutual tolerance.<br />Output: If the inputs identified above are fed into public institutions then the outputs released into the society will be of transcendental nature that is universally acceptable. This will facilitate, Right decision; World Welfare; Expanding self; Constructive sharing; Managing differences; Spiritual elevation; Peaceful coexistence.<br />The conversion of inputs into outputs needs few basic readjustments in the structural and behavioral aspects of governmental systems. This realignment is not for making the system complex, rather simplifying system to the extent that real purpose of universal existence becomes understandable. The technological support can help in ethical configuration by preparing database on available socio-ethnic patterns and perpetuating at every level through better connectivity networks.<br />The input- output process does explain how to design the mechanism to facilitate conversion of the inputs into the outputs and controlling conditioning factors in such a way that environment can be generated for developing higher social consciousness. The cosmic centers are centers of nurturing virtues. The ethical domains are eternal and the most searched for; virtues are the building blocks of humanly flourishingly lives, (Oakley and Cocking, 2001).<br />(b) Mind orientation: The attitude formation is structured by the orientation of mind. The tendency to reasonalize various activities is a very obvious function of mind. However the additional advantage is, that mind can be sensitized, trained and tamed to perceive surroundings in particular way. Therefore management of the desires is the prime condition for perceiving spirituality as way of functioning. It needs perseverance to learn and develop a fine focus before a decision is taken. The Self has to merge into a larger world-self, in a selfless manner, which is not possible without inculcating the right attitudes. And the source of this inculcation, are the philosophies, which are the ultimate source self-actualization, need to be practiced.<br />EPITOME: The spirituality has capacity to transform the souls of individuals, to purify the system and to uphold the morality in the society. There is a need to create a violence free society, confusion free minds, inhibition free visions, and dilemma free perspectives. How to make these possible? The answer to these lies in elevating the spirit of people to liberate them from the uncontrolled desires and open their minds to understand the purpose of their being here. The man is not a perfect being so is the society but through spirituality an effort can be made to overcome the imperfections. The government is the institution of converting demands of people into realities and focusing on brighter side of the man can facilitate this conversion.<br />The responsibility at governmental level to design spiritual symphony for the entire world is more than any other institution as these are the centers of power. Unplanned activities undertaken by individual government can disrupt the alchemy of sustaining the humane growth. The spirituality is the greatest force to revive the process of cultivation of eternal values that might help people to deal with dualism and have constructive collaborations. The contented souls can bring about peace and can change the world scenario. The intricacies of the entire model can be explained as an old saying from Chandogya Upanishad which emphasizes that one who understands the delights in self, rejoices in the self and revels in the self becomes self ruler. Then he wields the unlimited freedom in the entire world. But one who thinks differently live in perishable worlds. Hence desire is a chain, once broken there will be no grief and no more longings.<br />References.<br />Bentley A.F.(1969).The Process of Government: A study of Social Pressure. Evanston: Principia Press.<br />Buckler.S.(1993) Dirty Hands: The Problem of Political Morality. Avebury: Aldershot.<br />Chennakesavam,S.(1976).Concepts of Indian Philosophy. New Delhi: Orient Longman.<br />Cooper, Terry L.(2001). Handbook of Ethics. Second edition. New York: Marcel Dekker.<br />Corning, P.A.(1983). The Synergism Hypothesis: A Theory of Progressive Evolution. UK: McGraw Hill.<br />Corning,P.A.(2001). Nature’s Magic, Synergy in Evolution and Fate of Humankind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Corning, P.A.(2005).Holistic Darwinism: Synergy, Cybernetics and Bioeconomics of Evolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.<br />Devaraja, N.K. (1972). An Introduction to Sankara’s Theory of Knowledge. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas<br />Evans, P.B.(1997). State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development .Berkeley: University of California Press.<br />Lewis, Carol W.,and Stuart C. Gilman(2005).The Ethics Challenges in Public Service: A Problem Solving Guide. Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.<br />Maclntyre, Alasdair.(1984).After Virtues: A Study in Moral Theory. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.<br />Ni, Huangching.(1990). I-Ching: The Book of Changes and Unchanging Truth. Santa Monica: Shrine of Eternal Breath of Tao.<br />Kernaghan, Kenneth.(2003).Integrating Values into Public Service: The Values Statement in Centerpiece. Public Administration Review 63(6):711-19.<br />Klein, Jacob.(1965).A Commentary n Plato’s. Meno. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.<br />Kosambi, D.D.(1970) Culture and Civilization of the Ancient India. New Delhi: Vikas.<br />Pandey,G.C.(1972).The Meaning and Process of Culture. Lucknow: Shiv Lal Agrawal and Company.<br />Rohr John A.