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English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
English Structure
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English Structure

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English Structure, Linguistics

English Structure, Linguistics

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  • 1. Table of Contents WORDS Prefix Suffix Synonyms Antonyms Homonyms PARTS OF SPEECH Nouns Adjectives Adverb Verbs Preposition Conjunctions Interjection Adjectival Phrase PHRASES Adverbial Phrase Participle Participial Phrase Gerunds Gerundial Phrase Infinitive Infinitive Phrase CLAUSES Main Clause Subordinate Clause Kinds of Subordinate Clause Adjective Clause Noun Clause Adverb Clause Appositive Phrase Clause
  • 2. WORDS Prefix Suffix Synonyms Antonyms Homonyms
  • 3. Prefix  is a word-part added at the beginning of a word. When a prefix is added to a word, it changes the meaning of the word. It creates a new word. Examples: il - legal = illegal un - able = unable pre - heat = preheat super - power = superpower ir - reversible = irreversible auto - mobile = automobile
  • 4. Suffix  is a word added at the end of a word. Like a prefix, the suffix changes the meaning of a word. Examples: child - ish = childish love - able = lovable religion - ious = religious tardy - ness = tardiness beauty - ful = beautiful care - less = careless hazard - ous = hazardous
  • 5. Synonyms  are words that are similar in meaning Examples: smart = clever proud = flamboyant courage = valor mock = humiliate null = void afraid = scared honest = truthful funny = hillarious
  • 6. Antonyms  are words that are opposite in meaning Examples: smart = stupid beautiful = ugly victory = defeat cheap = expensive thrifty = lavish expedite = derail conserve = pollute hot = cold
  • 7. Homonyms  are words that sound alike but have different meanings and spellings Examples: new = knew mad = mud love = lab dye = die bad = bud god = gad ode = odd knot = not
  • 8. PARTS OF SPEECH Nouns Adjectives Adverb Verbs Preposition Conjunctions Interjection
  • 9. Nouns Classification of Nouns Common Proper Collective Concrete Abstract Count Mass
  • 10. Nouns  is a subordinate clause which, like an adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. Classification of Nouns  is a noun in which does not name a particular person, place or thing. Common nouns are not capitalized. Examples: boy, planet, tree, university, shoes, bag Common Nouns Proper Nouns  is the name of a particular person, place or thing. Examples: Pedro, Jupiter, Narra, Maria
  • 11. Collective Noun  is the name for a group of persons, animals or things. Examples: Committee, flock, herd, team Concrete Noun Examples: beauty, love, kindness, justice  names an object which can be perceived by the senses. Examples: chair, umbrella, phone, book Abstract Noun  names a quality, a characteristic or an idea.
  • 12. Count Noun  a noun that can be counted Examples: persons, books, students, trees Mass Noun  a noun that cannot be counted Examples: stars, sand, sugar, hair
  • 13. Adjectives Classification of Adjectives Descriptive Limiting Proper Demonstrative Articles Pronouns
  • 14. Adjectives Classification of Adjectives  is a word used to modify or limit a noun or a pronoun.  adjectives that modify a noun or a pronoun in terms of size, shape, color, texture, smell, age, and physical appearance. Descriptive Limiting  adjectives that refer to number or order cardinal Examples: round, beautiful, tall, old Examples: round, beautiful, tall, old
  • 15.  adjectives that are made from proper noun Proper Adjectives Demonstrative  adjectives that are also used as a demonstrative pronoun. Examples: round, beautiful, tall, old Examples: that book, those chairs, this bag, these pencils Articles  adjectives that precede a noun. a and an are indefinite articles and the is a definite article. Examples: the book, a book, an apple, a dog Pronouns  can also be used as adjectives. Examples: our teacher, my brother, his house, her family
  • 16. Adverb Classificatoin of Adverbs according to meaning: Adverb of Manner Adverb of Time Adverb of Place Adverb of Degree
  • 17.  is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Classification of Adverbs according to meaning: Adverb of Manner Examples: immediately, melodiously, here Adverb  tells how the action was done and ends with suffix - ly. Adverb of Time  tells when the action indicated by the verb took place. Examples: arrived late, came early
  • 18. Adverb of Place Examples: teaches here, walked out  tells the location indicated by the verb. Adverb of Degree  tells the amount of the adjective quality and the verb action. Examples: very tired, quite welvery tired, quite well
  • 19. Classificatoin of Verbs according to meaning: Verbs Transitive State of Being Kinds of Verbs according to use: State of Action Intransitive Linking