(1978). Ethics for Bureaucrats: An Essay on Law and Values. New York: Marcel Dekker..<br />Kernaghan,W.D.K.(1974).Ethical Conduct: Guidelines for Government Employees. Toronto: Institute of Public Administration of Canada.<br />Tang,Yongming.(1998).The Cultural Synergy Model: A New Knowledge Tool for 21st Century . The Third International Conference on Knowledge Tool for Sustainable Civilization. Toronto: Canada.<br />Thilly Frank.(1965). A History of Philosophy revised by Ledger Wood. Allahabad: Central Book Depot.<br />Tilak B.G.(1902).Shri Bhagvad- Gita Rahasya. Pune:Tilak Brother<br />Timothy,Wilken.(1983). The Holy Grail. New York: Dell.<br />Tong R. (1986). Ethics in Policy Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.<br />Wilbery,Ken.(1995).Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.<br />Wu,Yi.(1989). The Book of Tao Tzu( The Tao Te Ching). San Francisco: Great Learning Publishing Company.<br />Zagzebski, Linda Trinkaus.(1996).Virtues of the Mind: An Enquiry in to the Nature of Virtue and Ethical Foundations of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref1" [1] Ramayana and Mahabharata are two greatest epics of India written in era of epics from 600BC-200BC.Geeta is considered as the best discourse on Karma, unveiling doubts related to the existence ‘stith prjn’ and focusing on self-journey. There are 4 Vedas, 108 Upanishad, 16 Puranas covering all dimensions of eternal life <br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref2" [2] Sikhism emphasize on the need for universal brotherhood. The core of Jainism is Ahimsa i.e. non-violence. The Buddhism focuses on enlightment, self-realization, and middle path philosophy. Judism highlights the importance of selfless service.<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref3" [3] The entire ‘Hindu’ philosophy is nurtured by the versions of ‘Sanatan dharma’. It is the fundamental force to motivate people to self-disciplined and ethical life.<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref4" [4] All six philosophies mentioned are known as ‘shatdarshan’ suggesting practical spirituality. A great view point of making life productive.<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref5" [5] This relates to humanitarian approach. Teaching peoples how to destroy ones’ ego and attain the life of ultimate happiness.<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref6" [6] George Wilhelm Hegel’s work focuses on absolute idea and mind. He talks about beings and thought, and logical evolution. His important work includes Phenomenology of Spirit and Science of Logic<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref7" [7] A systematic reconstruction of Plato’s thought in terms of the four creative factors is presented in R. Demos, The Philosophy of Plato .Analysis of happiness can be understood through factors of reason and will( dianoetic and ethical will.)<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref8" [8] Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibnitz are rationalists whose discourses include resolving dualism ( mind and body)<br /> HYPERLINK " http://sangeetasharma.in/wp-admin/" l " _ftnref9" [9] Sri Aurobindo’s work on evolving cosmic-social framework has been extended to the social level. He has presented power from new perspective, emphasizing that love and wisdom are not only the aspects of the Divine, there is also its aspect of power, as power is the driver of the world. See Human Cycle for details.<br />SCIENCE OFCONSCIENCE, 2008 IN KU PRZYSZTOSCI ( TOWARDS FUTURE) ED. MAGDALENA RZADKOWOLSKA, WARSAW POLAND<br />The science of conscience is based on the premiss that conscientious action involves a particular sequence of sub-actions taken at various levels of mind, body and soul. Each entity has individual function to perform. Mind has function of rationalizing and justifying the decisions. Body has function of expressing the decisions of mind. Soul has function of signaling the wrongdoings. The overall manifestation of individual’s action will involve permutation of different sub-actions taken at the different levels. It will be a marathon exercise and the most interesting one to explore what type of combinations of actions will be needed for an action, which can be categorized as conscientious action. It will be pertinent here to look into as to why we need to work on developing a science of conscience or to add to the clarity can we do without conscientious action? The answer to this is very straight. Without conscience the possibility of resolving conflicts seems to be impossible and unless and until we relearn to live in constructive collaborative collaborations the peaceful and blissful world will remain the remotest possibility. Can we have future without proper nurturance of humane values or more precisely can we think of a world without values and norms? These are fundamental queries must be addressed because there is a need to eradicate the miseries of people. The only way we can eradicate them, is through understanding the intricacies of evolving the science of such an action. The scientific analysis is prognostic in nature and therefore predictions are possible to draw from such interpretation.<br />The ultimate function of conscientious action is to strengthen the humane side of action by devising mechanism, which can mold the psyche of individuals to opt for righteous action. As observed by Aquinas who reasoned that we should educate our consciences in order to act well and bring our ‘selves’ in line with the highest good. Although it should be applied before an action, it may cause feelings of ‘reatus’ (guilt) or satisfaction after an action.[1] Butler also said that it is intuitive, as we have the ability to perceive things beyond empirical evidence and therefore it is considered the ‘constitutional monarch’ and the ‘universal moral faculty.’[2] According to Simon Solovevychik the truth is distributed in the world, as the statement about human dignity, as the affirmation of the line between good and evil lives in people as conscience. He stated that conscience is a common, one for all, knowledge about what good is and what evil is for humankind not for a man, not for his time, not for a group of men, but for humankind as a whole.[3] As language, conscience is individual in each person and it is common for all. Vedic interpretation of conscience means use of open mind in discriminating what is wrong and what is virtuous decision. Mimamsa relates real happiness with the conscience to guide one’s action with deeper understanding about finding out what is right and what is wrong. Many Indian philosophers have emphasized that those persons who transcendent the religious boundaries, tolerant and can recommence the faith in humanity are embodiment of giver of unconditional love.[4] Thus compassion is an important precondition for reaching out to the conscience. Indian philosophy is full of saintly discourses on how to achieve higher human consciousness and live up to the expectations of common person to build up the ethically regulated systems. Of all the negative vibes, the excessive materialistic desires are the most vicious and need to be managed with utmost sincerity. The science can only be developed when we try to find out the sequences in which such action can be carried out.<br />PREMISSES: The following premisses can be worked out, on the basis of the testaments<br />There is a need to have dialogue between mind and soul to understand configuration of self by the individual themselves.<br />Knowing about ‘self’ capacitates a person to choose right path, which has a wider human perspective.<br />Having a wider human perspective will facilitate the human connectivity with a higher objective of inculcating the morality in the conduct.<br />Both these activities undertaken at the levels of mind and soul will be transmitted through body.<br />The symphony of mind, body and soul dipped into morality will be translated in to conscientious action.<br />These premisses explain the inevitability of developing a science that can shape and predict the human actions. Before an analysis is made about having a science there is a need to define the conscience apart from the dictionary meaning. The operational definition of what constitutes the conscientious action will mean, an action,<br />That helps in discovering purpose of ones’ life;<br />That maneuvers the humane values;<br />That collaborates commerce with spirituality;<br />That converts conflicts into productive mileage.<br />That joins every other action with morality.<br />That works for the achievement of higher goals of human existence.<br />Once the meaning of conscientious action is clear than every ordinary action can be converted into superior action by controlling those factors, which affect conscientious action negatively. It will be interesting to identify those factors, which may distract individuals from taking the path of humane actions. These distractions might include excessive materialistic desires, unwanted aggression, complexities, indifferent attitudes, forceful impositions, inhuman rationalizations, and undignified mannerisms. These need to be controlled in order to have self-less oriented actions. The elements of compassion and selflessness are the core of such actions and it is most unlikely that people have ever given a thought to these aspects before they really translate their cognitions into actions. Likewise there are factors, which are path- promoters and create the environment that is conducive for adapting the modalities of taking ethical decisions high in the contents of spirituality. These include spiritual desires, compassion, simplicities, self-extending attitudes, humane rationalizations and dignified mannerisms. The continuous recycling of these factors helps in building up the conditions for taking conscientious decisions.<br />LOGISTICS: The preceding content has focus on the theoretical foundation, but it would be pertinent here to suggest the operational framework. However there are certain preconditions, which need to be satisfied before operationalzing the science of conscience. The preconditions are, ability to be effective in,<br />-Controlling the factors that are detrimental for humane growth;<br />-Passionate for leaving the survival desires;<br />-Courageous to follow the path shown by eternal virtuous values;<br />-Managing the aggression and anger;<br />-Sharing the unconditional affection; &<br />-Breaking the mind inertia of people for materialism.<br />These preconditions can only be satisfied when person can open the dialogue between mind and soul. Any blockade between mind and soul interrupts the process of cognition to look at the situations in the balanced way thereby leading to a myopic vision of asserting unjustified action as the just action. Who decides which action is what? The individual himself has to decide by going beyond the captivity of ones’ personal limitations. This explains the necessity of defining the domains of morality and ethical functioning. Morality in actions must comply with the ethical conformity. The barometric measurement of ethics can be done on the basis of the ingredients of, e-eternal values; t-truthfulness; h-humane; i-integrity; c-courage; s-spirituality. Of these eternity and humane are the constants because these are beyond time and man-made boundaries