  • 20.  is a word that expresses a state of action or a state of being. It is connected as the framework of the sentence Classification of Verbs according to meaning: State of Action Examples: run, read, talk, eat Verbs  these are action verbs which include physical and mental acitons. State of Being Examples: appear, feel, remain, sound, grow  help describe the condition or state of some person or thing.
  • 21. Kinds of Verbs according to Use: Transitive Verbs Examples: The students left the car at the park. The guard picked the ball.  are verbs that need a direct object. Intransitive Verbs Examples: The dog run towards the man. They went to the party.  are verbs that do not need a direct object. They likewise express state of action. Linking Verbs  verbs that link or copulate the subject to a word or words Examples: The girl is dancing and singing.
  • 22. Examples: about above across after against along amid among around at before below beneath beside between beyond but by concerning down during except for in inside like of off on over past since through throughout toward under to unto up upon with within without  is a word used to show the relation of a noun or a pronoun to some other word in the sentence. Preposition
  • 23. Kinds of Conjunctions Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions
  • 24.  is a word which joins words and group of words Kinds of Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Examples: Conjunction Correlative Conjunctions either…or; neither…nor; both…and; not…but also Examples: and, but, or, nor Subordinating Conjunctions Examples: after, although, as, as much, as, because before, how, in as much as, in order, that, provided than, though, till, unless, when
  • 25.  is a word which expresses emotion and has no grammatical relation to other words in the sentence. Interjection Examples: Oh! What! Hurrah! Alas! Ouch! Aha! Bravo! Ha! Gosh! Damn! Shocks! Gee!
  • 26. Adjectival Phrase PHRASES Adverbial Phrase Participle Participial Phrase Gerunds Gerundial Phrase Infinitive Infinitive Phrase Appositive Phrase
  • 27. Adjectival Phrase  is a prepositional phrase that modifies noun or prounoun. Examples: The gift from my friend was an inspirational book. The bottom of the jar was dirty. Adverbial Phrase  is a prepositional phrase that modifies verb or and adjective or an adverb. The dress was blue with a green lining. My father arrives late in the evening. Examples:
  • 28. Participle  is word which acts as both a verb and an adjective. Participial Phrase  is a group of related words containing a participle. It acts as an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun. Frightened by the news, my brother turned off the tv. Angered by his younger brother, Rudy turned off the light in the room. Examples: Gerunds  are verbals that look like a verb because they end in- ing but function as a noun.
  • 29. Gerundial Phrase  is a phrase containing a gerund. It functions as a noun inside the sentence. Jolina enjoys singing sentimental songs. Collecting stamps is her favourite past-time. Examples: Infinitive  is a verbal consisting of the preposition to followed by the verb. It is primarily used as a noun. But may also be used as an adjective or an adverb.
  • 30. Infinitive Phrase  is a phrase containing an infinitive. It functions as a noun or a modifier inside the sentence. Examples: I have an exciting news to tell to everybody. Her new assignment is to watch the kids playing. Appositive Phrase  is a phrase which follows a noun or a pronoun and means the same thing. Mr. Garcia, our English teacher, left the room. I received information from Anne, my secretary Examples:
  • 31. CLAUSES Main Clause Subordinate Clause Kinds of Subordinate Clause Adjective Clause Noun Clause Adverb Clause Clause
  • 32. Clause  is a group of words that contains a verb and its subject and is used as a part of the sentence. Main Clause (Independent Clause)  a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. Examples: He just invented the story. She needs a glass of water. Subordinate Clause (Dependent Clause)  a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. Examples: Since she did not attend her classes regularly, The teacher almost caught Marlon.
  • 33. Kinds of Subordinate Clause Adjective Clause  is a subordinate clause which, like an adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. Examples: Cecille is the kind of person who never gets upset so easily. Mrs. Nicadao showed pictures which were taken in Vigan. Noun Clause  is a subordinate clause used as a noun. Examples: What the teacher said was not clear. Your patience with me is what I need right now.
  • 34. Adverb Clause  is a subordinate clause which, like an adverb, modifies a verb or an adjective or an adverb. Examples: The athletes run because they were told to. Karenina is as pretty as a girl can be.

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