hence will always remain the important determinants of the conscientious action and the rest are the variables as these will have variations amongst individuals due to relative interpretations given to the contents of these elements. Thus a complete computation of the variables can give an idea about how much any action has the element of conscience. For instant variation in the variables from truthfulness to untruthfulness; integrity to non-integrity; and from courage to non-courage will determine the content of spirituality that constitutes the conscientious action. Thus it can be expressed as,<br />E= eternal values- constant Constants will not cause the variance<br />T= truthfulness-variable but the variable will cause the variance<br />H= humane-constant in the actions performed by the individuals<br />I= integrity- variable<br />C= courage-variable<br />S=spirituality- consequence<br />CA ƒ T,I,C when E,H are constant<br />CA ∞ Spirituality<br />Therefore any action, which has courage and integrity to work for perpetuating truthfulness, will maintain spirituality and hence will be the conscientious action. This in turn will require minimization of variations by inculcating the eternal values with humane thrust, which is possible by controlling functional units that cause the variation. The logistics of science of conscience is based on the following propositional sequence,<br />1. Actions need to be ethically driven based on the moral judgments;<br />2. Ethically driven actions will infuse faith amongst the people to uphold the values;<br />3. Upholding of virtuous values will reinstate the higher consciousness among people and will motivate them to develop right frame of mind;<br />4. The right frame of mind will lead to concinnity of ideas enhancing their abilities to differentiate between right and wrong;<br />5. This ability to differentiate will bring out successive transformation in the actions of others &<br />6. The resultant effect would lead to universal benevolence and highest asceticism.<br />The logistics is simple and workable at the various levels of functioning viz., individual, interpersonal, organizational, interorganizational, and world. The process of deriving at the conscientious action will be conditioned by the events; situations; and contexts. These conditioning factors will affect the alchemy between mind, body and soul. For instance one single event in one’s life can change the entire perspective of the person and this can be authenticated by several happenings encountered by the each of us in our own lifetime. Situations are also important change catalysts to transform the personalities from the ordinary to extra-ordinary; mostly our behavioral patterns are driven by situational variances at the particular time hence molding our mind-sets to look at things from renewed perspectives. Contexts are important ecological inputs and affect the interrelationships between various partners of actions.<br />The finality of action involves series of activities where contextual interventions might shape the outputs. These are extrinsic factors acting on the internal composition of individual’s psyche and thereby controlling the behavioral manifestations. For Conscientious Action it will be essential to deactivate the effects of extrinsic factors by limiting the excessive desires and extending the self to connect with other self eventually merging into the bigger self. This connectivity of self with the bigger self can lay down the road for building up the universally acceptable ethics so that the ethically regulated systems can be created. The process of converting ordinary action into conscientious action does require application of training techniques to train individuals in exercising self-control to get rid of negative and unwanted desires from the individual’s psyche.<br />Hence,<br />Soul / Mind= 1 (The effect gets nullified)- NA<br />Soul / Mind < 1 (Rationalization overpowers the conscience)-OA<br />Soul / Mind >1 (Conscience overpowers the rationalization)- CA<br />( where NA is Null Action; OA is ordinary action & CA is Conscientious Action and interplay of conditioning factors is important )<br />Thus manifestation of behavioral patterns will be according to which function overpowers another. This can be explain through schema as under,<br />CONVERSION PROCESSES<br />Ordinary Action - driven by -ambiguity about life goals;-self-centered activities;-worldly desires;-parochial outlook;-captivity of own ideas<br />Conscientious Action-driven by -clarity about life goals;-self-expansional activities;-ethical concinnity desires;- broader outlook;-receptivity to other’s ideas;<br />Controlghgng<br />This process of conversion requires controlling the actions through behavioral interventions, which are of higher human existence. The judgment of righteous action could also be made by extrapolating the effects to the degree of abstractness and to the degree of practicability for the variables, which have been discussed earlier. The virtuous values are often referred as abstracts but there are instances where these abstracts have been given operational definition too. Inconvenience in adapting these values cannot be considered as the impossible.<br />Therefore, if there are ‘N’ actions performed by any individual in his life time And if N/2 is CA and left numbers of actions are not CA,Then the Resultant Impact would be nullified in case if ‘N’ is an even number.Similarly if ‘N’ is an odd number than the Resultant Impact will be determined by the weight of the larger digit for instance if the larger value is tilted towards virtuous action overall result will have more element of conscience and if reverse is true than the impact would be in favor of ordinary action.<br />EPITOME: This analysis has an appeal to decide in favor of higher human action which may seem to be lying outside the purview of those who are satisfied by the pleasurable outcomes. This lower level of human existence may not help up us in finding out consistent solutions for the existent conflicting problems which in turn multiplying the miseries. This thesis that every action of any individual can be converted in to conscientious action if acceptable, perhaps can lay down the path for productive transformations. More important than why to lead life is how to lead life. If a life time is spent in looking for the peaceful solutions then a world of peaceful coexistence can be created. The hypothetical statement that a peaceful world can be created is not impossible only some logic with right focus need to be worked out that can reinforce the reverence and faith in virtues to attain ethical concinnity.<br />References<br />Briskin, Alan (1998). The Stirring of the Soul in the Workplace. San Francisco: Berret Koehler.<br />Bruce,W.(1994). ” Ethical People Are Productive People.” Public Productivity and Management Review 27, no. 3:241-252.<br />Dukerich, J.M., M.J.Waller, E.George,and G.P.Huber ( 2000). ” Moral Intensity and managerial Problem Solving.” Journal of Business Ethics. 29-38.<br />Eiser, Riane, and Alfonso Montuori ( 2003).”Human Side of Spirituality.” In handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance, edited by Robert A. Giacalone and Carole L. Jurkiewicz, pp. 46-56. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E.Sharpe.<br />Hartsfield,M. ( 2003).”The Spirit of Transformational Leadership: Emotions or Cognition?” Regent University, School of Leadership Studies, Virginia Beach.<br />Kidder, R.M.(1995). “Universal Human Values; Finding an Ethical Common Ground.” Public Management 77, no.6:4-9.<br />Schulman, Micheal.(2002). ” How to Become Moral: The Sources of Moral Motivation.” Handbook of Positive Psychology, edited by C.R.Snyder and Shane J. Lopez, pp. 499-512. London: Oxford University Press.<br />_____________________________________________________________________<br />Prof. Sangeeta Sharma, Department of Public Administration, University of Rajasthan,India.<br />[1] St.Thomas Aquinas interpretation about what constitutes conscience is important. Aquinas also described synderesis as an awareness of the five primary precepts as proposed in his theory of Natural Law. <br />[2] Joseph Butler argued that conscience is God-given and should always be obeyed.<br />[3] Simon Solovevychik says child sinking in the moral atmosphere of language and culture absorbs drops of ocean to public consciousness. Genius people by their immense life work raises to such heights of truth that these great people are called the conscience of humankind, however all have the same source of common human knowledge of the truth.<br />[4] The Indian philosophy is enshrined in the great works of Swami Ramkrishan Paramhansa Swami Dayananda, Swami Vivekananda, Sirdi Sai, Aurbindo Ghosh and such others. Literary works include Vedas, Upnishadas, Puranas, Mimansa , Geeta etc.<br />Neo-Bureaucratic Structure: A Consequence of e- Governance <br />Prof.Sangeeta Sharma <br />The capacity of man to visualize, rationalize and then to transform the society has always put different institutions on test for their abilities to cater to the changing expectations of people. Since when the social structures came into existence different forms of polities also emerged to fulfill the peoples’ expectations. The bureaucratic system thus has sanctity of being an institution of conversion of public demands into operational reality irrespective of the type of political system inherited or adapted by any nation.. As a rational system of functioning, it is expected to operate in a manner, which is objective, transparent, and impartial. The Weberian model of bureaucracy provides the way to achieve these ends. The fundamental question then is why in practice it projects itself in an entirely different way. There are varieties of reasons for holding this relationship true which have been highlighted in the subsequent analysis. However it will be interesting to see how does e- governance affect the different dimensions bureaucracy? Precisely, it focuses on automation, informatisation, and transformation so as to increase the pace of development. Thus the fundamental objectives are,<br />§ to have government which economizes,<br />§ to have government which multiplies output at same cost manifold<br />§ to have government which functions faster, better and creatively.<br />§ to have government which retrieves facts completely from archives to help bureaucrats to recycle them in such a way that this feed- back can be utilized for making more prudent policies.<br />However to understand how e- governance can transpose government as an instrument for building up a society, based on a collaborative combinations of conventional values with scientific approach, having purpose of creating a better world. In this respect it would be essential to identify the modifications that are required in the conventional system of bureaucracy. It would be interesting to highlight the existing traits of bureaucracy and also the projectional trajectory of traits of bureaucracy.<br />Premises:<br />This paper presents a conceptual framework of neo-bureaucratic structure having the basic impetus of e- governance. . The framework is based on three basic premises. These are:<br />§The present bureaucratic structure is inadequate to respond to the call of e-Governance, because of the certain impediments, which are detrimental for the adaptation of this kind of system.<br />§There is a possibility of transforming present conventional system of bureaucracy into Neo-Bureaucratic system with the help of interventional strategies of e-Governance that requires a careful study of interplay of its various components before planning and designing the strategies.<br />§The importance of e-Governance lies in creating a global society, which has capacity to absorb divergent value patterns to eventually form universal normative axis having thrust on humane element.<br />It also addresses to the fundamental questions as to why there is a need to change the existent bureaucratic structure. The need arises because,<br />§Individuals are becoming knowledge learner, thus making redundant the active- passive hierarchy of roles, which forms the basis of Weberian model.<br />§When mega- culturalism is transcending as we are moving towards global society the national boundary of being cultural bounded bureaucratic entities must pave its way for a transformed structure of bureaucracy.<br />§A new millennium phase must identify itself with neo bureaucratic structure to respond to the changing demands of the society.<br />The conventional bureaucratic system, which is based on bureaucratic impersonality and procedural orthodoxy, manifests itself in the form of impediments, which continue to affect the bureaucracy negatively. It will be pertinent to discuss these impediments briefly to get an insight about the technicality of the governmental system.<br />Bureaucratic Impediments : The conventional model categorically focuses on two dimensions viz.(i) Structural, relating to the hierarchical arrangement of positions, legal rational basis of authority, with the proper system of allocation of responsibilities, and compensation,&(ii) Behavioral relating to merit based selections of officials with the emphasis on training.<br />Since this has been the ideal typical model, the operational reality has been different from the enumerated characteristics. Thus bureaucracy that was created to implement people centered policies however manifested itself as,<br />Powerful instrument of letting out the self-interest in whimsical manner.<br />An elitist social class, which is status conscious.<br />Becoming judgmental in nature it has violated the principle of merit in practice.<br />Training could not help much in bringing out desirable changes in the attitudes of bureaucrats.<br />Its manifestations in terms of pathetic bureaucratic features like red-tapism, delays in decision-making, favoritism, corruption etc.<br />The obsolete rule dependent system that failed to deliver the end outputs to the society.<br />On the basis of above analysis following impediments can be identified which can be seen as forming the major characteristics of conventional system of bureaucracy.<br />Elitist class values: A selected section of society, which forms the part of bureaucratic system, develops its own value structure. This marginalizes the existing pattern of societal values at large to the extent that a parallel normative axis emerges, which revolves round power, status, wealth etc. This retards the growth of any society and is detrimental for development.<br />Procedural stagnation: Bureaucracy keeps on following procedures that are obsolete, expensive and do not help in achieving the extended domains of work and responsibility. The entire potentiality gets trapped in ‘routinism’ thereby blocking the flow of potential energy thus bringing out dissatisfaction amongst the people at large. The stagnation ultimately is resulting in the decay of the administration.<br />Attitudinal fixtures: The captivity of ideas amongst the bureaucrats’ results in the fixation of attitudes thereby giving rise to the definitive mindsets to look at situation from the limited perspective. The resultant impact gets manifested in the form of denial of innovative ways to resolve issues of public importance. Hence it hinders the effective communication and interaction. The absence of which will not facilitate free flow of ideas to look at all possible situations.<br />Rule Boundedness: The rules are framed to develop behavioral patterns that reduce human variance factor in the organization. Rules are also framed to give allocation of authority a legal rational basis within the defined domain of work jurisdiction. But when rules fail to respond to the requirements of change due to excessive dependence on them, then the ultimate result would be non-performance. Apart from this the interpretation of rules might sometimes lead to the situational conflicts hence delaying the fulfillment of objectives. This can also be viewed as an escapist root for not doing the assigned tasks.<br />Parochial interest: Once people enter in the bureaucracy the job security given to them in the form of career does not help them in becoming visionary. In addition to this it looses its value because rather than working as an instrument for conversion of social demands into reality it focuses more on fulfilling the self-interest.<br />Social discontentment: Bureaucracy due to interplay of above stated impediments virtually leaves its people dissatisfied as their needs remain unfulfilled. It thus sends negative fillers of its being an instrument of abusing authority. Hence it becomes a source of social discontentment and a feeling of not fulfilling the social obligation categorically affects their performance.<br />Burn out syndrome: Any system, which is low at taking risk causes mental and physical fatigue in people who are manning such organization. By strictly adhering to ‘routine’, the work is taken as burden; this leaves no scope for challenging roles. This in turn brings out feeling of non-performer. In addition to this, the other reason may be illusion of being overburdened with excessive workload, which would subsequently lead to the burn out syndrome. This declines the efficiency of the system.<br />In the era of knowledge management the features examined above must give way to pragmatism, and progressiveness to create a more humane society. This requires breaking away from the conventional system of rigidity towards a more evolved system focusing on the utilization of knowledge for facilitating the conversions of needs into reality. Thus there is a need to explore the possibilities of reshaping bureaucracy with renewed thrust. It is at this point that interventional strategies of e-Governance can be designed in such a way that desirable results can be produced with the purpose of replacing conventional system of bureaucracy with neo bureaucratic system.<br />Interventional strategies of e-Governance <br />As e-Governance has shortened the gap between different cultures by trying to create a global society with mega cultural emphasis, the few strategies can be identified, the use of which will facilitate achievement of this objective, though management of these would vary in pace in different countries.<br />Transitive Counseling— in order to reduce the resistance, people need to be prepared for coming out of transitional phase. Thus proper counseling is required regarding changes in attitudes, reorienting mind sets etc. at various levels of governmental functioning.<br />Electronic Accessibility: There is a need to equip people with necessary knowledge regarding use of electronic multi media by imparting it through various Institutions. Technologically advanced Institutes with expertise must be set up which must established themselves as the centers of excellence by imparting the e-knowledge to people.<br />Institutional Networking: Various agencies needed at different levels of governmental functionaries must be brought within the purview of constitutional framework by enacting laws for controlling their formal as well as informal constituents. A large-scale connectivity has to be ensured.<br />Ethical Framework: Apart from legal framework morality has to be the key area where any society must work out strategic plan by designing ethos before adopting e- governance. The framework has to be supportive of fundamental societal normative pattern so that it gets extra leverage for perpetuating necessary values patterns. Working out the ethical framework is the key to move further by discarding obsolete set of values that often come in the way of potential utilization.<br />Role Shifting Strategies :New stresses are the by products of knowledge based society. Hence more humanitarian psychological coping mechanisms based on collaborative role shifts 2have to be introduced. Each role, organizational as well as personal must shift in such a way that the effects of change can be managed without resulting into situation of crisis. This is to be learn that how & where role shift is needed.<br />The failure of present form of bureaucracy to match the expected results of the knowledge based society, it is high time that a new system of bureaucracy must be designed with the help of e-interventions. Hence the need to have renewed structure of bureaucracy can not be denied specially if we intend to make our system more effective, responsive and humane in nature.<br />Neo- Bureaucratic Structure: A Consequence of e-Governance<br />The conventional bureaucratic structure has many impediments due to which it has failed to respond to the changes in the desirable manner. However with the help of strategic planning a renewed bureaucratic structure can be created as an instrument capable of channelizing free flow of energy by molding itself as ‘sensitivity- nurturant’ system based on the ethos of professional culture. The conceptual framework of neo-bureaucratic system must focus on the following fundamental traits.<br />Universal Social Values. The elitist sets of values need to be replaced by universal set of values based on equal representation from all sections of society. This accumulation of divergent value sets must be rationalized through proper convergences to form a just society by inoculating virtuous elements blended with basic scientific approach to look, analyze then respond to situations. This would release people from the pressures that are put on them because they represent certain sets of values.<br />Procedural Innovativeness: Obsolescence in procedures has no place in emerging scenario of e- governance. Procedures need to be updated in light of technological advancement In addition to learn about technical know how, people must know how to evolve creative ways in which maximum output can be delivered for societal development.<br />Attitudinal Mobility: Fixation of attitudes is detrimental to the growth. Attitudes must have mobility so that sufficient space for collaborating other positive ideas can be created. Reorientation of mind-set in the direction to ‘delearn’ old premises then to learn new procedures must take place so that fresh ideas gets it place in the administration. It is only through creativity that performance can be enhanced to the level of excellence.<br />Rule Flexibility: Rules are required to form a formal structure based on the allocation of authority. But the rigidity of rules with excessive dependence leaves sufficient room for alternative interpretations. Thus what is needed is set of well-framed rules with no ambiguity and enough flexibility so that required changes can be incorporated to cater to the emerging demands.<br />Wider Interest: Bureaucracy because has to work for societal interest it must create an open system which is transparent, responsive and accountable. This is possible when broader outlook replaces narrower outlook with commitment to the equality and justice. The associational reflections need to be completely avoided.<br />Social Contentment: When system gets evolved to a higher level of functioning as an effective instrument of converting public demands into reality its utility gets reestablished. This also helps in understanding the importance of institutions and their social responsibilities thus bureaucracy emerges as a contended system.<br />Energy Recycling Syndrome: Once the energy blockers in the form of impediments are removed smooth flow of energy revitalizes the system. The entire potentiality of system as well as of others is utilized to its optimum. This facilitates the capacity utilization.<br />The schematic representation of the relationship between bureaucracy, interventional strategy and neo-bureaucratic structure is shown as follows. This process of conversion explains the dynamics involved.<br />Fig.1<br />PROCESS OF CONVERSION<br />Conventional Bureaucratic Neo- Bureaucratic<br />Structure Structure<br />Elitist Values Universal Values<br />e-INTERVENTIONS<br />Procedural stagnation Procedural-innovativeness<br />Attitudinal fixture Attitudinal mobility<br />Strategies of E-Governance<br />Rule bounded ness Transitive Counseling Rule flexibility<br />E- accessibility<br />Parochial Interest Networking Wider Interest<br />Role-Shift strategies<br />Burn Out Syndrome Ethical Framework Energy Recycling - Syndrome<br />(Managing Impediments) (Restructuring System)<br />FORMATION OF GLOBAL SOCIETY<br />Transcending geographical boundaries<br />Universalization of value patterns<br />Visionary world<br />Ideological collaborations<br />Peaceful coexistences<br />A well knitted world with proper networking<br />An eco friendly universe with humane thrust<br />( From ‘conventional’ to ‘electronic’ to have ‘humane’ governance )<br />Source: Designed by author herself, which was presented in International Seminar on e-governance held in South Korea in 2004.<br />This schematic representation makes it clear that the future of bureaucracy as an instrument of transformation lies in adapting itself to meet out the challenges of coming times in such a way that it yields to the changing needs of the society. So far we have discussed the structural aspects of bureaucracy but behavioral dimensions are equally important to understand the intricacies of the system. A comparative analysis can be made of the conventional system and neo-bureaucratic structure vis-à-vis the behavioral traits, which make them to behave in the manner both types, manifest themselves. This schema is self-explanatory because the objective is to create a society with right knowledge, right morality, and right way of perpetuating practicing ethos.<br />Fig.2<br />Institutions<br />Bureaucracy People<br />Conventional Projectional Set A SetB <br />Rule boundedness Permissible Boundedness Fatalist Courageous<br />Impersonality Productive Alliance Subdued Active<br />Elitist Attitude Egalitarian Attitude Dependent Doing Syndrome<br />Indifferent Concern Don’t seek Inform. Perfect Networking<br />Insensitive Sensitive Peculiar link guidance Rational Guidance<br />Illogical Priorities Logical Priorities Immobile Mobile<br />Power Mongers Power Sharing No change Can Change<br />Equations C+A = Possible———————-1 ( Rule Theme)<br />P+B = Possible———————-2 (Positive Interface)<br />C+B ¹Possible———————-3 (Ulterior Combination)<br />P+A ¹ Possible———————4 (Ulterior Combination)<br />(Source: Author herself has designed the schema) <br />Interpretation: The above schema explains variety of combinations that are possible between types of bureaucracy and the behavioral traits of people in general. Bureaucracy would rule those people who have predominance of traits of Set A, because there will be the excessive tendency of accepting tantrums of bureaucrats. On the contrary in a knowledge society, bureaucrats and people would develop a positive interface because system will be bound to respond to the logical demands of people. Thus the whole system of bureaucracy rationalizes ways of meeting out the needs of people with the help of e-governance. The other two combinations i.e. 3&4 are impossible because the conventional system is not capable of ruling those people who are aware and empowered likewise, projectional bureaucracy can not work for those who are not interested in development. In order to comply with the changes at least three problem areas must be addressed to facilitate the entire processes of conversions. These are,<br />§ How to locate the level/ nature of the problem.<br />§ How to find out the extent to which the bureaucratic operative axis needs to be realigned.<br />§ How to work out which is the best combination of strategic interventions.<br />Software development.<br />The future projection on the basis of this conceptual framework indicates the inevitability of e- governance even for those countries that are in the transitional phase of development. The capacity of a system to utilize knowledge for evolving a visionary society however must take into account the supremacy of mind over machine, as mind and heart are the epicenters of human dynamics and creation of just society the end result.<br />——————<br />Prof. Sangeeta Sharma, Dept. of Public Administration, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur<br />© sangeeta sharma<br />

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